Matching Items (45)

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From Data Collection to Learning from Distributed Data: a Minimum Cost Incentive Mechanism for Private Discrete Distribution Estimation and an Optimal Stopping Approach for Iterative Training in Federated Learning

Description

The first half of this dissertation introduces a minimum cost incentive mechanism for collecting discrete distributed private data for big-data analysis. The goal of an incentive mechanism is to incentivize

The first half of this dissertation introduces a minimum cost incentive mechanism for collecting discrete distributed private data for big-data analysis. The goal of an incentive mechanism is to incentivize informative reports and make sure randomization in the reported data does not exceed a target level. It answers two fundamental questions: what is the minimum payment required to incentivize an individual to submit data with quality level $\epsilon$? and what incentive mechanisms can achieve the minimum payment? A lower bound on the minimum amount of payment required for guaranteeing quality level $\epsilon$ is derived. Inspired by the lower bound, our incentive mechanism (WINTALL) first decides a winning answer based on reported data, then pays to individuals whose reported data match the winning answer. The expected payment of WINTALL matches lower bound asymptotically. Real-world experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk are presented to further illustrate novelty of the principle behind WINTALL.

The second half studies problem of iterative training in Federated Learning. A system with a single parameter server and $M$ client devices is considered for training a predictive learning model with distributed data. The clients communicate with the parameter server using a common wireless channel so each time, only one device can transmit. The training is an iterative process consisting of multiple rounds. Adaptive training is considered where the parameter server decides when to stop/restart a new round, so the problem is formulated as an optimal stopping problem. While this optimal stopping problem is difficult to solve, a modified optimal stopping problem is proposed. Then a low complexity algorithm is introduced to solve the modified problem, which also works for the original problem. Experiments on a real data set shows significant improvements compared with policies collecting a fixed number of updates in each iteration.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Wireless network design and optimization: from social awareness to security

Description

A principal goal of this dissertation is to study wireless network design and optimization with the focus on two perspectives: 1) socially-aware mobile networking and computing; 2) security and privacy

A principal goal of this dissertation is to study wireless network design and optimization with the focus on two perspectives: 1) socially-aware mobile networking and computing; 2) security and privacy in wireless networking. Under this common theme, this dissertation can be broadly organized into three parts.

The first part studies socially-aware mobile networking and computing. First, it studies random access control and power control under a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework. The socially-aware Nash equilibria (SNEs) are derived and analyzed. Then, it studies mobile crowdsensing under an incentive mechanism that exploits social trust assisted reciprocity (STAR). The efficacy of the STAR mechanism is thoroughly investigated. Next, it studies mobile users' data usage behaviors under the impact of social services and the wireless operator's pricing. Based on a two-stage Stackelberg game formulation, the user demand equilibrium (UDE) is analyzed in Stage II and the optimal pricing strategy is developed in Stage I. Last, it studies opportunistic cooperative networking under an optimal stopping framework with two-level decision-making. For both cases with or without dedicated relays, the optimal relaying strategies are derived and analyzed.

The second part studies radar sensor network coverage for physical security. First, it studies placement of bistatic radar (BR) sensor networks for barrier coverage. The optimality of line-based placement is analyzed, and the optimal placement of BRs on a line segment is characterized. Then, it studies the coverage of radar sensor networks that exploits the Doppler effect. Based on a Doppler coverage model, an efficient method is devised to characterize Doppler-covered regions and an algorithm is developed to find the minimum radar density required for Doppler coverage.

The third part studies cyber security and privacy in socially-aware networking and computing. First, it studies random access control, cooperative jamming, and spectrum access under an extended SGUM framework that incorporates negative social ties. The SNEs are derived and analyzed. Then, it studies pseudonym change for personalized location privacy under the SGUM framework. The SNEs are analyzed and an efficient algorithm is developed to find an SNE with desirable properties.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

New multi-nodal wireless communication system method

Description

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method of dividing wireless communication (such as the 802.11a/b/g
and cellular UMTS MAC protocols) across multiple unreliable communication links

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method of dividing wireless communication (such as the 802.11a/b/g
and cellular UMTS MAC protocols) across multiple unreliable communication links (such as Ethernet). The purpose is to introduce the appropriate hardware, software, and system architecture required to provide the basis for a wireless system (using a 802.11a/b/g
and cellular protocols as a model) that can scale to support thousands of users simultaneously (say in a large office building, super chain store, etc.) or in a small, but very dense communication RF region. Elements of communication between a base station and a Mobile Station will be analyzed statistically to demonstrate higher throughput, fewer collisions and lower bit error rates (BER) with the given bandwidth defined by the 802.11n wireless specification (use of MIMO channels will be evaluated). A new network nodal paradigm will be presented. Alternative link layer communication techniques will be recommended and analyzed for the affect on mobile devices. The analysis will describe how the algorithms used by state machines implemented on Mobile Stations and Wi-Fi client devices will be influenced by new base station transmission behavior. New hardware design techniques that can be used to optimize this architecture as well as hardware design principles in regard to the minimal hardware functional blocks required to support such a system design will be described. Hardware design and verification simulation techniques to prove the hardware design will accommodate an acceptable level of performance to meet the strict timing as it relates to this new system architecture.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Security and privacy in heterogeneous wireless and mobile networks: challenges and solutions

Description

The rapid advances in wireless communications and networking have given rise to a number of emerging heterogeneous wireless and mobile networks along with novel networking paradigms, including wireless sensor networks,

The rapid advances in wireless communications and networking have given rise to a number of emerging heterogeneous wireless and mobile networks along with novel networking paradigms, including wireless sensor networks, mobile crowdsourcing, and mobile social networking. While offering promising solutions to a wide range of new applications, their widespread adoption and large-scale deployment are often hindered by people's concerns about the security, user privacy, or both. In this dissertation, we aim to address a number of challenging security and privacy issues in heterogeneous wireless and mobile networks in an attempt to foster their widespread adoption. Our contributions are mainly fivefold. First, we introduce a novel secure and loss-resilient code dissemination scheme for wireless sensor networks deployed in hostile and harsh environments. Second, we devise a novel scheme to enable mobile users to detect any inauthentic or unsound location-based top-k query result returned by an untrusted location-based service providers. Third, we develop a novel verifiable privacy-preserving aggregation scheme for people-centric mobile sensing systems. Fourth, we present a suite of privacy-preserving profile matching protocols for proximity-based mobile social networking, which can support a wide range of matching metrics with different privacy levels. Last, we present a secure combination scheme for crowdsourcing-based cooperative spectrum sensing systems that can enable robust primary user detection even when malicious cognitive radio users constitute the majority.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Security and Privacy in Mobile Devices: Novel Attacks and Countermeasures

Description

Mobile devices have penetrated into every aspect of modern world. For one thing, they are becoming ubiquitous in daily life. For the other thing, they are storing more and more

Mobile devices have penetrated into every aspect of modern world. For one thing, they are becoming ubiquitous in daily life. For the other thing, they are storing more and more data, including sensitive data. Therefore, security and privacy of mobile devices are indispensable. This dissertation consists of five parts: two authentication schemes, two attacks, and one countermeasure related to security and privacy of mobile devices.

Specifically, in Chapter 1, I give an overview the challenges and existing solutions in these areas. In Chapter 2, a novel authentication scheme is presented, which is based on a user’s tapping or sliding on the touchscreen of a mobile device. In Chapter 3, I focus on mobile app fingerprinting and propose a method based on analyzing the power profiles of targeted mobile devices. In Chapter 4, I mainly explore a novel liveness detection method for face authentication on mobile devices. In Chapter 5, I investigate a novel keystroke inference attack on mobile devices based on user eye movements. In Chapter 6, a novel authentication scheme is proposed, based on detecting a user’s finger gesture through acoustic sensing. In Chapter 7, I discuss the future work.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Scheduling in Wireless and Healthcare Networks

Description

This dissertation studies the scheduling in two stochastic networks, a co-located wireless network and an outpatient healthcare network, both of which have a cyclic planning horizon and a deadline-related performance

This dissertation studies the scheduling in two stochastic networks, a co-located wireless network and an outpatient healthcare network, both of which have a cyclic planning horizon and a deadline-related performance metric.

For the co-located wireless network, a time-slotted system is considered. A cycle of planning horizon is called a frame, which consists of a fixed number of time slots. The size of the frame is determined by the upper-layer applications. Packets with deadlines arrive at the beginning of each frame and will be discarded if missing their deadlines, which are in the same frame. Each link of the network is associated with a quality of service constraint and an average transmit power constraint. For this system, a MaxWeight-type problem for which the solutions achieve the throughput optimality is formulated. Since the computational complexity of solving the MaxWeight-type problem with exhaustive search is exponential even for a single-link system, a greedy algorithm with complexity O(nlog(n)) is proposed, which is also throughput optimal.

The outpatient healthcare network is modeled as a discrete-time queueing network, in which patients receive diagnosis and treatment planning that involves collaboration between multiple service stations. For each patient, only the root (first) appointment can be scheduled as the following appointments evolve stochastically. The cyclic planing horizon is a week. The root appointment is optimized to maximize the proportion of patients that can complete their care by a class-dependent deadline. In the optimization algorithm, the sojourn time of patients in the healthcare network is approximated with a doubly-stochastic phase-type distribution. To address the computational intractability, a mean-field model with convergence guarantees is proposed. A linear programming-based policy improvement framework is developed, which can approximately solve the original large-scale stochastic optimization in queueing networks of realistic sizes.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Network interdependence and information dynamics in cyber-physical systems

Description

The cyber-physical systems (CPS) are emerging as the underpinning technology for major industries in the 21-th century. This dissertation is focused on two fundamental issues in cyber-physical systems: network interdependence

The cyber-physical systems (CPS) are emerging as the underpinning technology for major industries in the 21-th century. This dissertation is focused on two fundamental issues in cyber-physical systems: network interdependence and information dynamics. It consists of the following two main thrusts. The first thrust is targeted at understanding the impact of network interdependence. It is shown that a cyber-physical system built upon multiple interdependent networks are more vulnerable to attacks since node failures in one network may result in failures in the other network, causing a cascade of failures that would potentially lead to the collapse of the entire infrastructure. There is thus a need to develop a new network science for modeling and quantifying cascading failures in multiple interdependent networks, and to develop network management algorithms that improve network robustness and ensure overall network reliability against cascading failures. To enhance the system robustness, a "regular" allocation strategy is proposed that yields better resistance against cascading failures compared to all possible existing strategies. Furthermore, in view of the load redistribution feature in many physical infrastructure networks, e.g., power grids, a CPS model is developed where the threshold model and the giant connected component model are used to capture the node failures in the physical infrastructure network and the cyber network, respectively. The second thrust is centered around the information dynamics in the CPS. One speculation is that the interconnections over multiple networks can facilitate information diffusion since information propagation in one network can trigger further spread in the other network. With this insight, a theoretical framework is developed to analyze information epidemic across multiple interconnecting networks. It is shown that the conjoining among networks can dramatically speed up message diffusion. Along a different avenue, many cyber-physical systems rely on wireless networks which offer platforms for information exchanges. To optimize the QoS of wireless networks, there is a need to develop a high-throughput and low-complexity scheduling algorithm to control link dynamics. To that end, distributed link scheduling algorithms are explored for multi-hop MIMO networks and two CSMA algorithms under the continuous-time model and the discrete-time model are devised, respectively.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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An adaptive approach to securing ubiquitous smart devices in IoT environment with probabilistic user behavior prediction

Description

Cyber systems, including IoT (Internet of Things), are increasingly being used ubiquitously to vastly improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of critical application areas, such as finance, transportation, defense,

Cyber systems, including IoT (Internet of Things), are increasingly being used ubiquitously to vastly improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of critical application areas, such as finance, transportation, defense, and healthcare. Over the past two decades, computing efficiency and hardware cost have dramatically been improved. These improvements have made cyber systems omnipotent, and control many aspects of human lives. Emerging trends in successful cyber system breaches have shown increasing sophistication in attacks and that attackers are no longer limited by resources, including human and computing power. Most existing cyber defense systems for IoT systems have two major issues: (1) they do not incorporate human user behavior(s) and preferences in their approaches, and (2) they do not continuously learn from dynamic environment and effectively adapt to thwart sophisticated cyber-attacks. Consequently, the security solutions generated may not be usable or implementable by the user(s) thereby drastically reducing the effectiveness of these security solutions.

In order to address these major issues, a comprehensive approach to securing ubiquitous smart devices in IoT environment by incorporating probabilistic human user behavioral inputs is presented. The approach will include techniques to (1) protect the controller device(s) [smart phone or tablet] by continuously learning and authenticating the legitimate user based on the touch screen finger gestures in the background, without requiring users’ to provide their finger gesture inputs intentionally for training purposes, and (2) efficiently configure IoT devices through controller device(s), in conformance with the probabilistic human user behavior(s) and preferences, to effectively adapt IoT devices to the changing environment. The effectiveness of the approach will be demonstrated with experiments that are based on collected user behavioral data and simulations.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Toward monitoring, assessing, and confining mobile applications in modern mobile platforms

Description

Smartphones are pervasive nowadays. They are supported by mobile platforms that allow users to download and run feature-rich mobile applications (apps). While mobile apps help users conveniently process personal data

Smartphones are pervasive nowadays. They are supported by mobile platforms that allow users to download and run feature-rich mobile applications (apps). While mobile apps help users conveniently process personal data on mobile devices, they also pose security and privacy threats and put user's data at risk. Even though modern mobile platforms such as Android have integrated security mechanisms to protect users, most mechanisms do not easily adapt to user's security requirements and rapidly evolving threats. They either fail to provide sufficient intelligence for a user to make informed security decisions, or require great sophistication to configure the mechanisms for enforcing security decisions. These limitations lead to a situation where users are disadvantageous against emerging malware on modern mobile platforms. To remedy this situation, I propose automated and systematic approaches to address three security management tasks: monitoring, assessment, and confinement of mobile apps. In particular, monitoring apps helps a user observe and record apps' runtime behaviors as controlled under security mechanisms. Automated assessment distills intelligence from the observed behaviors and the security configurations of security mechanisms. The distilled intelligence further fuels enhanced confinement mechanisms that flexibly and accurately shape apps' behaviors. To demonstrate the feasibility of my approaches, I design and implement a suite of proof-of-concept prototypes that support the three tasks respectively.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Wireless Sensor Data Transport, Aggregation and Security

Description

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) and the communication and the security therein have been gaining further prominence in the tech-industry recently, with the emergence of the so called Internet of Things

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) and the communication and the security therein have been gaining further prominence in the tech-industry recently, with the emergence of the so called Internet of Things (IoT). The steps from acquiring data and making a reactive decision base on the acquired sensor measurements are complex and requires careful execution of several steps. In many of these steps there are still technological gaps to fill that are due to the fact that several primitives that are desirable in a sensor network environment are bolt on the networks as application layer functionalities, rather than built in them. For several important functionalities that are at the core of IoT architectures we have developed a solution that is analyzed and discussed in the following chapters.

The chain of steps from the acquisition of sensor samples until these samples reach a control center or the cloud where the data analytics are performed, starts with the acquisition of the sensor measurements at the correct time and, importantly, synchronously among all sensors deployed. This synchronization has to be network wide, including both the wired core network as well as the wireless edge devices. This thesis studies a decentralized and lightweight solution to synchronize and schedule IoT devices over wireless and wired networks adaptively, with very simple local signaling. Furthermore, measurement results have to be transported and aggregated over the same interface, requiring clever coordination among all nodes, as network resources are shared, keeping scalability and fail-safe operation in mind. Furthermore ensuring the integrity of measurements is a complicated task. On the one hand Cryptography can shield the network from outside attackers and therefore is the first step to take, but due to the volume of sensors must rely on an automated key distribution mechanism. On the other hand cryptography does not protect against exposed keys or inside attackers. One however can exploit statistical properties to detect and identify nodes that send false information and exclude these attacker nodes from the network to avoid data manipulation. Furthermore, if data is supplied by a third party, one can apply automated trust metric for each individual data source to define which data to accept and consider for mentioned statistical tests in the first place. Monitoring the cyber and physical activities of an IoT infrastructure in concert is another topic that is investigated in this thesis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017