Matching Items (22)

Network-oriented Household Activity Pattern Problem for System Optimization

Description

The recently emerging trend of self-driving vehicles and information sharing technologies, made available by private technology vendors, starts creating a revolutionary paradigm shift in the coming years for traveler mobility

The recently emerging trend of self-driving vehicles and information sharing technologies, made available by private technology vendors, starts creating a revolutionary paradigm shift in the coming years for traveler mobility applications. By considering a deterministic traveler decision making framework at the household level in congested transportation networks, this paper aims to address the challenges of how to optimally schedule individuals’ daily travel patterns under the complex activity constraints and interactions. We reformulate two special cases of household activity pattern problem (HAPP) through a high-dimensional network construct, and offer a systematic comparison with the classical mathematical programming models proposed by Recker (1995). Furthermore, we consider the tight road capacity constraint as another special case of HAPP to model complex interactions between multiple household activity scheduling decisions, and this attempt offers another household-based framework for linking activity-based model (ABM) and dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) tools. Through embedding temporal and spatial relations among household members, vehicles and mandatory/optional activities in an integrated space-time-state network, we develop two 0-1 integer linear programming models that can seamlessly incorporate constraints for a number of key decisions related to vehicle selection, activity performing and ridesharing patterns under congested networks. The well-structured network models can be directly solved by standard optimization solvers, and further converted to a set of time-dependent state-dependent least cost path-finding problems through Lagrangian relaxation, which permit the use of computationally efficient algorithms on large-scale high-fidelity transportation networks.

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Date Created
  • 2017-06-15

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DTALite: A queue-based mesoscopic traffic simulator for fast model evaluation and calibration

Description

A number of emerging dynamic traffic analysis applications, such as regional or statewide traffic assignment, require a theoretically rigorous and computationally efficient model to describe the propagation and dissipation of

A number of emerging dynamic traffic analysis applications, such as regional or statewide traffic assignment, require a theoretically rigorous and computationally efficient model to describe the propagation and dissipation of system congestion with bottleneck capacity constraints. An open-source light-weight dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) package, namely DTALite, has been developed to allow a rapid utilization of advanced dynamic traffic analysis capabilities. This paper describes its three major modeling components: (1) a light-weight dynamic network loading simulator that embeds Newell’s simplified kinematic wave model; (2) a mesoscopic agent-based DTA procedure to incorporate driver’s heterogeneity; and (3) an integrated traffic assignment and origin–destination demand calibration system that can iteratively adjust path flow volume and distribution to match the observed traffic counts. A number of real-world test cases are described to demonstrate the effectiveness and performance of the proposed models under different network and data availability conditions.

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Date Created
  • 2014-10-01

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Characterizing corridor-level travel time distributions based on stochastic flows and segment capacities

Description

Trip travel time reliability is an important measure of transportation system performance and a key factor affecting travelers’ choices. This paper explores a method for estimating travel time distributions for

Trip travel time reliability is an important measure of transportation system performance and a key factor affecting travelers’ choices. This paper explores a method for estimating travel time distributions for corridors that contain multiple bottlenecks. A set of analytical equations are used to calculate the number of queued vehicles ahead of a probe vehicle and further capture many important factors affecting travel times: the prevailing congestion level, queue discharge rates at the bottlenecks, and flow rates associated with merges and diverges. Based on multiple random scenarios and a vector of arrival times, the lane-by-lane delay at each bottleneck along the corridor is recursively estimated to produce a route-level travel time distribution. The model incorporates stochastic variations of bottleneck capacity and demand and explains the travel time correlations between sequential links. Its data needs are the entering and exiting flow rates and a sense of the lane-by-lane distribution of traffic at each bottleneck. A detailed vehicle trajectory data-set from the Next Generation SIMulation (NGSIM) project has been used to verify that the estimated distributions are valid, and the sources of estimation error are examined.

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Date Created
  • 2015-01-09

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Analyzing Potential Solutions for Traffic Congestion on the Intersection of Forest and 89A in Sedona, AZ using Traffic Modeling Softwares

Description

Gathering the necessary information required to tackle traffic congestion problems is generally time consuming and challenging but is an important part of city planners’ work. The purpose of this paper

Gathering the necessary information required to tackle traffic congestion problems is generally time consuming and challenging but is an important part of city planners’ work. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology used when analyzing potential solutions for the Arizona State Route 89A and Highway 179 roundabout in Sedona, Arizona; which is currently experiencing significant congestion. The oversaturated condition is typically applied to signalized intersections but its application to roundabouts requires further exploration for future management of similar transportation systems. The accompanying Quick Estimation and Simulation model (QESM) spreadsheet was calibrated using an iterative process to optimize its level of adaptability to various scenarios. This microsimulation modeling program can be used to predict the outcome of possible roadway improvements aimed at decreasing traffic congestion. The information provided in this paper helps users understand traffic system problems, as a primary to visual simulation programs.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Pedestrian Safety at Rural Road and Spence Avenue

Description

Recurring incidents between pedestrians, bicycles, and vehicles at the intersection of Rural Road and Spence Avenue led to a team of students conducting their own investigation into the current conditions

Recurring incidents between pedestrians, bicycles, and vehicles at the intersection of Rural Road and Spence Avenue led to a team of students conducting their own investigation into the current conditions and analyzing a handful of alternatives. An extension of an industry-standard technique was used to build a control case which alternatives would be compared to. Four alternatives were identified, and the two that could be modeled in simulation software were both found to be technically feasible in the preliminary analysis.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

Description

It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related

It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network-based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs' route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-06-01

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Congestion mitigation for planned special events: parking, ridesharing and network configuration

Description

This dissertation investigates congestion mitigation during the ingress of a planned special event (PSE). PSEs would impact the regular operation of the transportation system within certain time periods due to

This dissertation investigates congestion mitigation during the ingress of a planned special event (PSE). PSEs would impact the regular operation of the transportation system within certain time periods due to increased travel demand or reduced capacities on certain road segments. For individual attendees, cruising for parking during a PSE could be a struggle given the severe congestion and scarcity of parking spaces in the network. With the development of smartphones-based ridesharing services such as Uber/Lyft, more and more attendees are turning to ridesharing rather than driving by themselves. This study explores congestion mitigation during a planned special event considering parking, ridesharing and network configuration from both attendees and planner’s perspectives.

Parking availability (occupancy of parking facility) information is the fundamental building block for both travelers and planners to make parking-related decisions. It is highly valued by travelers and is one of the most important inputs to many parking models. This dissertation proposes a model-based practical framework to predict future occupancy from historical occupancy data alone. The framework consists of two modules: estimation of model parameters, and occupancy prediction. At the core of the predictive framework, a queuing model is employed to describe the stochastic occupancy change of a parking facility.

From an attendee’s perspective, the probability of finding parking at a particular parking facility is more treasured than occupancy information for parking search. However, it is hard to estimate parking probabilities even with accurate occupancy data in a dynamic environment. In the second part of this dissertation, taking one step further, the idea of introducing learning algorithms into parking guidance and information systems that employ a central server is investigated, in order to provide estimated optimal parking searching strategies to travelers. With the help of the Markov Decision Process (MDP), the parking searching process on a network with uncertain parking availabilities can be modeled and analyzed.

Finally, from a planner’s perspective, a bi-level model is proposed to generate a comprehensive PSE traffic management plan considering parking, ridesharing and route recommendations at the same time. The upper level is an optimization model aiming to minimize total travel time experienced by travelers. In the lower level, a link transmission model incorporating parking and ridesharing is used to evaluate decisions from and provide feedback to the upper level. A congestion relief algorithm is proposed and tested on a real-world network.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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High occupancy toll lanes with a refund option: a stated preference survey of the Phoenix-Metropolitan Area

Description

Managed Lanes (MLs) have been increasingly advocated as a way to reduce congestion. This study provides an innovative new tolling strategy for MLs called the travel time refund (TTR). The

Managed Lanes (MLs) have been increasingly advocated as a way to reduce congestion. This study provides an innovative new tolling strategy for MLs called the travel time refund (TTR). The TTR is an “insurance” that ensures the ML user will arrive to their destination within a specified travel time savings, at an additional fee to the toll. If the user fails to arrive to their destination, the user is refunded the toll amount.

To gauge interest in the TTR, a stated preference survey was developed and distributed throughout the Phoenix-metropolitan area. Over 2,200 responses were gathered with about 805 being completed. Exploratory data analysis of the data included a descriptive analysis regarding individual and household demographic variables, HOV usage and satisfaction levels, HOT usage and interests, and TTR interests. Cross-tabulation analysis is further conducted to examine trends and correlations between variables, if any.

Because most survey takers were in Arizona, the majority (53%) of respondents were unfamiliar with HOT lanes and their practices. This may have had an impact on the interest in the TTR, although it was not apparent when looking at the cross-tabulation between HOT knowledge and TTR interest. The concept of the HOT lane and “paying to travel” itself may have turned people away from the TTR option. Therefore, similar surveys implementing new HOT pricing strategies should be deployed where current HOT practices are already in existence. Moreover, introducing the TTR concept to current HOT users may also receive valuable feedback in its future deployment.

Further analysis will include the weighting of data to account for sample bias, an exploration of the stated preference scenarios to determine what factors were significant in peoples’ choices, and a predictive model of those choices based on demographic information.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Data-driven Methods for Characterizing Transportation System Performances Under Congested Conditions: A Phoenix Study

Description

Travel time is the main transportation system performance measure used by the planning community to evaluate the impacts of traffic congestion on infrastructure investment projects and policy development plans. Planners

Travel time is the main transportation system performance measure used by the planning community to evaluate the impacts of traffic congestion on infrastructure investment projects and policy development plans. Planners rely on the travel demand model tool estimates for the selection and prioritization of critical and sensitive projects to meet the fiscally constraint requirements imposed by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their transportation improvement programs (TIP). While travel demand model estimates have been successfully implemented in the evaluation of project scenarios or alternatives, the application of the methods used in the travel demand model to generate these estimates continues to present a critical challenge, particularly to modelers who have to produce a validated model upon which traffic predictions can be made. The various volume-delay functions (VDFs) including the Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) function, used in the travel demand model to relate traffic volume to travel time, are developed based on system-wide attributes. BPR function in its polynomial form is computationally efficient and simple for implementation in a transport planning software. The planning community has long recognized that the BPR function cannot capture traffic flow dynamics and queue evolution processes. Besides, it has difficulties in using the average travel time measure to describe an oversaturated bottleneck with high density but low throughput. This dissertation aims to propose a simplified and yet effective point-queue based modeling approach built on the cumulative vehicle arrival concept, and the polynomial equation formula, based on Newell’s method, to estimate travel time at a corridor level using real-world speed and count measurements. A traffic state estimation (TSE) method is also proposed to characterize data into various states, such as congested state and uncongested state, using Markov Chain to capture current traffic pattern and Bayesian Classifier to infer congestion effects. As the testbed for the case study, the research selects the Phoenix freeway corridor with year-round traffic data collected from embedded traffic loop detectors. The results and effectiveness of the proposed methods are discussed to shed light on the calibration of link performance function, which is an analytical building block for system-wide performance evaluation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Modeling Cascading Network Disruptions under Uncertainty For Managing Hurricane Evacuation

Description

Short-notice disasters such as hurricanes involve uncertainties in many facets, from the time of its occurrence to its impacts’ magnitude. Failure to incorporate these uncertainties can affect the effectiveness of

Short-notice disasters such as hurricanes involve uncertainties in many facets, from the time of its occurrence to its impacts’ magnitude. Failure to incorporate these uncertainties can affect the effectiveness of the emergency responses. In the case of a hurricane event, uncertainties and corresponding impacts during a storm event can quickly cascade. Over the past decades, various storm forecast models have been developed to predict the storm uncertainties; however, access to the usage of these models is limited. Hence, as the first part of this research, a data-driven simulation model is developed with aim to generate spatial-temporal storm predicted hazards for each possible hurricane track modeled. The simulation model identifies a means to represent uncertainty in storm’s movement and its associated potential hazards in the form of probabilistic scenarios tree where each branch is associated with scenario-level storm track and weather profile. Storm hazards, such as strong winds, torrential rain, and storm surges, can inflict significant damage on the road network and affect the population’s ability to move during the storm event. A cascading network failure algorithm is introduced in the second part of the research. The algorithm takes the scenario-level storm hazards to predict uncertainties in mobility states over the storm event. In the third part of the research, a methodology is proposed to generate a sequence of actions that simultaneously solve the evacuation flow scheduling and suggested routes which minimize the total flow time, or the makespan, for the evacuation process from origins to destinations in the resulting stochastic time-dependent network. The methodology is implemented for the 2017 Hurricane Irma case study to recommend an evacuation policy for Manatee County, FL. The results are compared with evacuation plans for assumed scenarios; the research suggests that evacuation recommendations that are based on single scenarios reduce the effectiveness of the evacuation procedure. The overall contributions of the research presented here are new methodologies to: (1) predict and visualize the spatial-temporal impacts of an oncoming storm event, (2) predict uncertainties in the impacts to transportation infrastructure and mobility, and (3) determine the quickest evacuation schedule and routes under the uncertainties within the resulting stochastic transportation networks.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020