Many studies have supported the theory that gain-framed messaging is effective in changing smoking behavior. However, the importance of focusing on long-term positive benefits or short-term positive benefits in this messaging remains a mystery. This study investigated the role that reward-delay within gain-framed messaging has on the self-esteem and behavior of cigarette smokers. Specifically, it sought to answer the question of whether short-term reward-delay messaging is more effective in increasing self-esteem and positive smoking behavior than long-term reward-delay messaging.
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