Matching Items (45)

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Fatigue Crack Growth in SiC Particle Reinforced Al Alloy Matrix Composites at High and Low R-Ratios by In Situ X-Ray Synchrotron Tomography

Description

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) offer high strength, high stiffness, low density, and good fatigue resistance, while maintaining cost an acceptable level. Fatigue resistance of MMCs depends on many aspects of composite microstructure. Fatigue crack growth behavior is particularly dependent on

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) offer high strength, high stiffness, low density, and good fatigue resistance, while maintaining cost an acceptable level. Fatigue resistance of MMCs depends on many aspects of composite microstructure. Fatigue crack growth behavior is particularly dependent on the reinforcement characteristics and matrix microstructure. The goal of this work is to obtain a fundamental understanding of fatigue crack growth behavior in SiC particle-reinforced 2080 Al alloy composites. In situ X-ray synchrotron tomography was performed on two samples at low (R = 0.1) and at high (R = 0.6) R-ratios. The resulting reconstructed images were used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) rendering of the particles and fatigue crack. Behaviors of the particles and crack, as well as their interaction, were analyzed and quantified. Four-dimensional (4D) visual representations were constructed to aid in the overall understanding of damage evolution.

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2014-11-01

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Fractography of a Neck Failure in a Double-Modular Hip Implant

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The tapered joints of modular hip implants are prone to fretting and crevice-corrosion. This can lead to total failure in under a year, especially for heavier, more active implant recipients. In this study, fractography of a failed Profemur Z implant

The tapered joints of modular hip implants are prone to fretting and crevice-corrosion. This can lead to total failure in under a year, especially for heavier, more active implant recipients. In this study, fractography of a failed Profemur Z implant showed that a life limiting fatigue crack was nucleated on the anterolateral surface of the implant's neck. The fatigue crack nucleation area appeared to have both more fretting damage and a higher corrosion rate than on other surfaces of the neck.

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Date Created
2014-04-08

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Reconstruction of Heterogeneous Materials Via Stochastic Optimization of Limited-Angle X-Ray Tomographic Projections

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X-ray tomography has provided a non-destructive means for microstructure characterization in three and four dimensions. A stochastic procedure to accurately reconstruct material microstructure from limited-angle X-ray tomographic projections is presented and its utility is demonstrated by reconstructing a variety of

X-ray tomography has provided a non-destructive means for microstructure characterization in three and four dimensions. A stochastic procedure to accurately reconstruct material microstructure from limited-angle X-ray tomographic projections is presented and its utility is demonstrated by reconstructing a variety of distinct heterogeneous materials and elucidating the information content of different projection data sets. A small number of projections (e.g. 20–40) are necessary for accurate reconstructions via the stochastic procedure, indicating its high efficiency in using limited structural information.

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Date Created
2014-09-01

Bio-Inspired Cementation of Soil Using Plant Enzyme

Description

This dissertation investigates the potential for enzyme induced carbonate cementation as an alternative to Portland cement for creating building material from sand aggregate. We create a solution of urease enzyme, calcium chloride (CaCl2), and urea in water and added sand.

This dissertation investigates the potential for enzyme induced carbonate cementation as an alternative to Portland cement for creating building material from sand aggregate. We create a solution of urease enzyme, calcium chloride (CaCl2), and urea in water and added sand. The urease catalyzes the synthesis of carbonate from urea, and the carbonate then bonds with a dissociated calcium ion and precipitates from the solution as calcium carbonate (CaCO3). This precipitate can form small crystal bridges at contacts between sand grains that lock the sand grains in place. Using enzyme induced carbonate precipitation we created a cemented sand sample with a maximum compressive strength of 319 kPa and an elastic modulus of approximately 10 MPa. Images from the SEM showed that a major failure mechanism in the cemented samples was the delamination of the CaCO3 from the sand grains. We observed that CaCO3 cementation did not when solutions with high concentrations of CaCl2 and urea were used.

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2014-05

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Understanding plasticity and fracture in aluminum alloys and their composites by 3D X-ray synchrotron tomography and microdiffraction

Description

Aluminum alloys and their composites are attractive materials for applications requiring high strength-to-weight ratios and reasonable cost. Many of these applications, such as those in the aerospace industry, undergo fatigue loading. An understanding of the microstructural damage that occurs in

Aluminum alloys and their composites are attractive materials for applications requiring high strength-to-weight ratios and reasonable cost. Many of these applications, such as those in the aerospace industry, undergo fatigue loading. An understanding of the microstructural damage that occurs in these materials is critical in assessing their fatigue resistance. Two distinct experimental studies were performed to further the understanding of fatigue damage mechanisms in aluminum alloys and their composites, specifically fracture and plasticity. Fatigue resistance of metal matrix composites (MMCs) depends on many aspects of composite microstructure. Fatigue crack growth behavior is particularly dependent on the reinforcement characteristics and matrix microstructure. The goal of this work was to obtain a fundamental understanding of fatigue crack growth behavior in SiC particle-reinforced 2080 Al alloy composites. In situ X-ray synchrotron tomography was performed on two samples at low (R=0.1) and at high (R=0.6) R-ratios. The resulting reconstructed images were used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) rendering of the particles and fatigue crack. Behaviors of the particles and crack, as well as their interaction, were analyzed and quantified. Four-dimensional (4D) visual representations were constructed to aid in the overall understanding of damage evolution. During fatigue crack growth in ductile materials, a plastic zone is created in the region surrounding the crack tip. Knowledge of the plastic zone is important for the understanding of fatigue crack formation as well as subsequent growth behavior. The goal of this work was to quantify the 3D size and shape of the plastic zone in 7075 Al alloys. X-ray synchrotron tomography and Laue microdiffraction were used to non-destructively characterize the volume surrounding a fatigue crack tip. The precise 3D crack profile was segmented from the reconstructed tomography data. Depth-resolved Laue patterns were obtained using differential-aperture X-ray structural microscopy (DAXM), from which peak-broadening characteristics were quantified. Plasticity, as determined by the broadening of diffracted peaks, was mapped in 3D. Two-dimensional (2D) maps of plasticity were directly compared to the corresponding tomography slices. A 3D representation of the plastic zone surrounding the fatigue crack was generated by superimposing the mapped plasticity on the 3D crack profile.

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Date Created
2014

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Mechanics of silicon electrodes in lithium ion batteries

Description

As one of the most promising materials for high capacity electrode in next generation of lithium ion batteries, silicon has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. Advanced characterization techniques and atomic simulations helped to depict that the

As one of the most promising materials for high capacity electrode in next generation of lithium ion batteries, silicon has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. Advanced characterization techniques and atomic simulations helped to depict that the lithiation/delithiation of silicon electrode involves processes including large volume change (anisotropic for the initial lithiation of crystal silicon), plastic flow or softening of material dependent on composition, electrochemically driven phase transformation between solid states, anisotropic or isotropic migration of atomic sharp interface, and mass diffusion of lithium atoms. Motivated by the promising prospect of the application and underlying interesting physics, mechanics coupled with multi-physics of silicon electrodes in lithium ion batteries is studied in this dissertation. For silicon electrodes with large size, diffusion controlled kinetics is assumed, and the coupled large deformation and mass transportation is studied. For crystal silicon with small size, interface controlled kinetics is assumed, and anisotropic interface reaction is studied, with a geometry design principle proposed. As a preliminary experimental validation, enhanced lithiation and fracture behavior of silicon pillars via atomic layer coatings and geometry design is studied, with results supporting the geometry design principle we proposed based on our simulations. Through the work documented here, a consistent description and understanding of the behavior of silicon electrode is given at continuum level and some insights for the future development of the silicon electrode are provided.

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Date Created
2014

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Understanding Pitting Corrosion in a High-Performance Aluminum Alloy by 4D X-ray Microtomography

Description

Aluminum alloys are commonly used for engineering applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, low weight, and low cost. Pitting corrosion, accelerated by saltwater environments, leads to fatigue cracks and stress corrosion cracking during service. Two-dimensional (2D) characterization

Aluminum alloys are commonly used for engineering applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, low weight, and low cost. Pitting corrosion, accelerated by saltwater environments, leads to fatigue cracks and stress corrosion cracking during service. Two-dimensional (2D) characterization methods are typically used to identify and characterize corrosion; however, these methods are destructive and do not enable an efficient means of quantifying mechanisms of pit initiation and growth. In this study, lab-scale x-ray microtomography was used to non-destructively observe, quantify, and understand pit growth in three dimensions over a 20-day corrosion period in the AA7075-T651 alloy. The XRT process, capable of imaging sample volumes with a resolution near one micrometer, was found to be an ideal tool for large-volume pit examination. Pit depths were quantified over time using renderings of sample volumes, leading to an understanding of how inclusion particles, oxide breakdown, and corrosion mechanisms impact the growth and morphology of pits. This process, when carried out on samples produced with two different rolling directions and rolling extents, yielded novel insights into the long-term macroscopic corrosion behaviors impacted by alloy production and design. Key among these were the determinations that the alloy’s rolling direction produces a significant difference in the average growth rate of pits and that the corrosion product layer loses its passivating effect as a result of cyclic immersion. In addition, a new mechanism of pitting corrosion is proposed which is focused on the pseudo-random spatial distribution of iron-rich inclusion particles in the alloy matrix, which produces a random distribution of pit depths based on the occurrence of co-operative corrosion near inclusion clusters.

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2020-05

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Effective Constitutive Response of Sustainable Next Generation Infrastructure Materials Through High-Fidelity Experiments and Numerical Simulation

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Design of novel infrastructure materials requires a proper understanding of the influence of microstructure on the desired performance. The priority is to seek new and innovative ways to develop sustainable infrastructure materials using natural resources and industrial solid wastes in

Design of novel infrastructure materials requires a proper understanding of the influence of microstructure on the desired performance. The priority is to seek new and innovative ways to develop sustainable infrastructure materials using natural resources and industrial solid wastes in a manner that is ecologically sustainable and yet economically viable. Structural materials are invariably designed based on mechanical performance. Accurate prediction of effective constitutive behavior of highly heterogeneous novel structural materials with multiple microstructural phases is a challenging task. This necessitates reliable classification and characterization of constituent phases in terms of their volume fractions, size distributions and intrinsic elastic properties, coupled with numerical homogenization technique. This paper explores a microstructure-guided numerical framework that derives inputs from nanoindentation and synchrotron x-ray tomography towards the prediction of effective constitutive response of novel sustainable structural materials so as to enable microstructure-guided design.

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Date Created
2017-02-22

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Role of defects interactions with embrittlement species in iron: a multiscale perspective

Description

Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a phenomenon that affects both the physical and chemical properties of several intrinsically ductile metals. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms behind HE has been of particular interest in both experimental and modeling research. Discrepancies between experimental observations

Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a phenomenon that affects both the physical and chemical properties of several intrinsically ductile metals. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms behind HE has been of particular interest in both experimental and modeling research. Discrepancies between experimental observations and modeling results have led to various proposals for HE mechanisms. Therefore, to gain insights into HE mechanisms in iron, this dissertation aims to investigate several key issues involving HE such as: a) the incipient crack tip events; b) the cohesive strength of grain boundaries (GBs); c) the dislocation-GB interactions and d) the dislocation mobility.

The crack tip, which presents a preferential trap site for hydrogen segregation, was examined using atomistic methods and the continuum based Rice-Thompson criterion as sufficient concentration of hydrogen can alter the crack tip deformation mechanism. Results suggest that there is a plausible co-existence of the adsorption induced dislocation emission and hydrogen enhanced decohesion mechanisms. In the case of GB-hydrogen interaction, we observed that the segregation of hydrogen along the interface leads to a reduction in cohesive strength resulting in intergranular failure. A methodology was further developed to quantify the role of the GB structure on this behavior.

GBs play a fundamental role in determining the strengthening mechanisms acting as an impediment to the dislocation motion; however, the presence of an unsurmountable barrier for a dislocation can generate slip localization that could further lead to intergranular crack initiation. It was found that the presence of hydrogen increases the strain energy stored within the GB which could lead to a transition in failure mode. Finally, in the case of body centered cubic metals, understanding the complex screw dislocation motion is critical to the development of an accurate continuum description of the plastic behavior. Further, the presence of hydrogen has been shown to drastically alter the plastic deformation, but the precise role of hydrogen is still unclear. Thus, the role of hydrogen on the dislocation mobility was examined using density functional theory and atomistic simulations. Overall, this dissertation provides a novel atomic-scale understanding of the HE mechanism and development of multiscale tools for future endeavors.

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Date Created
2015

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Multiscale modeling of mechanical shock behavior of environmentally-benign lead-free solders in electronic packaging

Description

With the increasing focus on developing environmentally benign electronic packages, lead-free solder alloys have received a great deal of attention. Mishandling of packages, during manufacture, assembly, or by the user may cause failure of solder joint. A fundamental understanding of

With the increasing focus on developing environmentally benign electronic packages, lead-free solder alloys have received a great deal of attention. Mishandling of packages, during manufacture, assembly, or by the user may cause failure of solder joint. A fundamental understanding of the behavior of lead-free solders under mechanical shock conditions is lacking. Reliable experimental and numerical analysis of lead-free solder joints in the intermediate strain rate regime need to be investigated. This dissertation mainly focuses on exploring the mechanical shock behavior of lead-free tin-rich solder alloys via multiscale modeling and numerical simulations. First, the macroscopic stress/strain behaviors of three bulk lead-free tin-rich solders were tested over a range of strain rates from 0.001/s to 30/s. Finite element analysis was conducted to determine appropriate specimen geometry that could reach a homogeneous stress/strain field and a relatively high strain rate. A novel self-consistent true stress correction method is developed to compensate the inaccuracy caused by the triaxial stress state at the post-necking stage. Then the material property of micron-scale intermetallic was examined by micro-compression test. The accuracy of this measure is systematically validated by finite element analysis, and empirical adjustments are provided. Moreover, the interfacial property of the solder/intermetallic interface is investigated, and a continuum traction-separation law of this interface is developed from an atomistic-based cohesive element method. The macroscopic stress/strain relation and microstructural properties are combined together to form a multiscale material behavior via a stochastic approach for both solder and intermetallic. As a result, solder is modeled by porous plasticity with random voids, and intermetallic is characterized as brittle material with random vulnerable region. Thereafter, the porous plasticity fracture of the solders and the brittle fracture of the intermetallics are coupled together in one finite element model. Finally, this study yields a multiscale model to understand and predict the mechanical shock behavior of lead-free tin-rich solder joints. Different fracture patterns are observed for various strain rates and/or intermetallic thicknesses. The predictions have a good agreement with the theory and experiments.

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2011