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An investigation of musical aptitude and attitudes toward teaching among pre-service music teachers in Turkey (n = 42) and the United States (n = 35). Multivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences by nationality in favor of the Turkish subjects on the tonal, rhythm, and total tests on the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA) by Edwin Gordon. There were no significant differences by sex or for the interaction of nationality and sex. There were negative correlations between AMMA scores and scores on the Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory, which means that subjects with high music aptitude scores tended to hold attitudes that do not predict effective teaching behaviors. There were also significant differences by nationality on a questionnaire about attitudes toward various music instructional activities in schools.