Familiar Size Creates a Depth Effect that Generates Illusory Motion When the Observer Moves

Description
Familiar size is a pictorial depth cue for which an object's known physical size and visual angle influence observations of apparent distance. There is controversy over the type of process that accounts for the reports of depth. According to Gogel

Familiar size is a pictorial depth cue for which an object's known physical size and visual angle influence observations of apparent distance. There is controversy over the type of process that accounts for the reports of depth. According to Gogel (1976), a non-perceptual cognitive process occurs when the observer experiences a display larger or smaller than a familiar object, such as off-size. The viewer judges that the object is closer or farther away than its perceived distance. Gogel had his participants move their heads to test this notion to see if the apparent depth generated motion parallax. He found that the displays generated slight illusory motion parallax when observers moved laterally. We created sets of novel objects that varied in size but were identical in shape and color. Twenty-two college students were familiarized with a smaller or larger version of three objects and asked to judge its apparent distance by moving a rod viewed with both eyes. After apparent depth was reported, the rod was placed at the same distance as the familiarized object, and the observer moved their head back and forth. Perception of the motion of the object toward and away from the rod that was concurrent with the motion of the head was found on trials in which a large depth illusion was reported. On trials with little depth effect observed, subjects reported no apparent motion. Thus, the motion supports the view that familiar size is a perceptual illusion, and when it is sufficiently compelling, it can create apparent motion.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Innovative and Sustainable Solutions for the Pitchfork Pantry

Description
A creative project focused on addressing food insecurity within ASU, addressing problems faced between the Pitchfork Pantry and ASU on the Basic Needs Task Force, and finding innovative and sustainable solutions to continue combatting food insecurity efforts at ASU.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Music and Dyslexia: Can Music be a Supplemental Treatment for Dyslexia? An Investigation of Rhythm-Related Skills in Adults with Dyslexia

Description
This study focuses on the connection between musical rhythm and dyslexia. Dyslexia has long been a disability that has been studied, but not one that researchers have a particular or in-depth treatment for. There has been a long time of

This study focuses on the connection between musical rhythm and dyslexia. Dyslexia has long been a disability that has been studied, but not one that researchers have a particular or in-depth treatment for. There has been a long time of research on the connection between dyslexia and creativity. This has led to looking at how dyslexic students are often found in art schools and engage in creativity. This has led to a new wave of research into EEG and how dyslexia occurs, including what causes dyslexia. This connection is proposed through the temporal sampling deficit hypothesis that theorizes “neuroelectric oscillations that encode incoming information at different frequencies could explain the perceptual and phonological difficulties with syllables, rhymes and phonemes,” (Goswami, 2011). My research aims to go further into the theory that dyslexia is caused by phonological perception and rapid timing skills (Overy et al., 2001). Music has many of these underlying deficits within it, so my theory is that dyslexic people have rhythm deficits, therefore, music therapy would be helpful in learning dyslexia. This paper does not find a negative correlation between dyslexia and rhythm. The trend points to dyslexic participants responding to claps faster and more accurately. All participants made a trend of fewer errors and faster responses the second time they heard a clap pattern. This leads to an inconclusive conclusion that requires more investigation to confirm whether this is statistically significant.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Girlhood: A Collection of Short Stories

Description
Two short stories that span the adolescent and early adulthood genre, demonstrating appropriate voice to the age level and adolescent developmental challenges.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Eutopia Zine

Description

The Eutopia zine explores Utopian philosophy through several essays and art pieces. Utopianism is often critiques for being naïve and unrealistic. This zine aims to analyze and counter that criticism by proposing that the value of utopianism is not to

The Eutopia zine explores Utopian philosophy through several essays and art pieces. Utopianism is often critiques for being naïve and unrealistic. This zine aims to analyze and counter that criticism by proposing that the value of utopianism is not to create the end product of "utopia", but to consider how envisioning better futures can help guide our present action and resistance. The zine is available for viewing online here: https://heyzine.com/flip-book/c09f6227e8.html

Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Investigating the Potential Neuroprotective Effects of ACMSD Across Sex in P301S Mice

Description
The kynurenine pathway (KP) is a biosynthetic pathway for the catabolism of tryptophan, the amino acid precursor to serotonin. The KP has been linked to neuroinflammation, as inflammatory agents upregulate an early enzyme in the pathway (Davis & Liu, 2015;

The kynurenine pathway (KP) is a biosynthetic pathway for the catabolism of tryptophan, the amino acid precursor to serotonin. The KP has been linked to neuroinflammation, as inflammatory agents upregulate an early enzyme in the pathway (Davis & Liu, 2015; Wang et al., 2009). In addition, the metabolite quinolinic acid (QA) has been found to induce tau phosphorylation and excess glutamate release, inducing further neuroinflammation (Guillemin, 2012; Rahman et al., 2009). However, in the presence of 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD), the KP shifts away from QA production towards that of picolinic acid (PA), a metabolite with antimicrobial and antiviral properties. Our lab has previously shown that overexpressing ACMSD via adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery in the alpha-synuclein (α -syn) model of Parkinson's disease (PD) animal model exhibits neuroprotective effects by preventing the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and limiting motor impairments caused by nigrostriatal denervation. Based on these findings, we predicted that ACMSD would provide neuroprotective effects in the P301S tauopathy model of neurodegenerative disease, a mouse model of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Specifically, we hypothesized that ACMSD would ameliorate behavioral deficits, including those related to cognitive and emotional processing. We also predicted that ACMSD overexpression would prevent histological indices of pathology, including the expression of hyperphosphorylated tau, gliosis, and neurodegeneration. As previous findings in the literature have denoted sex differences in pathological outcomes of the P301S mouse model (Sun et al., 2020) with males showing more pronounced behavioral deficits and increased hyperphosphorylated tau than females, we hypothesized that ACMSD would show a higher degree of neuroprotection in male P301S mice. P301S and litter/age-matched wild-type controls underwent stereotaxic surgery at two months of age prior to pathological onset to deliver either an AAV-dHS-ACMSD or AAV-dHS-GFP (control) to the dorsal hippocampus. Prior to euthanasia, the mice underwent the Barnes maze test to assess cognitive function focusing on learning and memory recall. Analysis of this assay revealed that male P301S mice treated with ACMSD displayed a trend toward shorter latency in locating the escape hatch during the Barnes Maze test than untreated males, albeit not significant, suggesting a potential enhancement in spatial learning. At eight and a half months, the mice were killed, and their brains harvested. The tissue underwent immunohistochemistry staining for a marker of hyperphosphorylated tau (AT8), markers of gliosis (Iba1 and GFAP), and the pan-neuronal marker (HuC/D) to quantify pathological indices. Preliminary histological analyses show decreased immunoreactivity of AT8 in the hippocampus of P301S mice injected with ACMSD, compared to those injected with GFP control, indicating potential neuroprotective effects by limiting the amount of hyperphosphorylated tau.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Border To Border: Creating A Theoretical Early Child Development Intervention Program for Refugees in Mexico Using Theory of Change Models

Description
Using existing research on refugee populations in Mexico, theory of change models were created to model a potential early childhood development program for refugee children ages 0-5 in Mexico. The populations taken into consideration were refugees in Mexico from other

Using existing research on refugee populations in Mexico, theory of change models were created to model a potential early childhood development program for refugee children ages 0-5 in Mexico. The populations taken into consideration were refugees in Mexico from other Latin American countries, refugees migrating through Mexico towards the northern border, and refugees who had crossed/were crossing the border into the United States.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent