This study identifies the factors impacting the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Philippines. Ten studies and three external reviews concerning HIV, MSM, and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Philippines and Southeast Asia from 2009 to 2015 were analyzed to find common patterns in the literature and identify the factors that impact the HIV prevalence among MSM in the Philippines. Secondary analysis of the literature identified the following as influencing factors: HIV prevalence patterns, the accessibility of HIV-related health education, the engagement of MSM in health-seeking behaviors related to HIV, perceptions of HIV risk among MSM, and the influence of culture and religion in the Philippines. These factors lead to an increase in the overall HIV prevalence among MSM in the Philippines by increasing the potential of HIV transmission among the community as a whole and increasing the vulnerability of individual MSM to HIV infection. These factors were also found to be interconnected, each having an impact on the other. The lack of sexual health education coupled with the barriers to HIV-related health care are especially prominent interconnected issues concerning the prevention of HIV transmission. There needs to be further research in investigating which specific barriers that prevent the engagement and retention of HIV positive men in the Philippines in HIV care and related services after diagnosis in order to reduce the overall population viral load of HIV-positive MSM. Examining the issues concerning engagement in health care among HIV positive MSM could aid in overcoming the barriers to health care faced by MSM as well as addressing the increasing HIV prevalence among MSM in the Philippines.
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