Sustaining the Hippocratic Oath

Description
Climate change is a well-known global threat to societal systems; however, its effects on the health of individuals are often less evident. Physicians who aim to properly treat patients holistically must be educated on the various forms of illness and disease projected

Climate change is a well-known global threat to societal systems; however, its effects on the health of individuals are often less evident. Physicians who aim to properly treat patients holistically must be educated on the various forms of illness and disease projected to be exacerbated by climate change. Without this necessary climate education, physicians run the risk of being unable to fulfill the most sacred charge of the Hippocratic oath: Do No Harm. To ensure that physicians moving forward are prepared to face this new global health threat, the prevalence of climate change in current medical school curricula must be examined. Content analysis of publicly available medical school curricula in the Southwest U.S. was done using ChatGPT to track the frequency of climate health search terms. Medical school curricula analyzed included mandatory degree programs as well as optional dual degree programs or pathways for medical student education. Researchers found that medical schools within the Southwest region of the United States are not sufficiently preparing students to mitigate the regional effects of climate change on the health of patients. Mandatory medical degree curriculum does not sufficiently educate on climate health issues, nor is it present in Utah, New Mexico, or Colorado. Optional degrees and pathways are available to medical students to enroll in and may be sufficient to educate a medical student, but are not enticing enough to sufficiently educate all medical students. Some medical schools have recently conducted revisals of their mandatory curriculum and still show a lack of education available about climate health issues. The lack of educational resources for future providers could lead to detrimental health outcomes for patients, and medical schools in development should take the lead in educating their students about climate health issues.
Date Created
2023-12
Agent

Sustaining the Hippocratic Oath: Medical School’s Teaching of Climate Change Consequences on Patient Health

Description
Climate change is a well-known global threat to societal systems; however, its effects on the health of individuals are often less evident. Physicians who aim to properly treat patients holistically must be educated on the various forms of illness and

Climate change is a well-known global threat to societal systems; however, its effects on the health of individuals are often less evident. Physicians who aim to properly treat patients holistically must be educated on the various forms of illness and disease projected to be exacerbated by climate change. Without this necessary climate education, physicians run the risk of being unable to fulfill the most sacred charge of the Hippocratic oath: Do No Harm. To ensure that physicians moving forward are prepared to face this new global health threat, the prevalence of climate change in current medical school curricula must be examined. Content analysis of publicly available medical school curricula in the Southwest U.S. was done using ChatGPT to track the frequency of climate health search terms. Medical school curricula analyzed included mandatory degree programs as well as optional dual degree programs or pathways for medical student education. Researchers found that medical schools within the Southwest region of the United States are not sufficiently preparing students to mitigate the regional effects of climate change on the health of patients. Mandatory medical degree curriculum does not sufficiently educate on climate health issues, nor is it present in Utah, New Mexico, or Colorado. Optional degrees and pathways are available to medical students to enroll in and may be sufficient to educate a medical student, but are not enticing enough to sufficiently educate all medical students. Some medical schools have recently conducted revisals of their mandatory curriculum and still show a lack of education available about climate health issues. The lack of educational resources for future providers could lead to detrimental health outcomes for patients, and medical schools in development should take the lead in educating their students about climate health issues.
Date Created
2023-12
Agent

Direct Convection Correction for Cylindrical Radiometer Measurement

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Description
Human exposure to extreme heat is becoming more prevalent due to increasing urbanization and changing climate. In many extreme heat conditions, thermal radiation (from solar to emitted by the surrounding) is a significant contributor to heating the body, among other

Human exposure to extreme heat is becoming more prevalent due to increasing urbanization and changing climate. In many extreme heat conditions, thermal radiation (from solar to emitted by the surrounding) is a significant contributor to heating the body, among other modes of heat transfer. Therefore, accurately measuring radiative heat flux on a human body is becoming increasingly important for calculating human thermal comfort and heat safety in extreme conditions. Most often, radiant heat exchange between the human body and surroundings is quantified using mean radiant temperature, T_mrt. This value is commonly measured using globe or cylindrical radiometers. It is based on radiation absorbed by the surface of the radiometer, which can be calculated using a surface energy balance involving both convection and emitted radiation at steady state. This convection must be accounted for and is accomplished using a traditional heat transfer coefficient correlation with measured wind speed. However, the utilized correlations are based on wind tunnel measurements and do not account for any turbulence present in the air. The latter can even double the heat transfer coefficient, so not accounting for it can introduce major errors in T_mrt. This Thesis focuses on the development, and testing of a cost-effective heated cylinder to directly measure the convection heat transfer coefficient in field conditions, which can be used for accounting convection in measuring T_mrt using a cylindrical radiometer. An Aluminum cylinder of similar dimensions as that of a cylindrical radiometer was heated using strip heaters, and the surface temperature readings were recorded to estimate the convection heat transfer coefficient, h. Various tests were conducted to test this concept. It was observed that heated cylinders take significantly less time to reach a steady state and respond to velocity change quicker than existing regular-sized globe thermometers. It was also shown that, for accurate estimation of h, it is required to measure the outer surface temperature than the center temperature. Furthermore, the value calculated matches well in range with classic correlations that include velocity, showing proof of concept.
Date Created
2023
Agent

Outdoor Misting System's Water Usage and Effectiveness

Description

With the increase in the severity of drought conditions in the Southwest region of the U.S. paired with rising temperatures, it is becoming increasingly important to look at the systems used to keep people cool in hot-arid cities like Tempe,

With the increase in the severity of drought conditions in the Southwest region of the U.S. paired with rising temperatures, it is becoming increasingly important to look at the systems used to keep people cool in hot-arid cities like Tempe, Arizona. Outdoor misting systems are often deployed by businesses. These systems rely on the evaporative cooling effect of water. This study examines the relationship between misting droplet size, water usage, and thermal comfort using low-pressure misting systems, tested within hot and dry conditions representative of the arid U.S. southwest. A model misting system using three nozzle orifice sizes was set up in a controlled heat chamber environment (starting baseline conditions of 40°C air temperature and 15 % relative humidity). Droplet size was measured using water-reactive paper, while water use was determined based on weight-change measurements. These measurements were paired with temperature and humidity measurements observed in several locations around the chamber to allow for a spatial analysis. Thermal comfort is determined based on psychrometric changes (temperature and absolute humidity) within the room. On average, air temperatures decreased between 2 to 4°C depending on nozzle size and sensor location. The 0.4 mm nozzle had a decent spread across the heat chamber and balanced water usage and effectiveness well. Limitations within the study showed ventilation is important for an effective system, corroborating other studies findings and suggesting that adding air circulation could improve evaporation and comfort and thus effectiveness. Finally, visual cues, such as wetted surfaces, can signal businesses to change nozzle sizes and/or make additional modifications to the system area.

Date Created
2023-05
Agent

Assessing the Efficacy of Various Practical Cooling Protocols in Athletes

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Description
The human body has temperature-regulating mechanisms working to maintain body core temperature around 37°C. This ensures optimal bodily function. Disruption to core temperature however, initiates a cascade of events to return to baseline. The objective of this study is to

The human body has temperature-regulating mechanisms working to maintain body core temperature around 37°C. This ensures optimal bodily function. Disruption to core temperature however, initiates a cascade of events to return to baseline. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of cooling strategies to induce the fastest reductions in core temperature. The study was set up as a randomized field study. Core temperature was measured using an E-Celsius core temperature capsule. Environmental conditions were measured using a Kestrel heat stress tracker. Following completion of a heat-stress protocol, participants underwent one of the four randomized cooling protocols. These cooling protocols consisted of: 1) wearing an ice vest (18°C), 2) applying an icy towel directly to the back of the neck (24°C) in combination with hand/forearm water immersion (15°C), 3) a combination of ice vest, icy towel and hand/forearm water immersion, or 4) sitting in a thermoneutral room (20°C). In all cooling interventions, participants consumed 16oz of an ice slurry (0°C) within 10 minutes of the initiation of the protocol. The control group consumed only room temperature water- ad libitum. A total of 10 active males (25 ± 3 years old) reported no difference between baseline body core temperatures after each heating intervention (P=0.23). Average core temperature and heart rate differed, though not statistically significant between treatments (P>0.05). No significant differences were noted between cooling rates (P=0.51). Skin temperature (Tsk) average and decrement was found to be statistically significant (P<0.001).
Date Created
2022
Agent

A Single Combined Active and Passive Isothermic Heating Protocol Results in a Similar Core Temperature Response as Exercise Alone in Hot Conditions

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Description
Heat acclimatization can be induced by targeting a core temperature 38.5°C for at least 60 minutes per day lasting 5 to 21 days, complementary to normal exercise activity. However, consistently meeting this threshold on consecutive days may be difficult for

Heat acclimatization can be induced by targeting a core temperature 38.5°C for at least 60 minutes per day lasting 5 to 21 days, complementary to normal exercise activity. However, consistently meeting this threshold on consecutive days may be difficult for athletes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of four single-bout heating protocols to reach a core temperature 38.5°C. The study was set up as a non-randomized field study, factoring in the September-October outdoor desert conditions, Tempe, AZ, USA. Environmental conditions were measured using a Kestrel heat stress tracker. Protocols were constituted out of 3 elements: PAS – passive heat exposure in a tent (54±1°C), EH - exercise in hot condition with high intensity interval training (HIIT) outdoors in the heat in a tent with a ventilator (43±1°C), EM – exercise in moderate conditions with HIIT indoors (22±0.4°C). All participants performed protocols in the following order: 1) PAS 60-min; 2) EH-PAS (EH 30-min + PAS 30-min); 3) EH 60-min, and 4) EM 60-min. A cycle ergometer was used for HIIT (2-min warm-up followed by 7x2-min sprints with 2-min relative rest between sprints during the first 30 min and stationary cycling for the second 30 min), with a self-selected workload at 80-100 rpm and similar heart rate (HR) response during exercise testing for EH: 146±10, EM: 142±13, and EH-PAS: 142±13 (P>0.05). A total of 10 active male students (25±3 years old) reported no difference between protocols for baseline Tc (P=0.37) and HR (P=0.28). During the first 30-min, Tc was significantly different between protocols (average ranging from 37.3-37.6°C, P=0.01), but from a practical perspective, differences were limited. During the second 30-min session, the Tc for EH (38.5±0.4°C) and EH-PAS (38.6±0.4°C) were significantly higher from EM (38.1±0.4°C) and PAS alone (37.8±0.4°C), P<0.001. The average HR (bpm) was significantly lower in PAS (110±17) and EH (136±13) during the second half of the protocols compared to the EH (151±10) and EM (149±16), P<0.001. In conclusion, exercise alone vs. a combination of exercise and passive heating in hot conditions resulted both in a body temperature 38.5°C, but the combination was more efficient since participants exercised for only 30-minutes.
Date Created
2022
Agent

Advancing Methods to Monitor and Assess Personal Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure

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Description
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the most well-known cause of skin cancer, and skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States. People are exposed to UV rays when they engage in outdoor activities, particularly exercise, which

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the most well-known cause of skin cancer, and skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States. People are exposed to UV rays when they engage in outdoor activities, particularly exercise, which is an important health behavior. Thus, researchers and the general public have shown increasing interest in measuring UV exposures during outdoor physical activity using wearable sensors. However, minimal research exists at the intersection of UV sensors, personal exposure, adaptive behavior due to exposures, and risk of skin damage. Three studies are presented in this dissertation: (1) a state-of-the-art review that synthesizes the current academic and grey literature surrounding personal UV sensing technologies; (2) the first study to investigate the effects of specific physical activity types, skin type, and solar angle on personal exposure in different outdoor environmental contexts; and (3) a study that develops recommendations for future UV-sensing wearables based on follow-up interviews with participants from the second study, who used a wrist-worn UV sensor while exercising outdoors. The first study provides recommendations for 13 commercially available sensors that are most suitable for various types of research or personal use. The review findings will help guide researchers in future studies assessing UV exposure with wearables during physical activity. The second study outlines the development of predictive models for individual-level UV exposure, which are also provided. These models recommend the inclusion of sky view factor, solar angle, activity type, urban environment type, and the directions traveled during physical activity. Finally, based on user feedback, the third study recommends that future UV-sensing wearables should be multi-functional watches where users can toggle between showing their UV exposure results in cumulative and countdown formats, which is intuitive and aesthetically pleasing to users.
Date Created
2021
Agent

What makes a HeatReady School?

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Description

BACKGROUND: The City of Phoenix initiated the HeatReady program in 2018 to prepare for extreme heat, as there was no official tool, framework, or mechanism at the city level to manage extreme heat. The current landscape of heat safety culture

BACKGROUND: The City of Phoenix initiated the HeatReady program in 2018 to prepare for extreme heat, as there was no official tool, framework, or mechanism at the city level to manage extreme heat. The current landscape of heat safety culture in schools, which are critical community hubs, has received less illumination. HeatReady Schools—a critical component of a HeatReady City—are those that are increasingly able to identify, prepare for, mitigate, track, and respond to the negative impacts of schoolgrounds heat. However, minimal attention has been given to formalize heat preparedness in schools to mitigate high temperatures and health concerns in schoolchildren, a heat-vulnerable population. This study set out to understand heat perceptions, (re)actions, and recommendations of key stakeholders and to identify critical themes around heat readiness. METHODS: An exploratory sequential mixed-methods case study approach was used. These methods focused on acquiring new insight on heat perceptions at elementary schools through semi-structured interviews using thematic analysis and the Delphi panel. Participants included public health professionals and school community members at two elementary schools—one public charter, one public—in South Phoenix, Arizona, a region that has been burdened historically with inequitable distribution of heat resources due to environmental racism and injustices. RESULTS: Findings demonstrated that 1) current heat safety resources are available but not fully utilized within the school sites, 2) expert opinions support that extreme heat readiness plans must account for site-specific needs, particularly education as a first step, and 3) students are negatively impacted by the effects of extreme heat, whether direct or indirect, both inside and outside the classroom. CONCLUSIONS: From key informant interviews and a Delphi panel, a list of 30 final recommendations were developed as important actions to be taken to become “HeatReady.” Future work will apply these recommendations in a HeatReady School Growth Tool that schools can tailor be to their individual needs to improve heat safety and protection measures at schools.

Date Created
2022-04-18
Agent