The relations between prenatal risk factors and postnatal risk and protective factors and infant outcomes were examined. Mothers, primarily of low-income background and Latina ethnicity, were interviewed within 24 hours of giving birth, and then again when their infants were five and nine months of age. The relations between prenatal stress, postnatal environment, and infant maturity and temperament were analyzedusing a multiple regression model. We controlled for the covariates: mother's education level and infant's birth weight.
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