Over the last decade copper electrodeposition has become the dominant process by which microelectronic interconnects are made. Replacing ultra-high vacuum evaporative film growth, the technology known as the Cu damascene process has been widely implemented in the microelectronics industry since the early 2000s. The transition from vacuum film growth to electrodeposition was enabled by solution chemistries that provide "bottom-up" or superfilling capability of vias and trenches.
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- Ph.D. Materials Science and Engineering 2011