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The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between cognitive engagement and learning performance on an instructional module about misinformation on social media. A total of 133 undergraduate students participated in the study. They were surveyed for demographic characteristics, social media activity, and self-efficacy before being randomly assigned to one of four instructional conditions (passive, active, constructive, control). Additional measures included a pre-test, post-test and an instrument measuring users’ satisfaction with their instructional experience.
The study produced several statistically significant differences: (a) in the ability of demographic factors encompassing age, gender and years in college to predict the prior knowledge of misinformation on social media; (b) between the means of the three treatment and one control groups and their scores on the post-test assessment controlling for prior knowledge; and (c) between the means of the three treatment and one control groups and time necessary to complete instruction. Using a regression analysis, no significant differences were found with respect to information-focused self-efficacy factors being able to predict prior knowledge of misinformation on social media. The findings from this study can contribute to the basis of support for the use of the Interactive, Constructive, Active, Passive (ICAP) framework in assessing the use of cognitive engagement in designing instruction.
Using a set of production guidelines, an instructor produced two introduction videos; one of low production value, one of high production value. Student participants were surveyed on their perceptions of the instructor as featured in both videos. The instructor was interviewed using similar questions in order to identify instructor intent and compare instructor intent to student perceptions.
Analysis of data showed that there was no statistical difference between video production value in students’ perceived student-instructor connection or student-instructor communication when compared to the instructor’s intent in the same areas. Data analysis also showed that a high production value was more accurate in portraying instructor intent, however a low production value was preferred by students and portrayed the instructor more positively.