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Area‐Based Urban Renewal Approach for Smart Cities Development in India: Challenges of Inclusion and Sustainability

Description

Cities in the Global South face rapid urbanization challenges and often suffer an acute lack of infrastructure and governance capacities. Smart Cities Mission, in India, launched in 2015, aims to offer a novel approach for urban renewal of 100 cities

Cities in the Global South face rapid urbanization challenges and often suffer an acute lack of infrastructure and governance capacities. Smart Cities Mission, in India, launched in 2015, aims to offer a novel approach for urban renewal of 100 cities following an area‐based development approach, where the use of ICT and digital technologies is particularly emphasized. This article presents a critical review of the design and implementation framework of this new urban renewal program across selected case‐study cities. The article examines the claims of the so‐called “smart cities” against actual urban transformation on‐ground and evaluates how “inclusive” and “sustainable” these developments are. We quantify the scale and coverage of the smart city urban renewal projects in the cities to highlight who the program includes and excludes. The article also presents a statistical analysis of the sectoral focus and budgetary allocations of the projects under the Smart Cities Mission to find an inherent bias in these smart city initiatives in terms of which types of development they promote and the ones it ignores. The findings indicate that a predominant emphasis on digital urban renewal of selected precincts and enclaves, branded as “smart cities,” leads to deepening social polarization and gentrification. The article offers crucial urban planning lessons for designing ICT‐driven urban renewal projects, while addressing critical questions around inclusion and sustainability in smart city ventures.`

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-05-07

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The New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study: Physical Activity Environment Maps, Vineland

Description

The maps in this chartbook describe the physical activity environment in Vineland in terms of geographic distribution of parks and physical activity facilities. Research shows that people who have access to these facilities are more likely to be physically active.

• The maps

The maps in this chartbook describe the physical activity environment in Vineland in terms of geographic distribution of parks and physical activity facilities. Research shows that people who have access to these facilities are more likely to be physically active.

• The maps in this chartbook were created using physical activity facilities data from a commercial database (lnfoUSA, 2008), data from city departments, as well as information obtained from systematic web searches. The maps present data for the city of Vineland and for a 1 mile buffer area around Vineland.

• Physical activity centers include private and public facilities which offer physical activity opportunities for children 3-18 years of age.

• Physical activity environment maps are compared with Census 2000 data to visualize accessibility of physical activity opportunities in neighborhoods with different characteristics.

• Poverty level presented in this chartbook are based on the 2000 Federal Poverty Guidelines.

• Crime rates in Vineland are presented at the census block group level as relative crime risk (CrimeRisk) obtained from a commercial data source (Applied Geographic Solutions, 2008). CrimeRisk - an index value derived from modeling the relationship between crime rates and demographics data - is expressed as the risk of crime occurring in a specific block group relative to the national average. For this chartbook, data on total CrimeRisk, which includes personal and property crimes, are reported.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2010

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The New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study: Physical Activity Environment Maps, New Brunswick

Description

The maps in this chartbook describe the physical activity environment in New Brunswick in terms of geographic distribution of parks and physical activity facilities. Research shows that people who have access to these facilities are more likely to be physically

The maps in this chartbook describe the physical activity environment in New Brunswick in terms of geographic distribution of parks and physical activity facilities. Research shows that people who have access to these facilities are more likely to be physically active.

• The maps in this chartbook were created using physical activity facilities data from a commercial database (lnfoUSA, 2008), data from city departments, as well as information obtained from systematic web searches. The maps present data for the city of New Brunswick and for a 1 mile buffer area around New Brunswick.

• Physical activity centers include private and public facilities which offer physical activity opportunities for children 3-18 years of age.

• Physical activity environment maps are compared with Census 2000 data to visualize accessibility of physical activity opportunities in neighborhoods with different characteristics.

• Poverty level presented in this chartbook are based on the 2000 Federal Poverty Guidelines.

• Crime rates in New Brunswick are presented at the census block group level as relative crime risk (CrimeRisk) obtained from a commercial data source (Applied Geographic Solutions, 2008). CrimeRisk - an index value derived from modeling the relationship between crime rates and demographics data - is expressed as the risk of crime occurring in a specific block group relative to the national average. For this chartbook, data on total CrimeRisk, which includes personal and property crimes, are reported.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2010

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The New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study: Physical Activity Environment Maps, Newark

Description

The maps in this chartbook describe the physical activity environment in Newark in terms of geographic distribution of parks and physical activity facilities. Research shows that people who have access to these facilities are more likely to be physically active.

• The maps

The maps in this chartbook describe the physical activity environment in Newark in terms of geographic distribution of parks and physical activity facilities. Research shows that people who have access to these facilities are more likely to be physically active.

• The maps in this chartbook were created using physical activity facilities data from a commercial database (lnfoUSA, 2008), data from city departments, as well as information obtained from systematic web searches. The maps present data for the city of Newark and for a 1 mile buffer area around Newark.

• Physical activity centers include private and public facilities which offer physical activity opportunities for children 3-18 years of age.

• Physical activity environment maps are compared with Census 2000 data to visualize accessibility of physical activity opportunities in neighborhoods with different characteristics.

• Poverty level presented in this chartbook are based on the 2000 Federal Poverty Guidelines.

• Crime rates in Newark are presented at the census block group level as relative crime risk (CrimeRisk) obtained from a commercial data source (Applied Geographic Solutions, 2008). CrimeRisk - an index value derived from modeling the relationship between crime rates and demographics data - is expressed as the risk of crime occurring in a specific block group relative to the national average. For this chartbook, data on total CrimeRisk, which includes personal and property crimes, are reported.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2010

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The New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study: Physical Activity Environment Maps, Trenton

Description

The maps in this chartbook describe the physical activity environment in Trenton in terms of geographic distribution of parks and physical activity facilities. Research shows that people who have access to these facilities are more likely to be physically active.

• The

The maps in this chartbook describe the physical activity environment in Trenton in terms of geographic distribution of parks and physical activity facilities. Research shows that people who have access to these facilities are more likely to be physically active.

• The maps in this chartbook were created using physical activity facilities data from a commercial database (lnfoUSA, 2008), data from city departments, as well as information obtained from systematic web searches. The maps present data for the city of Trenton and for a 1 mile buffer area around Trenton.

• Physical activity centers include private and public facilities which offer physical activity opportunities for children 3-18 years of age.

• Physical activity environment maps are compared with Census 2000 data to visualize accessibility of physical activity opportunities in neighborhoods with different characteristics.

• Poverty level presented in this chartbook are based on the 2000 Federal Poverty Guidelines.

• Crime rates in Trenton are presented at the census block group level as relative crime risk (CrimeRisk) obtained from a commercial data source (Applied Geographic Solutions, 2008). CrimeRisk - an index value derived from modeling the relationship between crime rates and demographics data - is expressed as the risk of crime occurring in a specific block group relative to the national average. For this chartbook, data on total CrimeRisk, which includes personal and property crimes, are reported.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2010

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The New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study: Physical Activity Environment Maps, Camden

Description

The maps in this chartbook describe the physical activity environment in Camden in terms of geographic distribution of parks and physical activity facilities. Research shows that people who have access to these facilities are more likely to be physically active.

• The maps in this chartbook

The maps in this chartbook describe the physical activity environment in Camden in terms of geographic distribution of parks and physical activity facilities. Research shows that people who have access to these facilities are more likely to be physically active.

• The maps in this chartbook were created using physical activity facilities data from a commercial database (lnfoUSA, 2008), data from city departments, as well as information obtained from systematic web searches. The maps present data for the city of Camden and for a 1 mile buffer area around Camden.

• Physical activity centers include private and public facilities which offer physical activity opportunities for children 3-18 years of age.

• Physical activity environment maps are compared with Census 2000 data to visualize accessibility of physical activity opportunities in neighborhoods with different characteristics.

• Poverty level presented in this chartbook are based on the 2000 Federal Poverty Guidelines.

• Crime rates in Camden are presented at the census block group level as relative crime risk (CrimeRisk) obtained from a commercial data source (Applied Geographic Solutions, 2008). CrimeRisk - an index value derived from modeling the relationship between crime rates and demographics data - is expressed as the risk of crime occurring in a specific block group relative to the national average. For this chartbook, data on total CrimeRisk, which includes personal and property crimes, are reported.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2010

The New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study: Physical Activity Environment Maps

Description

The New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, aims to provide vital information for planning, implementing and evaluating interventions aimed at preventing childhood obesity in five New Jersey municipalities: Camden, Newark, New Brunswick, Trenton, and

The New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, aims to provide vital information for planning, implementing and evaluating interventions aimed at preventing childhood obesity in five New Jersey municipalities: Camden, Newark, New Brunswick, Trenton, and Vineland. These five communities are being supported by RWJF's New Jersey Partnership for Healthy Kids program to plan and implement policy and environmental change strategies to prevent childhood obesity.

Effective interventions for addressing childhood obesity require community specific information on who is most at risk and on contributing factors that can be addressed through tailored interventions that meet the needs of the community.

Using a comprehensive research study, the Center for State Health Policy at Rutgers University is working collaboratively with the State Program Office for New Jersey Partnership for Healthy Kids and the five communities to address these information needs. The main components of the study include:

A household survey of 1700 families with 3 -18 year old children

De-identified heights and weights data from public school districts

Assessment of the food and physical activity environments using objective data

Data books and maps based on the results of the study are being shared with the community coalitions in the five communities to help them plan their interventions.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2010

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Participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and Dietary Behaviors: Role of Community Food Environment

Description

Background

The United States Department of Agriculture’s Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the country’s largest nutrition assistance program for low-income populations. Although SNAP has been shown to reduce food insecurity, research findings on the diet quality of

Background

The United States Department of Agriculture’s Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the country’s largest nutrition assistance program for low-income populations. Although SNAP has been shown to reduce food insecurity, research findings on the diet quality of program participants are inconsistent.

Objective

This study evaluated whether the community food environment is a potential moderator of the association between SNAP participation and eating behaviors.

Design

This cross-sectional study used participant data from a telephone survey of 2,211 households in four cities in New Jersey. Data were collected from two cross-sectional panels from 2009 to 2010 and 2014. Food outlet data were purchased from commercial sources and classified as supermarkets, small grocery stores, convenience stores, or limited service restaurants.

Participants/setting

Analysis is limited to 983 respondents (588 SNAP participants) with household incomes below 130% of the federal poverty level.

Main outcome measures

Eating behaviors were assessed as frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, salad, and sugar-sweetened beverages.

Statistical analyses performed

Interaction and stratified analyses using gamma regression determined the differences in the association between SNAP participation and eating behaviors by the presence or absence of food outlets adjusted for covariates.

Results

SNAP participation was associated with a higher frequency of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (P<0.05) when respondents lived within ¼ to ½ mile of a small grocery store, supermarket, and limited service restaurant. SNAP participants who did not live close to a convenience store reported a lower frequency of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (P=0.01), and those living more than ½ mile away from a supermarket reported a lower frequency of fruit consumption (P=0.03).

Conclusions

The findings from this study suggest that the community food environment may play a role in moderating the association between SNAP participation and eating behaviors. Although SNAP participation is associated with some unhealthy behaviors, this association may only hold true when respondents live in certain food environments.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2018-11-29

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Neighborhood Perceptions and Active School Commuting in Low-Income Cities

Description

Background

Few children accumulate the recommended ≥60 minutes of physical activity each day. Active travel to and from school (ATS) is a potential source of increased activity for children, accounting for 22% of total trips and time spent traveling by

Background

Few children accumulate the recommended ≥60 minutes of physical activity each day. Active travel to and from school (ATS) is a potential source of increased activity for children, accounting for 22% of total trips and time spent traveling by school-aged children.

Purpose

This study identifies the association of parents’ perceptions of the neighborhood, geospatial variables, and demographic characteristics with ATS among students in four low-income, densely populated urban communities with predominantly minority populations.

Methods

Data were collected in 2009–2010 from households with school-attending children in four low-income New Jersey cities. Multivariate logistic regression analyses (n=765) identified predictors of ATS. Analyses were conducted in 2012.

Results

In all, 54% of students actively commuted to school. Students whose parents perceived the neighborhood as very unpleasant for activity were less likely (OR=0.39) to actively commute, as were students living farther from school, with a 6% reduction in ATS for every 0.10 mile increase in distance to school. Perceptions of crime, traffic, and sidewalk conditions were not predictors of ATS.

Conclusions

Parents’ perceptions of the pleasantness of the neighborhood, independent of the effects of distance from school, may outweigh concerns about crime, traffic, or conditions of sidewalks in predicting active commuting to school in the low-income urban communities studied. Efforts such as cleaning up graffiti, taking care of abandoned buildings, and providing shade trees to improve neighborhood environments are likely to increase ATS, as are efforts that encourage locating schools closer to the populations they serve.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2013-01-10

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A closer examination of the relationship between children's weight status and the food and physical activity environment

Description

Objectives: Conflicting findings on associations between food and physical activity (PA) environments and children's weight status demand attention in order to inform effective interventions. We assess relationships between the food and PA environments in inner-city neighborhoods and children's weight

Objectives: Conflicting findings on associations between food and physical activity (PA) environments and children's weight status demand attention in order to inform effective interventions. We assess relationships between the food and PA environments in inner-city neighborhoods and children's weight status and address sources of conflicting results of prior research.

Methods: Weight status of children ages 3-18 was assessed using parent-measured heights and weights. Data were collected from 702 children living in four low-income cities in New Jersey between 2009 and 2010. Proximity of a child's residence to a variety of food and PA outlets was measured in multiple ways using geo-coded data. Multivariate analyses assessed the association between measures of proximity and weight status.

Results: Significant associations were observed between children's weight status and proximity to convenience stores in the 1/4 mile radius (OR = 1.9) and with presence of a large park in the 1/2 mile radius (OR = 0.41). No associations were observed for other types of food and PA outlets.

Conclusions: Specific aspects of the food and PA environments are predictors of overweight and obese status among children, but the relationships and their detection are dependent upon aspects of the geospatial landscape of each community.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2013-05-30