Matching Items (12)

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Exploration and exploitation in the macrohistory of the pre-Hispanic Pueblo Southwest

Description

Cycles of demographic and organizational change are well documented in Neolithic societies, but the social and ecological processes underlying them are debated. Such periodicities are implicit in the “Pecos classification,”

Cycles of demographic and organizational change are well documented in Neolithic societies, but the social and ecological processes underlying them are debated. Such periodicities are implicit in the “Pecos classification,” a chronology for the pre-Hispanic U.S. Southwest introduced in Science in 1927 which is still widely used. To understand these periodicities, we analyzed 29,311 archaeological tree-ring dates from A.D. 500 to 1400 in the context of a novel high spatial resolution, annual reconstruction of the maize dry-farming niche for this same period. We argue that each of the Pecos periods initially incorporates an “exploration” phase, followed by a phase of “exploitation” of niches that are simultaneously ecological, cultural, and organizational. Exploitation phases characterized by demographic expansion and aggregation ended with climatically driven downturns in agricultural favorability, undermining important bases for social consensus. Exploration phases were times of socio-ecological niche discovery and development.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-04-01

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Synthesis: Vulnerability, Traps, and Transformations—Long-term Perspectives from Archaeology

Description

In this synthesis, we hope to accomplish two things: 1) reflect on how the analysis of the new archaeological cases presented in this special feature adds to previous case studies

In this synthesis, we hope to accomplish two things: 1) reflect on how the analysis of the new archaeological cases presented in this special feature adds to previous case studies by revisiting a set of propositions reported in a 2006 special feature, and 2) reflect on four main ideas that are more specific to the archaeological cases: i) societal choices are influenced by robustness–vulnerability trade-offs, ii) there is interplay between robustness–vulnerability trade-offs and robustness–performance trade-offs, iii) societies often get locked in to particular strategies, and iv) multiple positive feedbacks escalate the perceived cost of societal change. We then discuss whether these lock-in traps can be prevented or whether the risks associated with them can be mitigated. We conclude by highlighting how these long-term historical studies can help us to understand current society, societal practices, and the nexus between ecology and society.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Sustainable Small-Scale Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments

Description

or at least the past 8000 years, small-scale farmers in semi-arid environments have had to mitigate shortfalls in crop production due to variation in precipitation and stream flow. To reduce

or at least the past 8000 years, small-scale farmers in semi-arid environments have had to mitigate shortfalls in crop production due to variation in precipitation and stream flow. To reduce their vulnerability to a shortfall in their food supply, small-scale farmers developed short-term strategies, including storage and community-scale sharing, to mitigate inter-annual variation in crop production, and long-term strategies, such as migration, to mitigate the effects of sustained droughts. We use the archaeological and paleoclimatic records from A.D. 900-1600 in two regions of the American Southwest to explore the nature of variation in the availability of water for crops, and the strategies that enhanced the resilience of prehistoric agricultural production to climatic variation. Drawing on information concerning contemporary small-scale farming in semi-arid environments, we then suggest that the risk coping and mitigation strategies that have endured for millennia are relevant to enhancing the resilience of contemporary farmers’ livelihoods to environmental and economic perturbations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Resisting Diversity: a Long-Term Archaeological Study

Description

The value of “diversity” in social and ecological systems is frequently asserted in academic and policy literature. Diversity is thought to enhance the resilience of social-ecological systems to varied and

The value of “diversity” in social and ecological systems is frequently asserted in academic and policy literature. Diversity is thought to enhance the resilience of social-ecological systems to varied and potentially uncertain future conditions. Yet there are trade-offs; diversity in ecological and social domains has costs as well as benefits. In this paper, we examine social diversity, specifically its costs and benefits in terms of decision making in middle range or tribal societies, using archaeological evidence spanning seven centuries from four regions of the U.S. Southwest. In these nonstate societies, social diversity may detract from the capacity for collective action. We ask whether as population density increases, making collective action increasingly difficult, social diversity declines. Further, we trace the cases of low diversity and high population density across our long-temporal sequences to see how they associate with the most dramatic transformations. This latter analysis is inspired by the claim in resilience literature that reduction of diversity may contribute to reduction in resilience to varied conditions. Using archaeological data, we examine social diversity and conformity through the material culture (pottery styles) of past societies. Our research contributes to an enhanced understanding of how population density may limit social diversity and suggests the role that this association may play in some contexts of dramatic social transformation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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UTILIZATION OF DEDUCTIVE LOGIC AND LEADERSHIP CONCEPTS: A BEST VALUE (BV) APPROACH TO EDUCATION

Description

A new honors class created at Arizona State University utilizes a new "thinking" paradigm. The new paradigm is a problem solution using deductive logic and natural laws to replace the

A new honors class created at Arizona State University utilizes a new "thinking" paradigm. The new paradigm is a problem solution using deductive logic and natural laws to replace the traditional acquisition and usage of detailed knowledge. When utilizing deductive logic, less time is required for students to learn, and students are able to resolve unique issues with minimal amounts of information. Students use their logic and processing skills to replace the traditional need of collecting large amounts of detailed information. The concepts taught in the class have come from the industry success of the Best Value (BV) approach developed by a leading research group at Arizona State University over the last 17 years. The research group identified the source of the industry's problem is due to the traditional business approach of management, direction and control (MDC). With over 1500 tests conducted, delivering $5.7B of services, with results showing: 30% decrease in cost, 30% increase in value, and customer satisfaction improvement by up to 140%, the Best Value (BV) approach has been identified as more efficient and can deliver better quality services than the traditional MDC approach. Through the research group's implementation of the new paradigm in higher education, the author identified a windfall effect that was able to give students understanding and an increased ability to cope with stressful situations, disease and extraordinary complications. It also exposed students to potentially harmful practices in their lives and has helped them to change. The study tested in K-12 proved potential value in exposing the paradigm to K-12 students, and what impact it may have on future professionals. The author's results include satisfaction rating of 9.5 (out of 10), increased career alignment by up to 113%, increased understanding of self by up to 70%, and a reduction of stress by up to 71%. The author's K-12 case studies aligned with the successful results shown in the industry and college classes run by the leading research group. The pattern of the new paradigm shows as resistance to it decreases, productivity, efficiency, processing speed, understanding, and effectiveness all increase.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

Sammie's Self: A Response to Transgender Issues in Contemporary Society

Description

This honors thesis is a combination of analytical and creative endeavors. The research portion of the project examines contemporary transgender issues, including social, emotional, and cultural concerns. Most notably, the

This honors thesis is a combination of analytical and creative endeavors. The research portion of the project examines contemporary transgender issues, including social, emotional, and cultural concerns. Most notably, the research focuses on the relationship between social support and mental health. These findings suggest that children who fail to receive adequate support are liable to face severe developmental and emotional consequences. The accumulation of this research ultimately serves as the foundation and justification for the creative work, which is presented as a children's book directed at transgender and gender non-confirming youths.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Social Diversity and Public Interaction Space in the Classic and Postclassic Mimbres

Description

This paper studies the change in social diversity and interaction space from the Classic to Postclassic periods in the Mimbres Valley and East Mimbres Area. Between the Classic and Postclassic

This paper studies the change in social diversity and interaction space from the Classic to Postclassic periods in the Mimbres Valley and East Mimbres Area. Between the Classic and Postclassic periods the Mimbres region of the American Southwest exhibits an increase in diversity of ceramic wares. Previous research suggests that increased diversity of ceramics indicates a more diverse community, which could pose challenges to local social interaction (Nelson et al. 2011). I am interested in whether the architecture of plazas, focal points of communities' social structures, change in response to the growing social diversity. To examine this, I quantify the diversity of painted ceramics at Classic and Postclassic villages as well as the extent of the enclosure of plazas. I find that there is a definite shift towards greater plaza enclosure between the Classic and Postclassic periods. I conclude this paper with a discussion of possible interpretations of this trend regarding the social reactions of Mimbres communities to the changes which reshaped the region between the Classic and Postclassic periods.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Exploring Panem: Teaching Issues of Violence and International Development within the Context of The Hunger Games

Description

This project created a teaching curriculum resource guide for using the popular series, The Hunger Games, in 6th-8th grade classrooms to introduce cultural issues such as child soldiers and international

This project created a teaching curriculum resource guide for using the popular series, The Hunger Games, in 6th-8th grade classrooms to introduce cultural issues such as child soldiers and international development to students. Studies have shown that literature can cultivate empathy and encourage youth to act. This combined with the expanding phenomenon of participatory culture and fandom activism as outlined by Henry Jenkins demonstrate the potential for youth to learn and act when given the opportunity and resources to do so. The curriculum is composed of three units: The first is a three-week reading of the books with various activities for students to really understand the narrative and source text. The second and third units address the issues of child soldiers and international development using The Hunger Games as a framework and a keystone to build connections so that these complex issues are accessible to youth. This project is a first step in the development of a curriculum that spans the full trilogy and covers a variety of current event topics.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Pithouse to Classic: Valued Goods and Social Change, Mimbres Valley, New Mexico

Description

The Mimbres tradition of southwestern New Mexico, underwent what can be characterized as continuity with change, a form of non-collapse transformation, from the Late Pithouse (ca. 550-1000 CE) to Classic

The Mimbres tradition of southwestern New Mexico, underwent what can be characterized as continuity with change, a form of non-collapse transformation, from the Late Pithouse (ca. 550-1000 CE) to Classic (ca. 1000-1130 CE) period. Both transitions are characterized by large-scale shifts in housing, settlement patterns, pottery, and mortuary customs.The goal of this thesis is to evaluate changes in the intrasite and inter-site frequencies of selected nonlocal items in Mimbres burial contexts dating to the Late Pithouse and Classic periods. Because those living in the Mimbres region seem to have dramatically changed the ways in which they lived and expressed their social identities it is reasonable to assume that their mortuary use of these high-value objects might have also transformed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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LATINO IMMIGRANTS IN SOUTH PHOENIX: PERCEPTIONS OF HEALTH IN COMMUNITIES OF ORIGIN VERSUS COMMUNITIES IN THE UNITED STATES

Description

Background: Latinos represent 40.8% of the population in Phoenix (U.S. Census Bureau Population Division, 2010). South Phoenix, also known as the South Mountain Village, defined in geographical terms as area

Background: Latinos represent 40.8% of the population in Phoenix (U.S. Census Bureau Population Division, 2010). South Phoenix, also known as the South Mountain Village, defined in geographical terms as area zip codes 85040 and 85042; is a predominantly Latino community comprised of mixed citizenship status households. During the 2010 United States Census 60.3% of the population in South Phoenix identified as Latino, 25.75% of the total population was foreign born. Of the foreign born population, 88.95% were of Latin American origin (United States Census Bureau, 2007-2011 American Community Survey). Understanding how Latino immigrants perceive differences in health between their communities in country of origin and communities in the United States is largely unknown. Irrespective of political positions, understanding how Latino immigrants perceive personal health and the health of their communities is of interest to inform public policy and implement needed interventions in the
public health sphere.
Methods: Semi-structured interviews were collected from 55 adults from the South Phoenix community between November 2009 and September 2010. Interviews were digitally recorded with participant permission and transcribed. Of those collected, 48 transcribed interviews were analyzed using a codebook designed by the researcher. Percent agreement evaluated inter-rater reliability.Results: Latino immigrants in South Phoenix largely agree that health quality is heavily dependent on personal responsibility and not an intrinsic attribute of a given place. Emotional contentedness and distress, both factors of mental health, are impacted by cross-cultural differences between Latino and U.S. culture systems.
Conclusions: As people’s personal perceptions of differences in health are complex concepts influenced by personal backgrounds, culture, and beliefs, attempting to demark a side of the border as ‘healthier’ than the other using personal perceptions is overly simplified and misses central concepts. Instead, exploration of individual variables impacting health allowed this study to gain a more nuanced understanding in how people determine quality of both personal and environmental health. While Latino migrants in South Phoenix largely agree that health is based on personal responsibility and choices, many nonetheless experience higher levels of contentedness and emotional health in their country of origin.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05