Matching Items (64)

136943-Thumbnail Image.png

Hemodynamic Profiling of Endovascular Embolization Polymer Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms

Description

Cerebral aneurysms, also known as intracranial aneurysms, are sac-like lesions in the arteries of the brain that can rupture to cause subarachnoid hemorrhaging, damaging and killing brain cells. Metal coil

Cerebral aneurysms, also known as intracranial aneurysms, are sac-like lesions in the arteries of the brain that can rupture to cause subarachnoid hemorrhaging, damaging and killing brain cells. Metal coil embolization has been traditionally used to occlude and treat cerebral aneurysms to limited success, but polymer embolization has been suggested, because it can provide a greater fraction of occlusion. One such polymer with low cytotoxicity is poly(propylene glycol)diacrylate (PPODA) crosslinked via Michael-type addition with pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (QT). This study was performed to examine the behavior of PPODA-QT gel in vitro under pulsatile flow emulating physiological conditions. An idealized cerebral aneurysm flow model was designed based on geometries associated with an increase in rupture risk. Pressure was monitored at the apex of the aneurysm dome for varied flow rates and polymer filling fractions of 32.4, 78.2, and 100%. The results indicate that the amount of PPODA-QT deployed into the aneurysm decreases the peak-to-peak oscillation in pressure at the aneurysm wall by an inverse proportion. The 32.4 and 78.2% treatments did not significantly decrease the mean pressure applied to the aneurysm dome, but the 100% treatment greatly reduced it by diverting flow. This study indicates that the maximum filling fraction after swelling of PPODA-QT polymer should be deployed into the aneurysmal sac for treatment.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

136857-Thumbnail Image.png

Estimating GL-261 cell growth: A murine model for Glioblastoma Multiforme

Description

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive and deadly form of brain cancer with a median survival time of about a year with treatment. Due to the aggressive nature of these

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive and deadly form of brain cancer with a median survival time of about a year with treatment. Due to the aggressive nature of these tumors and the tendency of gliomas to follow white matter tracks in the brain, each tumor mass has a unique growth pattern. Consequently it is difficult for neurosurgeons to anticipate where the tumor will spread in the brain, making treatment planning difficult. Archival patient data including MRI scans depicting the progress of tumors have been helpful in developing a model to predict Glioblastoma proliferation, but limited scans per patient make the tumor growth rate difficult to determine. Furthermore, patient treatment between scan points can significantly compound the challenge of accurately predicting the tumor growth. A partnership with Barrow Neurological Institute has allowed murine studies to be conducted in order to closely observe tumor growth and potentially improve the current model to more closely resemble intermittent stages of GBM growth without treatment effects.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

137749-Thumbnail Image.png

fMRI-Based Validation of Penfield Motor Homunculus

Description

In 1937 Canadian neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield made the first to attempt to map the sensorimotor cortex of the human brain in his paper entitled Somatic Motor and Sensory Representation in

In 1937 Canadian neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield made the first to attempt to map the sensorimotor cortex of the human brain in his paper entitled Somatic Motor and Sensory Representation in the Cerebral Cortex of Man as Studied by Electrical Stimulation. While analogous experimentation had been carried out previously using animal subjects, Penfield sought to understand the delicate and complex neuronal pathways that served as the hidden control mechanisms for human activity. The motor homunculus that followed from his findings has been widely accepted as the standard model for the relative spatial representation of the functionality of the motor cortex, and has been virtually unaltered since its inception. While Penfield took measures to collect cortical data in a manner as accurately as scientifically possible for the time period, his original model is deserving of further analysis using modern techniques. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to quantitatively determine motor function volumes and spatial relationships for four motor tasks: toe, finger, eyebrow, and tongue. Although Penfield's general representation of the superior-to-inferior spatial distribution of the motor cortex was replicated with reasonable accuracy, relative mean task volumes seem to differ from Penfield's original model. The data was first analyzed in each individual patient's native anatomical space for task comparison within a single subject. The volumes of the motor cortex devoted to the eyebrow and toe tasks, which comprise only small portions of the Penfield homunculus, are shown to be relatively large in their fMRI representation compared to finger and tongue. However, these tasks have large deviation values, indicating a lack of consistency in task volume size among patients. Behaviorally, toe movement may include whole foot movement in some individuals, and eyebrows may include face movement, causing distributions that are more widespread. The data was then analyzed in the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) space, which is mathematically normalized for task comparison between different subjects. Tongue and finger tasks were the largest in volume, much like Penfield's model. However, they also had substantial deviation, again indicating task volume size inconsistencies. Since the Penfield model is only a qualitative spatial evaluation of motor function along the precentral gyrus, numerical deviation from the model cannot necessarily be quantified. Hence, the results of this study can be interpreted standalone without a current comparison. While future research will serve to further validate these distances and volumes, this quantitative model of the functionality of the motor cortex will be of great utility for future neurological research and during preoperative evaluations of neurosurgical patients.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

137782-Thumbnail Image.png

A rapid and Label-free IL-18 point-of-care biosensor for CVD detection

Description

Development of a rapid and label-free Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) biosensor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) detection based on Inerluekin-18 (IL-18) sensitivity was proposed to fill the technology gap between rapid

Development of a rapid and label-free Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) biosensor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) detection based on Inerluekin-18 (IL-18) sensitivity was proposed to fill the technology gap between rapid and portable CVD point-of-care diagnosis. IL-18 was chosen for this CVD biosensor due to its ability to detect plaque vulnerability of the heart. Custom (hand) made sensors, which utilized a three electrode configuration with a gold disk working electrode, were created to run EIS using both IL-18 and anti-IL-18 molecules in both purified and blood solutions. The EIS results for IL-18 indicated the optimal detection frequency to be 371Hz. Blood interaction on the working electrode increased the dynamic range of impedance values for the biosensor. Future work includes Developing and testing prototypes of the biosensor along with determining if a Nafion based coating on the working electrode will reduce the dynamic range of impedance values caused by blood interference.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

137680-Thumbnail Image.png

PIV ANALYSIS OF BASILAR TIP ANEURYSM HEMODYNAMICS, AND THE EFFECTS OF ENTERPRISE STENT TREATMENT

Description

Intracranial aneurysms, which form in the blood vessels of the brain, are particularly dangerous because of the importance and fragility of the human brain. When an intracranial aneurysm gets large

Intracranial aneurysms, which form in the blood vessels of the brain, are particularly dangerous because of the importance and fragility of the human brain. When an intracranial aneurysm gets large it poses a significant risk of bursting and causing subarachnoid hemorrhaging (SAH), a possibly fatal condition. One possible treatment involves placing a stent in the vessel to act as a flow diverter. In this study we look at the hemodynamics of two geometries of idealized basilar tip aneurysms, at 2,3, and 4 ml/s pulsatile flow, at three different points in the cardiac cycle. The smaller model had neck and dome diameters of 2.67 mm and 4 mm respectively, while the larger aneurysm had neck and dome diameters of 3 mm and 6 mm respectively. Both diameters and the dome to neck ratio increased in the second model, representing growth over time. Flow was analyzed using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) for both geometries in untreated models, as well as after treatment with a high porosity Enterprise stent (Codman and Shurtleff Inc.). Flow in the models was characterized by root mean square velocity in the aneurysm and neck plane, cross neck flow, max aneurysm vorticity, and total aneurysm kinetic energy. It was found that in the smaller aneurysm model (model 1), Enterprise stent treatment reduced all flow parameters substantially. The smallest reduction was in max vorticity, at 42.48%, and the largest in total kinetic energy, at 75.69%. In the larger model (model 2) there was a 52.18% reduction in cross neck flow, but a 167.28% increase in aneurysm vorticity. The other three parameters experienced little change. These results, along with observed velocity vector fields, indicate a noticeable diversion of flow away from the aneurysm in the stent treated model 1. Treatment in model 2 had a small flow diversion effect, but also altered flow in unpredictable ways, in some cases having a detrimental effect on aneurysm hemodynamics. The results of this study indicate that Enterprise stent treatment is only effective in small, relatively undeveloped aneurysm geometries, and waiting until an aneurysm has grown too large can eliminate this treatment option altogether.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

Quantifying Effects of Stent Treatment on Cerebral Aneurysm Fluid Dynamics using Finite Element Modeling

Description

The purpose of this thesis was to explore how changes in the geometry of a bifurcating cerebral aneurysm will affect the hemodynamics in idealized models after stent treatment. This thesis

The purpose of this thesis was to explore how changes in the geometry of a bifurcating cerebral aneurysm will affect the hemodynamics in idealized models after stent treatment. This thesis explores the use of a computationally modeled Enterprise Vascular Reconstruction Device (Cordis, East Bridgewater, NJ), a high porosity and closed cell design. The models represent idealized cases of saccular aneurysms with dome sizes of either 4mm or 6mm and a dome to neck ratio of either 3:2 or 2:1. Two aneurysm contact angles are studied, one at 45 degrees and the other at 90 degrees. The stent was characterized and deployed with the use of Finite Element Analysis into each model. Computational Fluid Dynamic principles were applied in series of simulations on treated and untreated models. Data was gathered in the neck plane for the average velocity magnitude, root mean squared velocity, average flow vector angle of deflection, and the cross neck flow rate. Within the aneurysm, the average velocity magnitude, root mean squared velocity, and average pressure were calculated. Additionally, the mass flow rate at each outlet was recorded. The results of this study indicate that the Enterprise Stent was most effective in the sharper, 90 degree geometry of Model 3. Additionally, the stent had an adverse effect on the Models 1 and 4, which had the smallest neck sizes. Conclusions are that the Enterprise Stent, as a stand-alone treatment method is only reliable in situations that take advantage of its design.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

137098-Thumbnail Image.png

3D Printing Sensor-Stents

Description

This paper summarizes the [1] ideas behind, [2] needs, [3] development, and [4] testing of 3D-printed sensor-stents known as Stentzors. This sensor was successfully developed entirely from scratch, tested, and

This paper summarizes the [1] ideas behind, [2] needs, [3] development, and [4] testing of 3D-printed sensor-stents known as Stentzors. This sensor was successfully developed entirely from scratch, tested, and was found to have an output of 3.2*10-6 volts per RMS pressure in pascals. This paper also recommends further work to render the Stentzor deployable in live subjects, including [1] further design optimization, [2] electrical isolation, [3] wireless data transmission, and [4] testing for aneurysm prevention.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

136911-Thumbnail Image.png

Fluid Dynamic Comparison of Treated and Untreated Aneurysms of Variable Dome Size

Description

Intracranial aneurysms are blood \u2014filled sacs along the blood vessels in the brain. These aneurysms can be particularly dangerous due to difficulty in detection and potential lifethreatening outcome. When these

Intracranial aneurysms are blood \u2014filled sacs along the blood vessels in the brain. These aneurysms can be particularly dangerous due to difficulty in detection and potential lifethreatening outcome. When these aneurysms are detected, there are few treatment options to prevent rupture, one of which is endovascular stents. By placing a stent across the parent vessel, blood flow can be diverted from the aneurysm. Reduced flow reduces the chance of rupture and promotes clotting within the aneurysm. In this study, hemodynamics in idealized basilar tip aneurysm models were investigated at three flow rates using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). Two models were created with increasing dome size (4mm vs 6mm), and constant dome-to-neck ratio (3:2) and parent vessel contact angle to represent growing aneurysm. With the pulsatile flow, data is acquired at three separate points in the cardiac cycle. Both of the models were studied untreated, treated with Enterprise stent and treated with Pipeline stent. Enterprise stent was developed mainly for structural support while the Pipeline stent was developed as a flow diverter. Due to target functions of the stents, Enterprise stent is more porous than the Pipeline stent. Hemodynamics were studied using a stereo particle image velocimetry technique. The flow in models was characterized by neck and aneurysmal RMS velocity, neck and aneurysm kinetic energy, cross neck flow. It was found that both of the stents are capable diverting flow. Enterprise reduced aneurysmal RMS velocity in model 1 by 38.7% and in model 2 by 76.2%. Pipeline stent reduced aneurysmal RMS velocity in model 1 by 71.4% and in model 2 by 88.1%. Both reductions are data for 3ml/s at peak systole pulsatile flow. Data shows that the Pipeline stent is better than Enterprise stent at reducing flow to the aneurysm.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

136778-Thumbnail Image.png

Designing and Troubleshooting a Signal Acquisition System for Vertically Aligned Piezoelectric Nanowire Sensors

Description

The Honors Thesis involved the use of vertically-aligned, piezoelectric nanowire sensor arrays configured by Dr. Henry A. Sodano and Dr. Aneesh Koka from the University of Florida, in order to

The Honors Thesis involved the use of vertically-aligned, piezoelectric nanowire sensor arrays configured by Dr. Henry A. Sodano and Dr. Aneesh Koka from the University of Florida, in order to acquire acceleration data. Originally, the project was focused on interfacing and calibrating the barium titanate (BaTio3) sensors to measure wall shear stress, a fluid dynamic characteristic. In order to gain an understanding of these novel piezoelectric sensors, the experiments performed by Sodano and Koka were to be investigated, replicated, and results reproduced. After initial trial phases, signals failed to be consistently measured from the sensors and the project's emphasis was re-defined. The outlined goals were 1) to re-design the initial system used for signal acquisition, 2) test the improved signal acquisition system, 3) successfully measure output signals from the BaTiO3 nanowire sensors, and 4) determine the cause for inconsistent signal measurements from the piezoelectric nanawire sensors. Following a detailed review of the previous experimental procedures and the initial signal acquisition system, an improved acquisition system was designed and its expected behavior was tested and verified. Despite the introduction of the improved acquisition system, voltage outputs were unable to be measured as a function of shaker table acceleration. It was impossible to verify the effect of the improved signal acquisition system on the measured BaTiO3 nanowire sensor output. Based on an analysis of data collected using a commercial 3-axis acceleromoeter, it is hypothesized that the BaTiO3 nanowire sensors were broken after the first experimental trial due to an excessively applied force from an external source (i.e. shaker table, improper handling during experimentation, and/or improper handling during transportation).

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

137283-Thumbnail Image.png

Development of Automatic Control Software for a Patient Monitoring Camera System

Description

Electroencephalogram (EEG) used simultaneously with video monitoring can record detailed patient physiology during a seizure to aid diagnosis. However, current patient monitoring systems typically require a patient to stay in

Electroencephalogram (EEG) used simultaneously with video monitoring can record detailed patient physiology during a seizure to aid diagnosis. However, current patient monitoring systems typically require a patient to stay in view of a fixed camera limiting their freedom of movement. The goal of this project is to design an automatic patient monitoring system with software to track patient movement in order to increase a patient's mobility. This report discusses the impact of an automatic patient monitoring system and the design steps used to create and test a functional prototype.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05