Matching Items (30)

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A Review of Gallium Nitride HEMTs to Improve CubeSat EPS Efficiency

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This paper reviews several current designs of Cube Satellite (CubeSat) Electrical Power Systems (EPS) based on Silicon FET technologies and their current deficiencies, such as radiation-incurred defects and switching power losses. A strategy to fix these is proposed by the

This paper reviews several current designs of Cube Satellite (CubeSat) Electrical Power Systems (EPS) based on Silicon FET technologies and their current deficiencies, such as radiation-incurred defects and switching power losses. A strategy to fix these is proposed by the way of using Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron-Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) as switching devices within Buck/Boost Converters and other regulators. This work summarizes the EPS designs of several CubeSat missions, classifies them, and outlines their efficiency. An in-depth example of an EPS is also given, explaining the process in which these systems are designed. Areas of deficiency are explained along with reasoning as to why GaN can mitigate these losses, including its wide bandgap properties such as high RDS(on) and High Breakdown Voltage. Special design considerations must be kept in mind when using GaN HEMTs in this application and an example of a CubeSat using GaN HEMTs is mentioned. Finally, challenges ahead for GaN are explored including manufacturing considerations and long-term reliability.

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2017-05

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Crystal Orientation Dependent Intersubband Transition in Semipolar AlGaN/GaN Single Quantum Well for Optoelectronic Applications

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The optical properties of intersubband transition in a semipolar AlGaN/GaN single quantum well (SQW) are theoretically studied, and the results are compared with polar c-plane and nonpolar m-plane structures. The intersubband transition frequency, dipole matrix elements, and absorption spectra are

The optical properties of intersubband transition in a semipolar AlGaN/GaN single quantum well (SQW) are theoretically studied, and the results are compared with polar c-plane and nonpolar m-plane structures. The intersubband transition frequency, dipole matrix elements, and absorption spectra are calculated for SQW on different semipolar planes. It is found that SQW on a certain group of semipolar planes (55° < θ < 90° tilted from c-plane) exhibits low transition frequency and long wavelength response with high absorption quantum efficiency, which is attributed to the weak polarization-related effects. Furthermore, these semipolar SQWs show tunable transition frequency and absorption wavelength with different quantum well thicknesses, and stable device performance can be achieved with changing barrier thickness and Al compositions. All the results indicate that the semipolar AlGaN/GaN quantum wells are promising candidate for the design and fabrication of high performance low frequency and long wavelength optoelectronic devices.

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2016-05-05

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Analysis of Low Efficiency Droop of Semipolar InGaN Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes by Modified Rate Equation With Weak Phase-Space Filling Effect

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We study the low efficiency droop characteristics of semipolar InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using modified rate equation incoporating the phase-space filling (PSF) effect where the results on c-plane LEDs are also obtained and compared. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of LEDs

We study the low efficiency droop characteristics of semipolar InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using modified rate equation incoporating the phase-space filling (PSF) effect where the results on c-plane LEDs are also obtained and compared. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of LEDs was simulated using a modified ABC model with different PSF filling (n[subscript 0]), Shockley-Read-Hall (A), radiative (B), Auger (C) coefficients and different active layer thickness (d), where the PSF effect showed a strong impact on the simulated LED efficiency results. A weaker PSF effect was found for low-droop semipolar LEDs possibly due to small quantum confined Stark effect, short carrier lifetime, and small average carrier density. A very good agreement between experimental data and the theoretical modeling was obtained for low-droop semipolar LEDs with weak PSF effect. These results suggest the low droop performance may be explained by different mechanisms for semipolar LEDs.

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2016-06-15

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Analysis of Loss Mechanisms in InGaN Solar Cells Using a Semi-Analytical Model

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InGaN semiconductors are promising candidates for high-efficiency next-generation thin film solar cells. In this work, we study the photovoltaic performance of single-junction and two-junction InGaN solar cells using a semi-analytical model. We analyze the major loss mechanisms in InGaN solar

InGaN semiconductors are promising candidates for high-efficiency next-generation thin film solar cells. In this work, we study the photovoltaic performance of single-junction and two-junction InGaN solar cells using a semi-analytical model. We analyze the major loss mechanisms in InGaN solar cell including transmission loss, thermalization loss, spatial relaxation loss, and recombination loss. We find that transmission loss plays a major role for InGaN solar cells due to the large bandgaps of III-nitride materials. Among the recombination losses, Shockley-Read-Hall recombination loss is the dominant process. Compared to other III-V photovoltaic materials, we discovered that the emittance of InGaN solar cells is strongly impacted by Urbach tail energy. For two- and multi-junction InGaN solar cells, we discover that the current matching condition results in a limited range of top-junction bandgaps. This theoretical work provides detailed guidance for the design of high-performance InGaN solar cells.

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2016-06-01

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High-modulation-speed LEDs based on III-nitride

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III-nitride InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) enable wide range of applications in solid-state lighting, full-color displays, and high-speed visible-light communication. Conventional InGaN quantum well LEDs grown on polar c-plane substrate suffer from quantum confined Stark effect due to the large internal

III-nitride InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) enable wide range of applications in solid-state lighting, full-color displays, and high-speed visible-light communication. Conventional InGaN quantum well LEDs grown on polar c-plane substrate suffer from quantum confined Stark effect due to the large internal polarization-related fields, leading to a reduced radiative recombination rate and device efficiency, which limits the performance of InGaN LEDs in high-speed communication applications. To circumvent these negative effects, non-trivial-cavity designs such as flip-chip LEDs, metallic grating coated LEDs are proposed. This oral defense will show the works on the high-modulation-speed LEDs from basic ideas to applications. Fundamental principles such as rate equations for LEDs/laser diodes (LDs), plasmonic effects, Purcell effects will be briefly introduced. For applications, the modal properties of flip-chip LEDs are solved by implementing finite difference method in order to study the modulation response. The emission properties of highly polarized InGaN LEDs coated by metallic gratings are also investigated by finite difference time domain method.

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2016

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Quantum Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Photonic and Nano Systems

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This dissertation aims to study and understand the effect of nonlinear dynamics and quantum chaos in graphene, optomechanics, photonics and spintronics systems.

First, in graphene quantum dot systems, conductance fluctuations are investigated from the respects of Fano resonances and quantum chaos.

This dissertation aims to study and understand the effect of nonlinear dynamics and quantum chaos in graphene, optomechanics, photonics and spintronics systems.

First, in graphene quantum dot systems, conductance fluctuations are investigated from the respects of Fano resonances and quantum chaos. The conventional semi-classical theory of quantum chaotic scattering used in this field depends on an invariant classical phase-space structure. I show that for systems without an invariant classical phase-space structure, the quantum pointer states can still be used to explain the conductance fluctuations. Another finding is that the chaotic geometry is demonstrated to have similar effects as the disorders in transportations.

Second, in optomechanics systems, I find rich nonlinear dynamics. Using the semi-classical Langevin equations, I demonstrate a quasi-periodic motion is favorable for the quantum entanglement between the optical mode and mechanical mode. Then I use the quantum trajectory theory to provide a new resolution for the breakdown of the classical-quantum correspondences in the chaotic regions.

Third, I investigate the analogs of the electrical band structures and effects in the non-electrical systems. In the photonic systems, I use an array of waveguides to simulate the transport of the massive relativistic particle in a non-Hermitian scenario. A new form of Zitterbewegung is discovered as well as its analytical explanation. In mechanical systems, I use springs and mass points systems to achieve a three band degenerate band structure with a new pair of spatially separated edge states in the Dice lattice. A new semi-metal phase with the intrinsic valley-Hall effect is found.

At last, I investigate the nonlinear dynamics in the spintronics systems, in which the topological insulator couples with a magnetization. Rich nonlinear dynamics are discovered in this systems, especially the multi-stability states.

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2017

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Advanced Electronic Devices Based on Wide/Ultra-wide Bandgap Semiconductor

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Wurtzite (B, Ga, Al) N semiconductors, especially (Ga, Al) N material systems, demonstrate immense promises to boost the economic growth in the semiconductor industry that is approaching the end of Moore’s law. At the material level, their high electric field

Wurtzite (B, Ga, Al) N semiconductors, especially (Ga, Al) N material systems, demonstrate immense promises to boost the economic growth in the semiconductor industry that is approaching the end of Moore’s law. At the material level, their high electric field strength, high saturation velocity, and unique heterojunction polarization charge have enabled tremendous potentials for high power, high frequency, and photonic applications. With the availability of large-area bulk GaN substrates and high-quality epilayer on foreign substrates, the power conversion applications of GaN are now at the cusp of commercialization.Despite these encouraging advances, there remain two critical hurdles in GaN-based technology: selective area doping and hole-based p-channel devices. Current selective area doping methods are still immature and lead to low-quality lateral p-n junctions, which prevent the realization of advanced power transistors and rectifiers. The missing of hole-based p-channel devices hinders the development of GaN complementary integrated circuits.
This thesis comprehensively studied these challenges. The first part (chapter 2) researched the selective area doping by etch-then-regrow. A GaN-based vertical-channel junction field-effect transistors (VC-JFETs) was experimentally demonstrated by blanket regrowth and self-planarization. The devices’ electrical performances were characterized to understand the regrowth quality. The non-ideal factors during p-GaN regrowth were also discussed. The second part (chapter 3-5) systematically studied the application of the hydrogen plasma treatment process to change the p-GaN properties selectively. A novel GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor junction was demonstrated. Then a novel edge termination design with avalanche breakdown capability achieved in GaN power rectifiers is proposed. The last part (Chapter 6) demonstrated a GaN-based p-channel heterojunction field-effect transistor, with record low leakage, subthreshold swing, and a record high on/off ratio. In the end, some outlook and future work have also been proposed.
Although in infancy, the demonstrated etch-then-regrow and the hydrogen plasma treatment methods have the potential to ultimately solve the challenges in GaN and benefit the development of the wide-ultra-wide bandgap industry, technology, and society.

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2021

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Quantum Transport and Scattering in Dirac Materials and Molecular Systems

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This dissertation aims to study the electron and spin transport, scattering in two dimensional pseudospin-1 lattice systems, hybrid systems of topological insulator and magnetic insulators, and molecule chain systems. For pseudospin-1 systems, the energy band consists of a pair of

This dissertation aims to study the electron and spin transport, scattering in two dimensional pseudospin-1 lattice systems, hybrid systems of topological insulator and magnetic insulators, and molecule chain systems. For pseudospin-1 systems, the energy band consists of a pair of Dirac cones and a flat band through the connecting point of the cones. First, contrary to the conditional wisdom that flatband can localize electrons, I find that in a non-equilibrium situation where a constant electric field is suddenly switched on, the flat band can enhance the resulting current in both the linear and nonlinear response regimes compared to spin-1/2 system. Second, in the setup of massive pseudospin-1 electron scattering over a gate potential scatterer, I discover the large resonant skew scattering called super skew scattering, which does not arise in the corresponding spin-1/2 system and massless pseudospin-1 system. Third, by applying an appropriate gate voltage to generate a cavity in an alpha-T3 lattice, I find the exponential decay of the quasiparticles from a chaotic cavity, with a one-to-one correspondence between the exponential decay rate and the Berry phase for the entire family of alpha-T3 materials. Based on the hybrid system of a ferromagnetic insulator on top of a topological insulator, I first investigate the magnetization dynamics of a pair of ferromagnetic insulators deposited on the surface of a topological insulator. The spin polarized current on the surface of topological insulator can affect the magnetization of the two ferromagnetic insulators through proximity effect, which in turn modulates the electron transport, giving rise to the robust phase locking between the two magnetization dynamics. Second, by putting a skyrmion structure on top of a topological insulator, I find robust electron skew scattering against skyrmion structure even with deformation, due to the emergence of resonant modes. The chirality of molecule can lead to spin polarized transport due to the spin orbit interaction. I investigate spin transport through a chiral polyacetylene molecule and uncover the emergence of spin Fano resonances as a manifestation of the chiral induced spin selectivity effect.

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2021

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Nanoscale Electronic Properties in GaN Based Structures for Power Electronics Using Electron Microscopy

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The availability of bulk gallium nitride (GaN) substrates has generated great interest in the development of vertical GaN-on-GaN power devices. The vertical devices made of GaN have not been able to reach their true potential due to material growth related

The availability of bulk gallium nitride (GaN) substrates has generated great interest in the development of vertical GaN-on-GaN power devices. The vertical devices made of GaN have not been able to reach their true potential due to material growth related issues. Power devices typically have patterned p-n, and p-i junctions in lateral, and vertical direction relative to the substrate. Identifying the variations from the intended layer design is crucial for failure analysis of the devices. A most commonly used dopant profiling technique, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), does not have the spatial resolution to identify the dopant distribution in patterned devices. The possibility of quantitative dopant profiling at a sub-micron scale for GaN in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is discussed. The total electron yield in an SEM is shown to be a function of dopant concentration which can potentially be used for quantitative dopant profiling.

Etch-and-regrowth is a commonly employed strategy to generate the desired patterned p-n and p-i junctions. The devices involving etch-and-regrowth have poor performance characteristics like high leakage currents, and lower breakdown voltages. This is due to damage induced by the dry etching process, and the nature of the regrowth interface, which is important to understand in order to address the key issue of leakage currents in etched and regrown devices. Electron holography is used for electrostatic potential profiling across the regrowth interfaces to identify the charges introduced by the etching process. SIMS is used to identify the impurities introduced at the interfaces due to etch-and-regrowth process.

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2019

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Electron Microscopy Characterization of GaN-on-GaN Vertical Power Devices

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Wide bandgap semiconductors are of much current interest due to their superior electrical properties. This dissertation describes electron microscopy characterization of GaN-on-GaN structures for high-power vertical device applications. Unintentionally-doped (UID) GaN layers grown homoepitaxially via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on

Wide bandgap semiconductors are of much current interest due to their superior electrical properties. This dissertation describes electron microscopy characterization of GaN-on-GaN structures for high-power vertical device applications. Unintentionally-doped (UID) GaN layers grown homoepitaxially via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on freestanding GaN substrates, were subjected to dry etching, and layers of UID-GaN/p-GaN were over-grown. The as-grown and regrown heterostructures were examined in cross-section using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two different etching treatments, fast-etch-only and multiple etches with decreasing power, were employed. The fast-etch-only devices showed GaN-on-GaN interface at etched location, and low device breakdown voltages were measured (~ 45-95V). In comparison, no interfaces were visible after multiple etching steps, and the corresponding breakdown voltages were much higher (~1200-1270V). These results emphasized importance of optimizing surface etching techniques for avoiding degraded device performance.
The morphology of GaN-on-GaN devices after reverse-bias electrical stressing to breakdown was investigated. All failed devices had irreversible structural damage, showing large surface craters (~15-35 microns deep) with lengthy surface cracks. Cross-sectional TEM of failed devices showed high densities of threading dislocations (TDs) around the cracks and near crater surfaces. Progressive ion-milling across damaged devices revealed high densities of TDs and the presence of voids beneath cracks: these features were not observed in unstressed devices. The morphology of GaN substrates grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) and by ammonothermal methods were correlated with reverse-bias results. HVPE substrates showed arrays of surface features when observed by X-ray topography (XRT). All fabricated devices that overlapped with these features had typical reverse-bias voltages less than 100V at a leakage current limit of 10-6 A. In contrast, devices not overlapping with such features reached voltages greater than 300V. After etching, HVPE substrate surfaces showed defect clusters and macro-pits, whereas XRT images of ammonothermal substrate revealed no visible features. However, some devices fabricated on ammonothermal substrate failed at low voltages. Devices on HVPE and ammonothermal substrates with low breakdown voltages showed crater-like surface damage and revealed TDs (~25µm deep) and voids; such features were not observed in devices reaching higher voltages. These results should assist in developing protocols to fabricate reliable high-voltage devices.

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2021