Obtaining local electrochemical (EC) information is extremely important for understanding basic surface reactions, and for many applications. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) can obtain local EC information by scanning a microelectrode across the surface. Although powerful, SECM is slow, the scanning microelectrode may perturb reaction and the measured signal decreases with the size of microelectrode. This thesis demonstrates a new imaging technique based on a principle that is completely different from the conventional EC detection technologies. The technique, referred to as plasmonic-based electrochemical imaging (PECI), images local EC current (both faradaic and non-faradaic) without using a scanning microelectrode. Because PECI response is an optical signal originated from surface plasmon resonance (SPR), PECI is fast and non-invasive and its signal is proportional to incident light intensity, thus does not decrease with the area of interest. A complete theory is developed in this thesis work to describe the relationship between EC current and PECI signal. EC current imaging at various fixed potentials and local cyclic voltammetry methods are developed and demonstrated with real samples. Fast imaging rate (up to 100,000 frames per second) with 0.2×3µm spatial resolution and 0.3 pA detection limit have been achieved. Several PECI applications have been developed to demonstrate the unique strengths of the new imaging technology. For example, trace particles in fingerprint is detected by PECI, a capability that cannot be achieved with the conventional EC technologies. Another example is PECI imaging of EC reaction and interfacial impedance of graphene of different thicknesses. In addition, local square wave voltammetry capability is demonstrated and applied to study local catalytic current of platinum nanoparticle microarray. This thesis also describes a related but different research project that develops a new method to measure surface charge densities of SPR sensor chips, and micro- and nano-particles. A third project of this thesis is to develop a method to expand the conventional SPR detection and imaging technology by including a waveguide mode. This innovation creates a sensitive detection of bulk index of refraction, which overcomes the limitation that the conventional SPR can probe only changes near the sensor surface within ~200 nm.
Included in this item (6)
- Electrical Engineering
- Analytical Chemistry
- Charge detection of single particle
- Fabry-Perot microscope
- graphene electrochemical imaging
- Nanoparticle catalysis reaction
- Plasmonic-based Electrochemical Imaging
- Surface plasmon resonance
- Scanning electrochemical microscopy
- Graphene--Electric properties.