Matching Items (10)

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Income, personality, and subjective financial well-being: the role of gender in their genetic and environmental relationships

Description

Increasing levels of financial inequality prompt questions about the relationship between income and well-being. Using a twins sample from the Survey of Midlife Development in the U. S. and controlling

Increasing levels of financial inequality prompt questions about the relationship between income and well-being. Using a twins sample from the Survey of Midlife Development in the U. S. and controlling for personality as core self-evaluations (CSE), we found that men, but not women, had higher subjective financial well-being (SFWB) when they had higher incomes. This relationship was due to ‘unshared environmental’ factors rather than genes, suggesting that the effect of income on SFWB is driven by unique experiences among men. Further, for women and men, we found that CSE influenced income and SFWB, and that both genetic and environmental factors explained this relationship. Given the relatively small and male-specific relationship between income and SFWB, and the determination of both income and SFWB by personality, we propose that policy makers focus on malleable factors beyond merely income in order to increase SFWB, including financial education and building self-regulatory capacity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-09-29

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The Effects of Cross-Cultural Experiences: A Study of Power Distance and Gender Differences in Cultural Adjustment

Description

Globalization has necessitated cross-cultural communication among groups and individuals alike, often beginning with management. This project considers how the degree of Power Distance, one of Hofstede's cultural dimensions, may change

Globalization has necessitated cross-cultural communication among groups and individuals alike, often beginning with management. This project considers how the degree of Power Distance, one of Hofstede's cultural dimensions, may change over time as a result of exposure to different, and often opposing, cultural values. We conducted two surveys 12 weeks apart collecting an initial sample of 317 and retaining a secondary sample of 142. We gathered data on demographics, education, on-campus involvement, cultural dimensions, and levels of comfort with different cultures. Through data analysis we found that as a result of exposure to different cultural values, cultural groups adjust their own views on Power Distance. Specifically, we found that the Anglo cultural group and the international cultural subgroup that had been living in the U.S. for less than 10 years trended towards each other on levels of Power Distance. We also found that international female students adjusted to new cultural surroundings faster than their male counterparts. These discoveries have led us to conclusions regarding the influence of awareness of other cultural values through international exposure, specifically that of Power Distance, as well as male versus female differences in cultural adjustment, and how differing views might trend towards each other with recurrent interaction.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Employee authenticity's influence on engagement, coworker interactions, and perceived effectiveness

Description

I develop and test theoretical hypotheses for how employees' authenticity at work influences their motivational, relational, and effectiveness outcomes. These hypotheses are grounded in the idea that when individuals feel

I develop and test theoretical hypotheses for how employees' authenticity at work influences their motivational, relational, and effectiveness outcomes. These hypotheses are grounded in the idea that when individuals feel they display their true selves at work, they can more fully employ their physical, cognitive and emotional energies in their work roles, which in turn leads to higher levels of employee effectiveness (e.g., task performance, perceived value to the organization, and promotability). In addition to this personal motivational process, individuals who are more authentic also develop high-quality relationships with their coworkers, thereby receiving more instrumental support and minimizing the antagonistic encounters they have with their colleagues. Both types of coworker interactions should, in turn, also influence the focal individual's effectiveness at work. Finally, I hypothesize that the relationships between authenticity and these relational and effectiveness outcomes are moderated by certain personality traits, such that when an individual is highly narcissistic, has very low self-esteem, or has strongly held values or beliefs generally perceived to be negative or deviant, the relationships change: authenticity's positive influence on coworker instrumental support becomes less positive, and authenticity's negative influence on coworker incivility becomes less negative. These moderation effects are expected for employee effectiveness as well. The sample used to test these hypotheses consisted of 102 employees and their 16 supervisors from two private companies headquartered in the Southwest United States. Authenticity was found to be positively associated with employee engagement, coworker instrumental support, and employee effectiveness, and negatively associated with coworker incivility. Once other factors were controlled for, significant relationships remained with employee engagement and coworker support. Contrary to expectations, neither engagement nor coworker interactions mediated the authenticity-employee effectiveness relationship. A dark side of authenticity was found for two of the three personality traits: self-esteem moderated the relationship between authenticity and coworker instrumental support, such that when self-esteem was low, the relationship between authenticity and coworker support was significantly weaker. Additionally, narcissism moderated the relationship between authenticity and employee effectiveness such that when narcissism was low, the relationship between authenticity and effectiveness was positive, but when narcissism was high, the relationship became negative.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Sucking-up in context: effects of relativity and congruence of ingratiation on social exchange relationships with supervisors and teammates

Description

Research suggests that behaving in an ingratiatory manner towards one’s supervisor is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, ingratiation is a powerful tool through which employees develop positive social

Research suggests that behaving in an ingratiatory manner towards one’s supervisor is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, ingratiation is a powerful tool through which employees develop positive social exchange relationships with target audiences (i.e., supervisors) and subsequently obtain desired outcomes at work. On the other hand, third party observers of ingratiation often view this behavior (and the people enacting it) in a negative manner, thereby hindering ingratiatory employees’ ability to develop high quality social exchange relationships with these individuals. However, this research primarily focuses on how organizational actors perceive of ingratiatory employees while neglecting the social context in which this behavior occurs. This is an important limitation because there are compelling reasons to believe that the social context plays a crucial role in how individuals react to ingratiation. Specifically, the social context may influence the extent to which ingratiation is salient, valued, and/or perceived as normative behavior by organizational members both within and external to the ingratiator-target dyad, which in turn affects how this behavior relates to relationship quality with the target and observers. The objective of my dissertation is to address this limitation by integrating a social context perspective with social exchange theory to build a “frog-pond” model of ingratiation. To that end, I propose that employees’ ingratiation relative to their team members, rather than absolute levels of ingratiation, drives positive exchange quality with supervisors. Furthermore, I hypothesize that congruence between the focal employee’s ingratiation and other team members’ ingratiation increases employees’ social exchange quality with team members. I also shed light on the asymmetrical nature of ingratiation (in)congruence by investigating how different types of congruence and incongruence impact social exchange quality with team members in different ways. In addition, I examine how relative ingratiation indirectly influences supervisors’ citizenship behavior toward the focal employee via focal employee-supervisor social exchange quality, as well as how ingratiation congruence indirectly affects team members’ citizenship behavior toward the focal employee through social exchange quality between the two parties. I test my hypotheses in a multi-wave multi-source field study of 222 employees and 64 teams/supervisors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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特色小镇成功因素的实证研究

Description

特色小镇是我国统筹城乡发展的新方向。以建制镇为例,全国层面已经批复第一批127个、第二批276个共403个国家级特色小镇。国家以及各个省份均出台了一系列政策促进特色小镇的发展。总体看来,这些政策均强调特色小镇应该对当地经济起到促进作用,并对特色小镇的发展给与土地、财政、金融、项目、人才等方面的支持。虽然很多政策都强调特色小镇应该结合所在地的实际情况进行差异化发展,但是并没有明确哪些地方具有建立特色小镇的条件,适合建特色小镇;哪些地方不具备建设特色小镇的条件,如果硬要推进特色小镇建设则需要投入大量人力、物力、财力。此外,很多省份都给出了加强基础设施建设这一措施,但是小镇的发展要和周边经济形成联动,基础设施只是小镇成功发展的必要条件。一味的强调基础设施而忽略小镇所处的经济环境,不但不能建好特色小镇,还造成资源浪费。

由于国家的大力推进以及政策的模糊性,很多特色小镇的发展过程中出现概念不清、市场化不足、过分强调硬件设施以及盲目举债的问题。基于上述事实,本文主要研究的问题是,影响特色小镇成功发展的具体因素有哪些?本文主要通过案例分析和实证分析来回答上述问题。案例分析中,本文分别列举了成功的特色小镇和失败的特色小镇,详细分析其成功或失败的原因。实证分析中,本文以首批127个特色小镇为样本,以小镇排名为衡量小镇成功度的指标,具体探讨了5A级景区、交通、城市圈、周边经济的差异程度、区域经济收敛度等因素对特色小镇的影响。本文的主要发现如下。

首先,交通和景区因素对小镇的影响虽然为正,但是并不显著。虽然排名靠前的特色小镇均享有交通和景区因素,但是当我们考虑了影响小镇发展的其它因素后,这两个指标不再显著。这也说明,小镇建设仅靠好的交通,好的景区这些硬件条件是不够的,需要注意小镇与周边经济的联动因素。其次,小镇与周边经济的联动性对小镇发展有非常重要的影响。周边地区的经济发达程度(引力指数)和经济均衡性(泰尔指数)这两个变量的回归系数均在1%的置信度上显著。即总体经济活动越活跃,越有利于小镇的发展;经济发展不平衡性越小越有利于小镇的发展。再次,县辖镇和区辖镇的发展具有一定差异,不能用市级指标来判定乡镇的发展状况。例如,城市人口的增加并不一定带动乡镇的发展,还有可能对乡镇产生虹吸效应。一般而言,经济发散的地区,市区会聚集更多的资源,区辖镇的发展更容易成功,而县辖镇则更难发展。最后,小镇类型以及小镇所在区县的财政状况对小镇的影响力并不显著。

基于上述发现,本文给出以下政策建议。首先,政府在推进小镇建设的过程中不应该一味追求硬件设施。其次,对于城市经济尚未发展起来的地区,不应该过多依靠特色小镇达到发展经济的目的,而是应该首先集中优势资源发展好城市经济。再次,特色小镇的建设应该因地制宜。对于经济发达、发展均衡的地区(如浙江),区辖镇和县辖镇不会因所属地是区县的差别而表现出显著的发展差异。特色小镇建设可以全方位推广;对于经济发达,发展不均衡的地区(如广东),发展区辖镇比县辖镇更为容易;对于经济欠发达地区,无论其经济收敛与否,除非该地区有非常特殊产业或禀赋资源,否则不建议推广特色小镇建设。最后,特色小镇发展应走多样化路线和市场化路线。

关键词: 特色小镇、成功因素、虹吸效应、经济收敛

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Exploring supervisor responses to employees who share bad news: why and under what conditions are messengers shot?

Description

Employees are directly involved in work tasks and processes which are necessary to accomplish unit or organizational goals, and accordingly, they may become aware of key mistakes, slips, and failures

Employees are directly involved in work tasks and processes which are necessary to accomplish unit or organizational goals, and accordingly, they may become aware of key mistakes, slips, and failures that are unbeknownst to the leader or supervisor responsible for the work unit or organization. Given that errors or deviations in work tasks or processes can have far-reaching effects within the organization, it may be essential for employees to share bad news with their leader or supervisor so that steps can be taken to address the issue or ameliorate negative consequences. However, although employees' sharing of bad news may be important to the organization and should be encouraged, supervisors may respond to the messenger in ways that discourage the behavior. Unfortunately, we lack an explanation of why and under what conditions supervisors respond positively or negatively to employees who share bad news. Thus, the purpose of this dissertation is to address this gap in our understanding. I draw from social exchange theory and the transactional theory of stress to develop a conceptual model of sharing bad news. I suggest that sharing bad news can be cast as a transaction between employees and supervisors that is mediated by supervisors’ appraisals of employees’ sharing the message. The quality of the relationship between an employee and supervisor, or leader-member exchange (LMX), is strengthened when supervisors appraise the sharing of bad news as challenging, or potentially rewarding; however, LMX is weakened when supervisors appraise the sharing of bad news as hindering, or potential harmful. In turn, LMX influences supervisor responses to the sharing of bad news in the form of evaluations of the employee’s effectiveness. In addition to these main effects, I also consider how aspects of the message delivery, such as the timeliness with which messages are conveyed and extent to which employees incorporate solutions when they share bad news, can influence supervisor appraisals of sharing bad news. Finally, I suggest that the extent to which the messenger is responsible for the bad news moderates the relationships between appraisals of sharing bad news and LMX. I test this model in three studies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The buck stops where?: examining leader and collective accountability in teams

Description

Accountability has been commonly referred to in the literature as a person’s expectation about others’ evaluations. However, in this study, I develop an alternative perspective of leader accountability by defining

Accountability has been commonly referred to in the literature as a person’s expectation about others’ evaluations. However, in this study, I develop an alternative perspective of leader accountability by defining it as an individual’s degree of ownership regarding good or poor performance and acceptance of associated rewards or disciplinary actions. Based on attribution theory, leaders can have internal and external ownership regarding good and poor performance. I propose that accountability can be categorized into two correlated but distinct aspects: self-benefitting and other-benefitting. Leader self-benefitting accountability refers to leaders’ attributions towards their own benefits (i.e., internal attribution of good performance and external attribution of poor performance). Leader other-benefitting accountability reflects leaders’ attributions towards others’ interests (i.e., internal attribution of poor performance and external attribution of good performance). Using multiple samples, I develop and validate a leader accountability scale, and then test a theoretical model with a focus on leader accountability and collective accountability (i.e., a group of individuals’ degree of ownership) by collecting data from 57 leaders and 162 followers in three Chinese companies. The findings show that leader humility is positively related to leader other-benefitting accountability. Both leader self-benefitting and other-benefitting accountability are associated with collective self-benefitting and other-benefitting accountability, respectively. Moreover, the relationship between leader self-benefitting and collective self-benefitting accountability is enhanced when the leader has high organization prototypicality. Furthermore, collective self-benefitting accountability decreases leader effectiveness and team effectiveness, while collective other-benefitting accountability increases leader effectiveness.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Adapting leader behaviors to achieve follower effectiveness: a mindful approach to situational leadership

Description

This study develops a theoretical model that explains how leaders come to adapt their leadership behaviors to achieve follower effectiveness. Mindfulness theory suggests that mindful individuals are better able to

This study develops a theoretical model that explains how leaders come to adapt their leadership behaviors to achieve follower effectiveness. Mindfulness theory suggests that mindful individuals are better able to engage in self-regulation and I consider empathy, response flexibility, and emotional regulation as three self-regulatory processes in particular which likely impact the leader-follower relationship. I suggest that leaders who have the ability to self-regulate in these three ways will be better able to engage in leadership behavior characterized by adapting or flexing the specific types of leadership they demonstrate according to the needs of the situation and what their followers most require at a given time to perform at their best. When followers receive the type of situationally-appropriate support in the form of leader behavior, they are more effective (e.g. have higher job performance and extra-role performance). I validate a new trait and state measure of workplace mindfulness with multiple samples and utilize this new scale to collect data from leaders and followers from a government organization to test the theoretical relationships proposed in this study. I utilize an experience sampling methodology (ESM) design over 10 days to investigate the within-leader variation among variables in the study given theory suggesting the dynamic nature of the mindfulness, self-regulation, and situational leadership constructs which may not adequately be captured when data are collected at one point in time. Finally, I introduce organizational constraints as a moderator of the relationship between leader mindfulness and leader self- regulation in order to understand how stressors and strains outside the control of a leader may overload a leader’s ability to ultimately self-regulate his/her behavior.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Feedback, affect, and creative behavior: a multi-level model linking feedback to performance

Description

Researchers lament that feedback interventions often fail. Traditional theories assume a cognitive relationship between the receipt of feedback and its impact on employee performance. I offer a theoretical model derived

Researchers lament that feedback interventions often fail. Traditional theories assume a cognitive relationship between the receipt of feedback and its impact on employee performance. I offer a theoretical model derived from Affective Events and Broaden and Build Theories to shed new light on the feedback-performance relationship. I bridge the two primary streams of feedback literature-the passive receipt and active seeking-to examine how employees' affective responses to feedback drive how they use feedback to improve performance. I develop and test a model whereby supervisor developmental feedback and coworker feedback seeking relate to the positivity ratio (the ratio of positive as compared to negative affect), enabling them to be more creative and thus improving their performance. I test my model using Experience Sampling Methodology with a sample of MBA students over a two week working period.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Cellular Capacities for High-Light Acclimation and Changing Lipid Profiles Across Life Cycle Stages of the Green Alga Haematococcus Pluvialis

Description

The unicellular microalga Haematococcus pluvialis has emerged as a promising biomass feedstock for the ketocarotenoid astaxanthin and neutral lipid triacylglycerol. Motile flagellates, resting palmella cells, and cysts are the major

The unicellular microalga Haematococcus pluvialis has emerged as a promising biomass feedstock for the ketocarotenoid astaxanthin and neutral lipid triacylglycerol. Motile flagellates, resting palmella cells, and cysts are the major life cycle stages of H. pluvialis. Fast-growing motile cells are usually used to induce astaxanthin and triacylglycerol biosynthesis under stress conditions (high light or nutrient starvation); however, productivity of biomass and bioproducts are compromised due to the susceptibility of motile cells to stress. This study revealed that the Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center D1 protein, the manganese-stabilizing protein PsbO, and several major membrane glycerolipids (particularly for chloroplast membrane lipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol), decreased dramatically in motile cells under high light (HL). In contrast, palmella cells, which are transformed from motile cells after an extended period of time under favorable growth conditions, have developed multiple protective mechanisms - including reduction in chloroplast membrane lipids content, downplay of linear photosynthetic electron transport, and activating nonphotochemical quenching mechanisms - while accumulating triacylglycerol. Consequently, the membrane lipids and PSII proteins (D1 and PsbO) remained relatively stable in palmella cells subjected to HL. Introducing palmella instead of motile cells to stress conditions may greatly increase astaxanthin and lipid production in H. pluvialis culture.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-15