Matching Items (23)

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Crystal orientation dependent intersubband transition in semipolar AlGaN/GaN single quantum well for optoelectronic applications

Description

The optical properties of intersubband transition in a semipolar AlGaN/GaN single quantum well (SQW) are theoretically studied, and the results are compared with polar c-plane and nonpolar m-plane structures. The

The optical properties of intersubband transition in a semipolar AlGaN/GaN single quantum well (SQW) are theoretically studied, and the results are compared with polar c-plane and nonpolar m-plane structures. The intersubband transition frequency, dipole matrix elements, and absorption spectra are calculated for SQW on different semipolar planes. It is found that SQW on a certain group of semipolar planes (55° < θ < 90° tilted from c-plane) exhibits low transition frequency and long wavelength response with high absorption quantum efficiency, which is attributed to the weak polarization-related effects. Furthermore, these semipolar SQWs show tunable transition frequency and absorption wavelength with different quantum well thicknesses, and stable device performance can be achieved with changing barrier thickness and Al compositions. All the results indicate that the semipolar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells are promising candidate for the design and fabrication of high performance low frequency and long wavelength optoelectronic devices.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05-05

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Analysis of low efficiency droop of semipolar InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes by modified rate equation with weak phase-space filling effect

Description

We study the low efficiency droop characteristics of semipolar InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using modified rate equation incoporating the phase-space filling (PSF) effect where the results on c-plane LEDs are

We study the low efficiency droop characteristics of semipolar InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using modified rate equation incoporating the phase-space filling (PSF) effect where the results on c-plane LEDs are also obtained and compared. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of LEDs was simulated using a modified ABC model with different PSF filling (n[subscript 0]), Shockley-Read-Hall (A), radiative (B), Auger (C) coefficients and different active layer thickness (d), where the PSF effect showed a strong impact on the simulated LED efficiency results. A weaker PSF effect was found for low-droop semipolar LEDs possibly due to small quantum confined Stark effect, short carrier lifetime, and small average carrier density. A very good agreement between experimental data and the theoretical modeling was obtained for low-droop semipolar LEDs with weak PSF effect. These results suggest the low droop performance may be explained by different mechanisms for semipolar LEDs.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-06-15

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Analysis of loss mechanisms in InGaN solar cells using a semi-analytical model

Description

InGaN semiconductors are promising candidates for high-efficiency next-generation thin film solar cells. In this work, we study the photovoltaic performance of single-junction and two-junction InGaN solar cells using a semi-analytical

InGaN semiconductors are promising candidates for high-efficiency next-generation thin film solar cells. In this work, we study the photovoltaic performance of single-junction and two-junction InGaN solar cells using a semi-analytical model. We analyze the major loss mechanisms in InGaN solar cell including transmission loss, thermalization loss, spatial relaxation loss, and recombination loss. We find that transmission loss plays a major role for InGaN solar cells due to the large bandgaps of III-nitride materials. Among the recombination losses, Shockley-Read-Hall recombination loss is the dominant process. Compared to other III-V photovoltaic materials, we discovered that the emittance of InGaN solar cells is strongly impacted by Urbach tail energy. For two- and multi-junction InGaN solar cells, we discover that the current matching condition results in a limited range of top-junction bandgaps. This theoretical work provides detailed guidance for the design of high-performance InGaN solar cells.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-06-01

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Analysis of low efficiency droop of semipolar InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes by modified rate equation with weak phase-space filling effect

Description

We study the low efficiency droop characteristics of semipolar InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using modified rate equation incoporating the phase-space filling (PSF) effect where the results on c-plane LEDs are

We study the low efficiency droop characteristics of semipolar InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using modified rate equation incoporating the phase-space filling (PSF) effect where the results on c-plane LEDs are also obtained and compared. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of LEDs was simulated using a modified ABC model with different PSF filling (n[subscript 0]), Shockley-Read-Hall (A), radiative (B), Auger (C) coefficients and different active layer thickness (d), where the PSF effect showed a strong impact on the simulated LED efficiency results. A weaker PSF effect was found for low-droop semipolar LEDs possibly due to small quantum confined Stark effect, short carrier lifetime, and small average carrier density. A very good agreement between experimental data and the theoretical modeling was obtained for low-droop semipolar LEDs with weak PSF effect. These results suggest the low droop performance may be explained by different mechanisms for semipolar LEDs.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-06-15

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A Review of Gallium Nitride HEMTs to Improve CubeSat EPS Efficiency

Description

This paper reviews several current designs of Cube Satellite (CubeSat) Electrical Power Systems (EPS) based on Silicon FET technologies and their current deficiencies, such as radiation-incurred defects and switching power

This paper reviews several current designs of Cube Satellite (CubeSat) Electrical Power Systems (EPS) based on Silicon FET technologies and their current deficiencies, such as radiation-incurred defects and switching power losses. A strategy to fix these is proposed by the way of using Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron-Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) as switching devices within Buck/Boost Converters and other regulators. This work summarizes the EPS designs of several CubeSat missions, classifies them, and outlines their efficiency. An in-depth example of an EPS is also given, explaining the process in which these systems are designed. Areas of deficiency are explained along with reasoning as to why GaN can mitigate these losses, including its wide bandgap properties such as high RDS(on) and High Breakdown Voltage. Special design considerations must be kept in mind when using GaN HEMTs in this application and an example of a CubeSat using GaN HEMTs is mentioned. Finally, challenges ahead for GaN are explored including manufacturing considerations and long-term reliability.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Design and Development of High Performance III-Nitrides Photovoltaics

Description

Wurtzite (In, Ga, Al) N semiconductors, especially InGaN material systems, demonstrate immense promises for the high efficiency thin film photovoltaic (PV) applications for future generation. Their unique and intriguing merits

Wurtzite (In, Ga, Al) N semiconductors, especially InGaN material systems, demonstrate immense promises for the high efficiency thin film photovoltaic (PV) applications for future generation. Their unique and intriguing merits include continuously tunable wide band gap from 0.70 eV to 3.4 eV, strong absorption coefficient on the order of ∼105 cm−1, superior radiation resistance under harsh environment, and high saturation velocities and high mobility. Calculation from the detailed balance model also revealed that in multi-junction (MJ) solar cell device, materials with band gaps higher than 2.4 eV are required to achieve PV efficiencies greater than 50%, which is practically and easily feasible for InGaN materials. Other state-of-art modeling on InGaN solar cells also demonstrate great potential for applications of III-nitride solar cells in four-junction solar cell devices as well as in the integration with a non-III-nitride junction in multi-junction devices.

This dissertation first theoretically analyzed loss mechanisms and studied the theoretical limit of PV performance of InGaN solar cells with a semi-analytical model. Then three device design strategies are proposed to study and improve PV performance: band polarization engineering, structural design and band engineering. Moreover, three physical mechanisms related to high temperature performance of InGaN solar cells have been thoroughly investigated: thermal reliability issue, enhanced external quantum efficiency (EQE) and conversion efficiency with rising temperatures and carrier dynamics and localization effects inside nonpolar m-plane InGaN quantum wells (QWs) at high temperatures. In the end several future work will also be proposed.

Although still in its infancy, past and projected future progress of device design will ultimately achieve this very goal that III-nitride based solar cells will be indispensable for today and future’s society, technologies and society.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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ZnTe nanostructural synthesis for electronic and optoelectronic devices

Description

Zinc telluride (ZnTe) is an attractive II-VI compound semiconductor with a direct

bandgap of 2.26 eV that is used in many applications in optoelectronic devices. Compared

to the two dimensional (2D) thin-film

Zinc telluride (ZnTe) is an attractive II-VI compound semiconductor with a direct

bandgap of 2.26 eV that is used in many applications in optoelectronic devices. Compared

to the two dimensional (2D) thin-film semiconductors, one-dimensional (1D)

nanowires can have different electronic properties for potential novel applications.

In this work, we present the study of ZnTe nanowires (NWs) that are synthesized

through a simple vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. By controlling the presence or

the absence of Au catalysts and controlling the growth parameters such as growth

temperature, various growth morphologies of ZnTe, such as thin films and nanowires

can be obtained. The characterization of the ZnTe nanostructures and films was

performed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

(EDX), high- resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), X-ray

diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), Raman spectroscopy and light scattering

measurement. After confirming the crystal purity of ZnTe, two-terminal diodes and

three-terminal transistors were fabricated with both nanowire and planar nano-sheet

configurations, in order to correlate the nanostructure geometry to device performance

including field effect mobility, Schottky barrier characteristics, and turn-on

characteristics. Additionally, optoelectronic properties such as photoconductive gain

and responsivity were compared against morphology. Finally, ZnTe was explored in

conjunction with ZnO in order to form type-II band alignment in a core-shell nanostructure.

Various characterization techniques including scanning electron microscopy,

energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy , x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis

reflectance spectra and photoluminescence were used to investigate the modification

of ZnO/ZnTe core/shell structure properties. In PL spectra, the eliminated PL intensity

of ZnO wires is primarily attributed to the efficient charge transfer process

occurring between ZnO and ZnTe, due to the band alignment in the core/shell structure. Moreover, the result of UV-vis reflectance spectra corresponds to the band

gap energy of ZnO and ZnTe, respectively, which confirm that the sample consists of

ZnO/ZnTe core/shell structure of good quality.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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GaN-Based Micro-LED Visible Light Communication: Line-of-Sight VLC with Active Tracking and None-Line-of-Sight VLC Demonstration

Description

Visible light communication (VLC) is the promise of a high data rate wireless network for both indoor and outdoor uses. It competes with 5G radio frequency (RF) system as well.

Visible light communication (VLC) is the promise of a high data rate wireless network for both indoor and outdoor uses. It competes with 5G radio frequency (RF) system as well. Even though the breakthrough of Gallium Nitride (GaN) based micro-light-emitting-diodes (micro-LEDs) enhances the -3dB modulation bandwidth dramatically from tens of MHz to hundreds of MHz, the optical power onto a fast photo receiver drops exponentially. It determines the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of VLC. For full implementation of the useful high data-rate VLC link enabled by a GaN-based micro-LED, it needs focusing optics and a tracking system. In this dissertation, we demonstrate a novel active on-chip monitoring system for VLC using a GaN-based micro-LED and none-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) modulation scheme. By this innovative technique without manual focusing, the field of view (FOV) was enlarged to 120° and data rates up to 600 Mbps at a bit error rate (BER) of 2.1×10⁻⁴ were achieved. This work demonstrates the establishment of a VLC physical link. It shows improved communication quality by orders, making it optimized for real communications.

This dissertation also gives an experimental demonstration of non-line-of-sight (NLOS) visible light communication (VLC) using a single 80 μm gallium nitride (GaN) based micro-light-emitting diode (micro-LED). IEEE 802.11ac modulation scheme with 80 MHz bandwidth, as an entry level of the fifth generation of Wi-Fi, was employed to use the micro-LED bandwidth efficiently. These practical techniques were successfully utilized to achieve a demonstration of line-of-sight (LOS) VLC at a speed of 433 Mbps, and a bit error rate (BER) of 10⁻⁵ with a free space transmit distance 3.6 m. Besides this, we demonstrated directed NLOS VLC links based on mirror reflections with a data rate of 433 Mbps and a BER of 10⁻⁴. For non-directed NLOS VLC using a print paper as the reflective material, 195 Mbps data rate and a BER of 10⁻⁵ was achieved.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Quantum Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Photonic and Nano Systems

Description

This dissertation aims to study and understand the effect of nonlinear dynamics and quantum chaos in graphene, optomechanics, photonics and spintronics systems.

First, in graphene quantum dot systems, conductance fluctuations are

This dissertation aims to study and understand the effect of nonlinear dynamics and quantum chaos in graphene, optomechanics, photonics and spintronics systems.

First, in graphene quantum dot systems, conductance fluctuations are investigated from the respects of Fano resonances and quantum chaos. The conventional semi-classical theory of quantum chaotic scattering used in this field depends on an invariant classical phase-space structure. I show that for systems without an invariant classical phase-space structure, the quantum pointer states can still be used to explain the conductance fluctuations. Another finding is that the chaotic geometry is demonstrated to have similar effects as the disorders in transportations.

Second, in optomechanics systems, I find rich nonlinear dynamics. Using the semi-classical Langevin equations, I demonstrate a quasi-periodic motion is favorable for the quantum entanglement between the optical mode and mechanical mode. Then I use the quantum trajectory theory to provide a new resolution for the breakdown of the classical-quantum correspondences in the chaotic regions.

Third, I investigate the analogs of the electrical band structures and effects in the non-electrical systems. In the photonic systems, I use an array of waveguides to simulate the transport of the massive relativistic particle in a non-Hermitian scenario. A new form of Zitterbewegung is discovered as well as its analytical explanation. In mechanical systems, I use springs and mass points systems to achieve a three band degenerate band structure with a new pair of spatially separated edge states in the Dice lattice. A new semi-metal phase with the intrinsic valley-Hall effect is found.

At last, I investigate the nonlinear dynamics in the spintronics systems, in which the topological insulator couples with a magnetization. Rich nonlinear dynamics are discovered in this systems, especially the multi-stability states.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Developing ohmic contacts to Gallium Nitride for high temperature applications

Description

Gallium Nitride (GaN), being a wide-bandgap semiconductor, shows its advantage over the conventional semiconductors like Silicon and Gallium Arsenide for high temperature applications, especially in the temperature range from 300°C

Gallium Nitride (GaN), being a wide-bandgap semiconductor, shows its advantage over the conventional semiconductors like Silicon and Gallium Arsenide for high temperature applications, especially in the temperature range from 300°C to 600°C. Development of stable ohmic contacts to GaN with low contact resistivity has been identified as a prerequisite to the success of GaN high temperature electronics. The focus of this work was primarily derived from the requirement of an appropriate metal contacts to work with GaN-based hybrid solar cell operating at high temperature.

Alloyed Ti/Al/Ni/Au contact and non-alloyed Al/Au contact were developed to form low-resistivity contacts to n-GaN and their stability at high temperature were studied. The alloyed Ti/Al/Ni/Au contact offered a specific contact resistivity (ρc) of 6×10-6 Ω·cm2 at room temperature measured the same as the temperature increased to 400°C. No significant change in ρc was observed after the contacts being subjected to 400°C, 450°C, 500°C, 550°C, and 600°C, respectively, for at least 4 hours in air. Since several device technology prefer non-alloyed contacts Al/Au metal stack was applied to form the contacts to n-type GaN. An initial ρc of 3×10-4 Ω·cm2, measured after deposition, was observed to continuously reduce under thermal stress at 400°C, 450°C, 500°C, 550°C, and 600°C, respectively, finally stabilizing at 5×10-6 Ω·cm2. Both the alloyed and non-alloyed metal contacts showed exceptional capability of stable operation at temperature as high as 600°C in air with low resistivity ~10-6 Ω·cm2, with ρc lowering for the non-alloyed contacts with high temperatures.

The p-GaN contacts showed remarkably superior ohmic behavior at elevated temperatures. Both ρc and sheet resistance (Rsh) of p-GaN decreased by a factor of 10 as the ambient temperature increased from room temperature to 390°C. The annealed Ni/Au contact showed ρc of 2×10-3 Ω·cm2 at room temperature, reduced to 1.6×10-4 Ω·cm2 at 390°C. No degradation was observed after the contacts being subjected to 450°C in air for 48 hours. Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) contacts, which has been widely used as current spreading layer in GaN-base optoelectronic devices, measured an initial ρc [the resistivity of the ITO/p-GaN interface, since the metal/ITO ρc is negligible] of 1×10-2 Ω·cm2 at room temperature. No degradation was observed after the contact being subjected to 450°C in air for 8 hours.

Accelerated life testing (ALT) was performed to further evaluate the contacts stability at high temperatures quantitatively. The ALT results showed that the annealed Ni/Au to p-GaN contacts is more stable in nitrogen ambient, with a lifetime of 2,628 hours at 450°C which is approximately 12 times longer than that at 450°C in air.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016