Cancer is a disease which can affect all animals across the tree of life. Certain species have undergone natural selection to reduce or prevent cancer. Mechanisms to block cancer may include, among others, a species possessing additional paralogues of tumor suppressor genes, or decreasing the number of oncogenes within their genome. To understand cancer prevention patterns across species, I developed a bioinformatic pipeline to identify copies of 545 known tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes across 63 species of mammals. I used phylogenetic regressions to test for associations between cancer gene copy numbers and a species’ life history. I found a significant association between cancer gene copies and species’ longevity quotient. Additional paralogues of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes is not solely dependent on body size, but rather the balance between body size and longevity. Additionally, there is a significance association between life history traits and genes that are both germline and somatic tumor suppressor genes. The bioinformatic pipeline identified large tumor suppressor gene and oncogene copy numbers in the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber), armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), and the two-fingered sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni). These results suggest that increased paralogues of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes are these species’ modes of cancer resistance.
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