The Impact of Mental Health, Environmental Factors, and Legal Factors on One’s Substance Addiction and How Crossroads Inc. Helps the Recovery Process

Description
This thesis is a combination of literature reviews and interviews with peer recovery counselors to discuss topics leading to one's substance addiction. The paper goes into detail on mental health factors, housing, generational substance use, drug culture, access to substances,

This thesis is a combination of literature reviews and interviews with peer recovery counselors to discuss topics leading to one's substance addiction. The paper goes into detail on mental health factors, housing, generational substance use, drug culture, access to substances, legal factors, the peer recovery model, the 12-step process, and more.
Date Created
2024-05
Agent

Exploring the Moderating Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Sensation Seeking on Alcohol Use Problems and Problem Gambling

Description
Before the introduction of mobile/online forms of gambling, “brick and mortar” gambling was the typical form of gambling. Now, the use of mobile phones allows for greater accessibility and convenience to gambling. This modern method of gambling has attracted newer

Before the introduction of mobile/online forms of gambling, “brick and mortar” gambling was the typical form of gambling. Now, the use of mobile phones allows for greater accessibility and convenience to gambling. This modern method of gambling has attracted newer younger audiences such as college students which poses an increasing concern about problem gambling among younger individuals. Since alcohol use problems tend to co-occur with problem gambling, it is important to consider alcohol use as a predictor of problem gambling. Other factors that could potentially influence the relation between alcohol use problems and problem gambling are financial stress (as an indicator of socioeconomic status) and sensation seeking; however, the potential interactive effects of these variables with problem alcohol use in predicting problems remain unclear. The main goals of the current study were to examine the unique and interactive influences of alcohol use problems, sensation seeking, and financial stress in relation to problem gambling. The sample for the current study was taken from the Psychology participant pool enrolled at Arizona State University and met the minimum age requirement of 18 (N = 793, 64.1% Male). All analyses were conducted using R Studio (R Core Team, 2023). I ran a a series of logistic regression models for my covariates only, main effects (alcohol use problems and financial stress or alcohol use and sensation seeking) models while controlling for covariates, and interaction models (alcohol use problems multiplied by financial stress and alcohol use problems multiplied by sensation seeking). Results showed that alcohol use problems and sensation seeking were not significant predictors of problem gambling. However, financial stress (SES), sex (male), and age proved to be significant predictors of problem gambling. There were no interactions found between alcohol use problems and socioeconomic status or sensation seeking on problem gambling outcomes. Although some results from the current study are inconsistent with existing literature, the significant findings provide insight into potential future directions and treatment programs for problem gambling among college students. Further studies are needed to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the complex interactions between alcohol use problems, socioeconomic status, and sensation seeking in relation to problem gambling.
Date Created
2023-12
Agent

The Role of Jury Instructions and its Effect on Christian and Jewish Jurors’ Beliefs on the Sentencing Verdict of Inchoate Crimes

Description
Past studies have supported that religion plays a role in how people engage in moral psychological processes, specifically regarding a person’s thoughts versus their actions. It is important to look at how religion can play a role in the sentencing

Past studies have supported that religion plays a role in how people engage in moral psychological processes, specifically regarding a person’s thoughts versus their actions. It is important to look at how religion can play a role in the sentencing of inchoate crimes, since they are crimes that have not yet been completed involving thought. It is a current practice that lawyers and judges may include or exclude a juror based on their religious affiliation due to their assumption that their religion will play a role in their decision making. However, this current practice is based on assumption and there is limited research to support that this practice is actually effective. To address this gap in the literature, I looked at the role of religion when individuals are presented with jury instructions, and asked participants to make judgements about inchoate crimes. There was an overall significant main effect of religion on sentencing decisions of inchoate crimes, and there was no significant interaction of jury instructions and religion on sentencing decisions. The results of this study indicate that the practice of excluding jurors based on religion may actually be effective and that jury instructions do not mitigate these religious biases.
Date Created
2023-12
Agent

The Association Between Bicultural Stress and Mental Health and Alcohol Use Outcomes Among Hispanic/Latinx College Students: The Moderating Role of Familism

Description
Hispanic/Latinx college students are at a greater risk for developing problematic alcohol use and negative mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety because they experience contextual stressors (i.e., financial stress, academic stress, peer pressure) and cultural stressors (i.e., bicultural

Hispanic/Latinx college students are at a greater risk for developing problematic alcohol use and negative mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety because they experience contextual stressors (i.e., financial stress, academic stress, peer pressure) and cultural stressors (i.e., bicultural stress, acculturative stress, discrimination). Bicultural stress may be a risk factor for depressive, anxiety, and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms. The cultural value of familism may play a protective role in Hispanic/Latinx college students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of bicultural stress on depressive, anxiety, and AUD symptoms in first-year Hispanic/Latinx college students, and the role familism plays on moderating the relationship between bicultural stress and the outcomes. The sample was taken from the Pathways to College Health Study (N = 264; Female = 74.9%), which was survey administered via Qualtrics to first-year, Hispanic/Latinx college students at Arizona State University. The survey captured the participants’ levels of bicultural stress, familism, depressive, anxiety, and AUD symptoms. IBM SPSS Statistics was used for data analyses where three hierarchical regression models were run investigating the main effects and interaction effect of bicultural stress and familism. Results showed that higher levels of bicultural stress were associated with higher levels of mental health but were not associated with higher levels of AUD symptoms. Additionally, familism was not significantly associated with mental health or AUD symptoms suggesting familism may not play a substantial role in Hispanic/Latinx college students. There was no interaction found between familism and bicultural stress on the outcomes. These findings may aide in informing Hispanic/Latinx college students, universities, and clinicians on the impact bicultural stress may have on mental health outcomes.
Date Created
2023-12
Agent

How High are You? An EMA Comparison of Subjective Effects After Edible and Smoked Cannabis

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Description
Introduction: Edibles, THC-infused food products, are a popular type of cannabis. However, there is limited research on how acute effects of edibles differ from more traditional cannabis types, such as smoked flower (e.g., dried bud). The current study examined the

Introduction: Edibles, THC-infused food products, are a popular type of cannabis. However, there is limited research on how acute effects of edibles differ from more traditional cannabis types, such as smoked flower (e.g., dried bud). The current study examined the subjective response of cannabis between smoked flower and edibles using a two-week long ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Sex differences were also examined.Method: Individuals (n=101) using both edibles and flower at least once weekly completed a cannabis report within 30 minutes (T1) of first cannabis use each day as well as two follow-up reports sent 1.5 (T2) and 3 hours (T3) after initial use. Participants additionally completed assessments throughout the day for fourteen consecutive days to examine daily affect. Multi-level models examined whether overall high, low-arousal negative effects, high-arousal negative effects, and general positive effects differed by edibles and flower. Given time differences in effects between cannabis types, subjective effects were examined at T1, T2, and T3, as well as for the peak effects across the three-hour time window. Covariates included demographics, variant- and invariant- cannabis use characteristics, and daily affect. Results: At T1, edibles produced lesser positive effects (b=-0.60, S.E.=0.16, p=0.001) and overall high (b=-2.00, S.E.=0.27, p<0.001) relative to flower. At T2, edibles produced greater positive effects (b=0.52, S.E.=0.21, p=0.01) relative to flower. At T3, edibles produced greater low-arousal negative effects (b=0.63, S.E.=0.23, p=0.01) relative to flower. Edibles produced greater peak low-arousal effects relative to flower (b=0.59, S.E.=0.21, p=0.01), With respect to sex differences, there was an interaction between sex and cannabis type at T1 for positive effects (b=-0.99, S.E.=0.31, p=0.001), such that males reported greater positive effects for flower. Males additionally reported lesser low-arousal effects at T1 (b=-0.60, S.E.=0.30, p=0.05) and greater overall high at T3 relative to females (b=1.24, S.E.=0.56, p=0.03). Discussion: Smoked flower produced greater effects immediately and edibles produced greater delayed effects. Edibles appear to have greater peak levels of low-arousal effects (e.g., sluggish, drowsy, slow) relative to smoked flower. Males may be more sensitive to the rewarding effects of cannabis, particularly when smoking flower.
Date Created
2023
Agent

Intergenerational Mechanisms of Resilience Promoting Child Biobehavioral Health in Low-Income, Mexican-Origin Families

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Description
Elevated rates of exposure to multi-level chronic stressors (e.g., poverty, discrimination, acculturative stress) place low-income, Mexican-origin individuals in the United States at elevated risk for adverse psychological and physical health across the lifespan. Despite exposure to contextual risk factors, many

Elevated rates of exposure to multi-level chronic stressors (e.g., poverty, discrimination, acculturative stress) place low-income, Mexican-origin individuals in the United States at elevated risk for adverse psychological and physical health across the lifespan. Despite exposure to contextual risk factors, many individuals maintain positive biobehavioral health. In particular, despite greater exposure to sociodemographic risk factors, more recently immigrated Mexican-origin individuals in the U.S. may demonstrate more positive biobehavioral health, warranting consideration of specific cultural values and practices that confer and maintain positive health across generations. Parental cultural socialization is an understudied mechanism in promotive pathways of parent-child processes and child biobehavioral health. Across three generations of Mexican-origin families in the United States – maternal grandmothers, mothers, children – the current study (1) identified a multidimensional measure of child biobehavioral health across psychological and biological indicators, (2) evaluated the intergenerational transmission of grandmother-mother cultural socialization, (3) evaluated the effect of maternal cultural socialization on child-perceived parenting and child biobehavioral health, and (4) evaluated child cultural orientation as a moderator of the effect of maternal cultural socialization on child-perceived parenting and child biobehavioral health. Findings highlight the complex and nuanced relations among parental cultural socialization, individual cultural orientation, child perceptions of parenting, and child biobehavioral health among low-income, Mexican-origin families in the United States.
Date Created
2024
Agent

The Effects of Intergenerational Trauma in Southeast Asian Immigrant/Refugee Families: A Focus on Family Dynamics and Parenting

Description

This study is a systematic review of the current literature surrounding intergenerational trauma in Southeast Asian (SEA) immigrant/refugee families. This review was guided upon using the 2020 PRISMA criteria and framework. After a parallel search across several databases, 14 articles

This study is a systematic review of the current literature surrounding intergenerational trauma in Southeast Asian (SEA) immigrant/refugee families. This review was guided upon using the 2020 PRISMA criteria and framework. After a parallel search across several databases, 14 articles were qualified for inclusion after reviewing exclusion criteria. Across these articles, five main aims were examined: the effect of trauma on parent mental health, the effect on child mental health, the effect on parenting, the effect on family dynamics/relationship, and an exploratory aim on current recommended interventions. The literature indicated that negative mental health outcomes were often present in parents and affected the quality of parenting. Child mental health was negatively affected through close interactions with the parent. Certain parenting behaviors and styles were associated with traumatized parents, which led to the development of attachment issues in children. Family dynamics and relationships were impacted by conflicting cultures and beliefs they were raised with in the United States and the ones taught at home by their parents. Current recommendations for interventions involve therapy, understanding culture and context of trauma, and as well as utilizing the support and influence of the community. There are many gaps in current research and more examination of intergenerational trauma amongst SEA populations is needed to better understand this complex issue in order to improve the relationship between parents, children, and overall family suffering from the effects of intergenerational trauma. Further recommendations for research, gaps in literature, and implications for this study are explored.

Date Created
2023-05
Agent

Impact of College Stress on Academic Motivation and Achievement: Examining Effortful Control and Economic Hardship as Moderators

Description

College students are exposed to stress accumulating from daily challenges, personal relationships, financial struggles, and academic pressure. Stressors can challenge an individual to perform better or serve as a hindrance to academic achievement, depending on the individual’s perception of stressors

College students are exposed to stress accumulating from daily challenges, personal relationships, financial struggles, and academic pressure. Stressors can challenge an individual to perform better or serve as a hindrance to academic achievement, depending on the individual’s perception of stressors and capacity to overcome them (Lepine et al., 2004). Optimal levels of stress are beneficial to managing responsibilities in a timely manner, while unmanageable levels of stress can negatively impact motivation and achievement. Higher levels of negatively perceived stress could have measurable consequences on academic outcomes, including lower motivation and lower achievement. This study focuses on examining the prospective relationship between levels of college stress and the academic outcomes, accounting for individual differences in vulnerability to stress. Specifically, I examined whether the associations between stress (T2) and academic outcomes (T3) were moderated by earlier (T1) levels of economic hardship and effortful control as risk and resilience factors, respectively. I predicted that higher levels of college stress would be associated with lower academic motivation and performance. I expected that higher effortful control would show a stronger association between higher academic motivation and achievement with lower college stress levels. I also predicted that higher levels of familial economic hardship would exacerbate the influence of college stress on lower academic motivation and achievement. This study utilized data collected from survey measures administered to students during the transition from high school to college. Results demonstrated a significant negative association between increased college stress and higher academic outcomes. A lack of significant interactions propose that economic hardship does not have negative effects on academic outcomes. The findings of this study will help universities to support students experiencing detrimental levels of stress to improve later academic outcomes.

Date Created
2023-05
Agent