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Semiconductor wafers are analyzed and their total surface energy γT is measured in three components according to the van Oss theory: (1) γLW, surface energy due to Lifshitz-van der Waals

Semiconductor wafers are analyzed and their total surface energy γT is measured in three components according to the van Oss theory: (1) γLW, surface energy due to Lifshitz-van der Waals forces or dipole interactions, (2) γ+, surface energy due to interactions with electron donors, and (3) γ–, surface energy due to interactions with electron acceptors. Surface energy is measured via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis (3LCAA), a method of contact angle measurement using the sessile drop technique and three liquids: water, glycerin, and α-bromonaphthalene.

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