Matching Items (4)

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Analysis of differential secondary effects of novel rexinoids: select rexinoid X receptor ligands demonstrate differentiated side effect profiles

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In order to determine the feasibility of utilizing novel rexinoids for chemotherapeutics and as potential treatments for neurological conditions, we undertook an assessment of the side effect profile of select

In order to determine the feasibility of utilizing novel rexinoids for chemotherapeutics and as potential treatments for neurological conditions, we undertook an assessment of the side effect profile of select rexinoid X receptor (RXR) analogs that we reported previously. We assessed pharmacokinetic profiles, lipid and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in rats, and cell culture activity of rexinoids in sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) induction and thyroid hormone inhibition assays. We also performed RNA sequencing of the brain tissues of rats that had been dosed with the compounds. We show here for the first time that potent rexinoid activity can be uncoupled from drastic lipid changes and thyroid axis variations, and we propose that rexinoids can be developed with improved side effect profiles than the parent compound, bexarotene (1).

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  • 2015-03-16

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Secondary Structure Adopted by the Gly-Gly-X Repetitive Regions of Dragline Spider Silk

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Solid-state NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are presented to help elucidate the molecular secondary structure of poly(Gly-Gly-X), which is one of the most common structural repetitive motifs found in

Solid-state NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are presented to help elucidate the molecular secondary structure of poly(Gly-Gly-X), which is one of the most common structural repetitive motifs found in orb-weaving dragline spider silk proteins. The combination of NMR and computational experiments provides insight into the molecular secondary structure of poly(Gly-Gly-X) segments and provides further support that these regions are disordered and primarily non-β-sheet. Furthermore, the combination of NMR and MD simulations illustrate the possibility for several secondary structural elements in the poly(Gly-Gly-X) regions of dragline silks, including β-turns, 3[subscript 10]-helicies, and coil structures with a negligible population of α-helix observed.

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  • 2016-12-02

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Applications of adaptive umbrella sampling in biomolecular simulation

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Conformational changes in biomolecules often take place on longer timescales than are easily accessible with unbiased molecular dynamics simulations, necessitating the use of enhanced sampling techniques, such as adaptive umbrella

Conformational changes in biomolecules often take place on longer timescales than are easily accessible with unbiased molecular dynamics simulations, necessitating the use of enhanced sampling techniques, such as adaptive umbrella sampling. In this technique, the conformational free energy is calculated in terms of a designated set of reaction coordinates. At the same time, estimates of this free energy are subtracted from the potential energy in order to remove free energy barriers and cause conformational changes to take place more rapidly. This dissertation presents applications of adaptive umbrella sampling to a variety of biomolecular systems. The first study investigated the effects of glycosylation in GalNAc2-MM1, an analog of glycosylated macrophage activating factor. It was found that glycosylation destabilizes the protein by increasing the solvent exposure of hydrophobic residues. The second study examined the role of bound calcium ions in promoting the isomerization of a cis peptide bond in the collagen-binding domain of Clostridium histolyticum collagenase. This study determined that the bound calcium ions reduced the barrier to the isomerization of this peptide bond as well as stabilizing the cis conformation thermodynamically, and identified some of the reasons for this. The third study represents the application of GAMUS (Gaussian mixture adaptive umbrella sampling) to on the conformational dynamics of the fluorescent dye Cy3 attached to the 5' end of DNA, and made predictions concerning the affinity of Cy3 for different base pairs, which were subsequently verified experimentally. Finally, the adaptive umbrella sampling method is extended to make use of the roll angle between adjacent base pairs as a reaction coordinate in order to examine the bending both of free DNA and of DNA bound to the archaeal protein Sac7d. It is found that when DNA bends significantly, cations from the surrounding solution congregate on the concave side, which increases the flexibility of the DNA by screening the repulsion between phosphate backbones. The flexibility of DNA on short length scales is compared to the worm-like chain model, and the contribution of cooperativity in DNA bending to protein-DNA binding is assessed.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Rationalization of protein conformational dynamics by molecular simulations: studies of the ERK2 kinase and the LAC repressor headpiece-O1 operator complex

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Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide a particularly useful approach to understanding conformational change in biomolecular systems. MD simulations provide an atomistic, physics-based description of the motions accessible to biomolecular systems

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide a particularly useful approach to understanding conformational change in biomolecular systems. MD simulations provide an atomistic, physics-based description of the motions accessible to biomolecular systems on the pico- to micro-second timescale, yielding important insight into the free energy of the system, the dynamical stability of contacts and the role of correlated motions in directing the motions of the system. In this thesis, I use molecular dynamics simulations to provide molecular mechanisms that rationalize structural, thermodynamic, and mutation data on the interactions between the lac repressor headpiece and its O1 operator DNA as well as the ERK2 protein kinase. I performed molecular dynamics simulations of the lac repressor headpiece - O1 operator complex at the natural angle as well as at under- and overbent angles to assess the factors that determine the natural DNA bending angle. I find both energetic and entropic factors contribute to recognition of the natural angle. At the natural angle the energy of the system is minimized by optimization of protein-DNA contacts and the entropy of the system is maximized by release of water from the protein-DNA interface and decorrelation of protein motions. To identify the mechanism by which mutations lead to auto-activation of ERK2, I performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations of ERK1/2 in various stages of activation as well as the constitutively active Q103A, I84A, L73P and R65S ERK2 mutants. My simulations indicate the importance of domain closure for auto-activation and activity regulation. My results enable me to predict two loss-of-function mutants of ERK2, G83A and Q64C, that have been confirmed in experiments by collaborators. One of the powerful capabilities of MD simulations in biochemistry is the ability to find low free energy pathways that connect and explain disparate structural data on biomolecular systems. An extention of the targeted molecular dynamics technique using constraints on internal coordinates will be presented and evaluated. The method gives good results for the alanine dipeptide, but breaks down when applied to study conformational changes in GroEL and adenylate kinase.

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  • 2011