This research investigated using impedance as a minimally invasive oral cancer-screening tool by modeling healthy and diseased tissue. This research developed an ultra-structurally based tissue model for oral mucosa that is versatile enough to be easily modified to mimic the passive electrical impedance responses of multiple benign and cancerous tissue types. This new model provides answers to biologically meaningful questions related to the impedance response of healthy and diseased tissues. This model breaks away from the old empirical top down "black box" Thèvinin equivalent model. The new tissue model developed here was created from a bottom up perspective resulting in a model that is analogous to having a "Transparent Box" where each network element relating to a specific structural component is known. This new model was developed starting with sub cellular ultra-structural components such as membranes, proteins and electrolytes. These components formed the basic network elements and topology of the organelles. The organelle networks combine to form the cell networks. The cell networks combine to make networks of cell layers and the cell layers were combined into tissue networks. This produced the complete "Transparent Box" model for normal tissue. This normal tissue model was modified for disease based on the ultra-structural pathology of each disease. The diseased tissues evaluated include cancers type one through type three; necrotic-inflammation, hyperkeratosis and the compound condition of hyperkeratosis over cancer type two. The impedance responses for each of the disease were compared side by side with the response of normal healthy tissue. Comparative evidence from the models showed the structural changes in cancer produce a unique identifiable impedance "finger print." The evaluation of the "Transparent Box" model for normal tissues and diseased tissues show clear support for using comparative impedance measurements as a clinical tool for oral cancer screening.
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