Unmanned subsurface investigation technologies for the Moon are of special significance for future exploration when considering the renewed interest of the international community for this interplanetary destination. In precision agriculture, farmers demand quasi-real-time sensors and instruments with remote crop and soil detection properties to meet sustainability goals and achieve healthier and higher crop yields. Hence, there is the need for a robot that will be able to travel through the soil and conduct sampling or in-situ analysis of the subsurface materials on earth and in space. This thesis presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a robot that can travel through the soil. The robot consists of a helical screw design coupled with a fin that acts as an anchor. The fin design is an integral part of the robot, allowing it to travel up and down the medium unaided. Experiments were performed to characterize different designs. It was concluded that the most energy-efficient speed from traveling down the medium is 20 rpm, while 60 rpm was the efficient speed for traveling up the medium. This research provides vital insight into developing subsurface robots enabling us to unearth the valuable knowledge that subsurface environment holds to help the agricultural, construction, and exploration communities.
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