In the United States, approximately 400,000 youth are in out-of-home care in the custody of child protection systems (CPS). They are incarcerated, but not as punishment for a crime. States place youth in CPS custody for many different reasons, centered around legal determinations of families’ failure to provide adequate care. Such youth are forcibly separated from their biological (“bio”) families and required to live in shelters, group homes, and foster households at the threat of arrest.
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- Doctoral Dissertation Criminology and Criminal Justice 2018