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We investigate fundamental nonlinear dynamics of ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette flow - flow confined be-tween two concentric independently rotating cylinders - consider small aspect ratio by solving the ferro-hydrodynamical equations, carrying out systematic bifurcation analysis. Without magnetic field, we find steady flow patterns, previously observed with a simple fluid, such as those containing normal one- or two vortex cells, as well as anomalous one-cell and twin-cell flow states. However, when a symmetry-breaking transverse magnetic field is present, all flow states exhibit stimulated, finite two-fold mode. Various bifurcations between steady and unsteady states can occur, corresponding to the transitions between the two-cell and one-cell states. While unsteady, axially oscillating flow states can arise, we also detect the emergence of new unsteady flow states. In particular, we uncover two new states: one contains only the azimuthally oscillating solution in the configuration of the twin-cell flow state, and an-other a rotating flow state. Topologically, these flow states are a limit cycle and a quasiperiodic solution on a two-torus, respectively. Emergence of new flow states in addition to observed ones with classical fluid, indicates that richer but potentially more controllable dynamics in ferrofluidic flows, as such flow states depend on the external magnetic field.
An investigation of musical aptitude and attitudes toward teaching among pre-service music teachers in Turkey (n = 42) and the United States (n = 35). Multivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences by nationality in favor of the Turkish subjects on the tonal, rhythm, and total tests on the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA) by Edwin Gordon. There were no significant differences by sex or for the interaction of nationality and sex. There were negative correlations between AMMA scores and scores on the Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory, which means that subjects with high music aptitude scores tended to hold attitudes that do not predict effective teaching behaviors. There were also significant differences by nationality on a questionnaire about attitudes toward various music instructional activities in schools.