Matching Items (15)

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Cloning Hepatitis B core-West Nile DIII DNA sequence into Gemini Viral Vector using Molecular Biology techniques.

Description

Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) are self-assembling structures that lack the viral genetic material. Therefore they are safer and more immunogenic than other forms of vaccines. The Hepatitis B core (HBc) VLPs

Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) are self-assembling structures that lack the viral genetic material. Therefore they are safer and more immunogenic than other forms of vaccines. The Hepatitis B core (HBc) VLPs are a novel mechanism through which delivery of DNA-based human vaccines are plausible. Production of VLPs require recombinant, rapidly replicating, plant-based systems such as the geminiviral replicon system. This project entails the cloning process of HBc-DIII fusion protein, a VLP that should form Domain III of the Envelope protein on West Nile Virus, into deconstructed geminiviral vector. The cloning process includes the HBc-DIII fusion protein DNA isolation, restriction enzyme digestion with NcoI and SacI, PCR changing the NcoI site on the HBc-DIII insert to XbaI, sequencing, ligation into geminiviral vector and transformation into an agrobacterium strain. The major impediment to the cloning process was the presence of multiple bands instead of the expected two bands while doing restriction enzyme digests. The troubleshooting process enabled speculating that due to the excess of restriction enzymes in the digestion volume, some of the DNA was not digested completely. Hence, multiple bands were observed. However, sequencing analysis and further cloning process ensured the presence of HBc-DIII insert band (approximately 800bp) in the Gemini vector. Lastly, the construct HBc-DIII in Gemini vector was ensured to be in agrobacterium for further experiments such as agro-infiltration.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Measuring the Activity of Φ29 DNA Polymerase

Description

The major goal of this large project is to develop a Recognition Tunneling Nanopore (RTP) device that will be used for determining the structure of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The RTP device

The major goal of this large project is to develop a Recognition Tunneling Nanopore (RTP) device that will be used for determining the structure of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The RTP device is composed of a recognition tunneling junction that is embedded in a nanopore. In order to translocate the GAG molecule through the nanopore, researchers have designed a scheme in which the GAG molecule of interest will be attached to the 5’ end of a DNA primer (figure 1) and the DNA primer will be extended by a biotinylated Φ29 DNA polymerase that is anchored in the nanoslit using streptavidin. This research project specifically is part of a larger project with the main goal of comparing the activity of the wild-type Φ29 DNA polymerase which I have expressed and purified with the mutated Φ29 DNA polymerase devoid of 3’ - 5’ exonuclease activity which was made by Dr. Deng.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Electronic single-molecule identification of carbohydrate isomers by recognition tunnelling

Description

Carbohydrates are one of the four main building blocks of life, and are categorized as monosaccharides (sugars), oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Each sugar can exist in two alternative anomers (in which

Carbohydrates are one of the four main building blocks of life, and are categorized as monosaccharides (sugars), oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Each sugar can exist in two alternative anomers (in which a hydroxy group at C-1 takes different orientations) and each pair of sugars can form different epimers (isomers around the stereocentres connecting the sugars). This leads to a vast combinatorial complexity, intractable to mass spectrometry and requiring large amounts of sample for NMR characterization. Combining measurements of collision cross section with mass spectrometry (IM–MS) helps, but many isomers are still difficult to separate. Here, we show that recognition tunnelling (RT) can classify many anomers and epimers via the current fluctuations they produce when captured in a tunnel junction functionalized with recognition molecules. Most importantly, RT is a nanoscale technique utilizing sub-picomole quantities of analyte. If integrated into a nanopore, RT would provide a unique approach to sequencing linear polysaccharides.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12-21

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Functional and regulatory biomolecular networks organized by DNA nanostructures

Description

DNA has recently emerged as an extremely promising material to organize molecules on nanoscale. The reliability of base recognition, self-assembling behavior, and attractive structural properties of DNA are of unparalleled

DNA has recently emerged as an extremely promising material to organize molecules on nanoscale. The reliability of base recognition, self-assembling behavior, and attractive structural properties of DNA are of unparalleled value in systems of this size. DNA scaffolds have already been used to organize a variety of molecules including nanoparticles and proteins. New protein-DNA bio-conjugation chemistries make it possible to precisely position proteins and other biomolecules on underlying DNA scaffolds, generating multi-biomolecule pathways with the ability to modulate inter-molecular interactions and the local environment. This dissertation focuses on studying the application of using DNA nanostructure to direct the self-assembly of other biomolecular networks to translate biochemical pathways to non-cellular environments. Presented here are a series of studies toward this application. First, a novel strategy utilized DNA origami as a scaffold to arrange spherical virus capsids into one-dimensional arrays with precise nanoscale positioning. This hierarchical self-assembly allows us to position the virus particles with unprecedented control and allows the future construction of integrated multi-component systems from biological scaffolds using the power of rationally engineered DNA nanostructures. Next, discrete glucose oxidase (GOx)/ horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme pairs were organized on DNA origami tiles with controlled interenzyme spacing and position. This study revealed two different distance-dependent kinetic processes associated with the assembled enzyme pairs. Finally, a tweezer-like DNA nanodevice was designed and constructed to actuate the activity of an enzyme/cofactor pair. Using this approach, several cycles of externally controlled enzyme inhibition and activation were successfully demonstrated. This principle of responsive enzyme nanodevices may be used to regulate other types of enzymes and to introduce feedback or feed-forward control loops.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

DNA nanostructure as a scaffold for immunological applications

Description

DNA nanotechnology has been a rapidly growing research field in the recent decades, and there have been extensive efforts to construct various types of highly programmable and robust DNA nanostructures.

DNA nanotechnology has been a rapidly growing research field in the recent decades, and there have been extensive efforts to construct various types of highly programmable and robust DNA nanostructures. Due to the advantage that DNA nanostructure can be used to organize biochemical molecules with precisely controlled spatial resolution, herein we used DNA nanostructure as a scaffold for biological applications. Targeted cell-cell interaction was reconstituted through a DNA scaffolded multivalent bispecific aptamer, which may lead to promising potentials in tumor therapeutics. In addition a synthetic vaccine was constructed using DNA nanostructure as a platform to assemble both model antigen and immunoadjuvant together, and strong antibody response was demonstrated in vivo, highlighting the potential of DNA nanostructures to serve as a new platform for vaccine construction, and therefore a DNA scaffolded hapten vaccine is further constructed and tested for its antibody response. Taken together, my research demonstrated the potential of DNA nanostructure to serve as a general platform for immunological applications.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Synthesis of organic linkers for studying biomolecular interactions, site-specific chemical modification of peptides and its translocation studies through nanopore

Description

Biomolecules can easily recognize its corresponding partner and get bound to it, resulting in controlling various processes (immune system, inter or intracellular signaling) in biology and physiology. Bonding between two

Biomolecules can easily recognize its corresponding partner and get bound to it, resulting in controlling various processes (immune system, inter or intracellular signaling) in biology and physiology. Bonding between two partners can be a result of electrostatic, hydrophobic interactions or shape complementarity. It is of great importance to study these kinds of biomolecular interactions to have a detailed knowledge of above mentioned physiological processes. These studies can also open avenues for other aspects of science such as drug development. Discussed in the first part of Chapter 1 are the biotin-streptavidin biomolecular interaction studies by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) instrument. Also, the basic working principle of AFM and SPR has been discussed.

The second part of Chapter 1 is discussed about site-specific chemical modification of peptides and proteins. Proteins have been used to generate therapeutic materials, proteins-based biomaterials. To achieve all these properties in protein there is a need for site-specific protein modification.

To be able to successfully monitor biomolecular interaction using AFM there is a need for organic linker molecule which helps one of the investigating molecules to get attached to the AFM tip. Most of the linker molecules available are capable of investigating one type of interaction at a time. Therefore, it is significant to have linker molecule which can monitor multiple interactions (same or different type) at the same time. Further, these linker molecules are modified so that biomolecular interactions can also be monitored using SPR instrument. Described in Chapter 2 are the synthesis of organic linker molecules and their use to study biomolecular interaction through AFM and SPR.

In Chapter 3, N-terminal chemical modification of peptides and proteins has been discussed. Further, modified peptides are attached to DNA thread for their translocation through the solid-state nanopore to identify them. Synthesis of various peptide-DNA conjugates and their nanopore studies have been discussed in this chapter.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Electronic single molecule measurements with the scanning tunneling microscope

Description

Richard Feynman said “There’s plenty of room at the bottom”. This inspired the techniques to improve the single molecule measurements. Since the first single molecule study was in 1961, it

Richard Feynman said “There’s plenty of room at the bottom”. This inspired the techniques to improve the single molecule measurements. Since the first single molecule study was in 1961, it has been developed in various field and evolved into powerful tools to understand chemical and biological property of molecules. This thesis demonstrates electronic single molecule measurement with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and two of applications of STM; Break Junction (BJ) and Recognition Tunneling (RT). First, the two series of carotenoid molecules with four different substituents were investigated to show how substituents relate to the conductance and molecular structure. The measured conductance by STM-BJ shows that Nitrogen induces molecular twist of phenyl distal substituents and conductivity increasing rather than Carbon. Also, the conductivity is adjustable by replacing the sort of residues at phenyl substituents. Next, amino acids and peptides were identified through STM-RT. The distribution of the intuitive features (such as amplitude or width) are mostly overlapped and gives only a little bit higher separation probability than random separation. By generating some features in frequency and cepstrum domain, the classification accuracy was dramatically increased. Because of large data size and many features, supporting vector machine (machine learning algorithm for big data) was used to identify the analyte from a data pool of all analytes RT data. The STM-RT opens a possibility of molecular sequencing in single molecule level. Similarly, carbohydrates were studied by STM-RT. Carbohydrates are difficult to read the sequence, due to their huge number of possible isomeric configurations. This study shows that STM-RT can identify not only isomers of mono-saccharides and disaccharides, but also various mono-saccharides from a data pool of eleven analytes. In addition, the binding affinity between recognition molecule and analyte was investigated by comparing with surface plasmon resonance. In present, the RT technique is applying to chip type sequencing device onto solid-state nanopore to read out glycosaminoglycans which is ubiquitous to all mammalian cells and controls biological activities.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Design, synthesis and association study of universal readers for recognition tunneling

Description

For reading DNA bases more accurately, a series of nitrogen-containing aromatic heterocycles have been designed and synthesized as candidates of universal reader to interact with all naturally occurring DNA nucleobases

For reading DNA bases more accurately, a series of nitrogen-containing aromatic heterocycles have been designed and synthesized as candidates of universal reader to interact with all naturally occurring DNA nucleobases by hydrogen bonding interaction and eventually is used to read DNA by recognition tunneling. These recognition molecules include 6-mercapto-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2-carboxamide, 5-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1H-imidazole-2-carboxamide, 5-(2-mercaptoethyl)-4H-1,2,4-traizole-3-carboxamide and 1-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide. Their formation of hydrogen bonding complexes with nucleobases was studied and association constants were measured by proton NMR titration experiments in deuterated chloroform at room temperature. To do so, the mercaptoethyl chain or thiol group of these reading molecules was replaced or protected with the more lipophilic group to increase the solubility of these candidates in CDCl3. The 3' and 5' hydroxyl groups of deoxyadenosine (dA), deoxyguanosine (dG), deoxycytidine (dC) and thymidine (dT) were protected with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) to eliminate hydrogen bonding competition from the hydroxyl protons with these candidates as well as to increase the solubility of the nucleosides in CDCl3 for NMR titration experiment. Benzimidazole and imidazole containing readers exhibited the strongest H-bonding affinity towards DNA bases where pyrrole containing reader showed the weakest affinity. In all cases, dG revealed the strongest affinity towards the readers while dA showed the least.

The molecular complex formation in aqueous solution was studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry. The formation of both 1:1 and 2:1 complexes between one or two reading molecules and a DNA nucleotide were observed by ESI mass. A series of amino acids and carbohydrates were also examined by mass spectrometry to show the formation of non-covalent complexes with imidazole reader in aqueous solution. The experimental results were compared by calculating energies of ground state conformers of individual molecules and their complexes using computer modeling study by DFT calculations. These studies give insights into the molecular interactions that happen in a nanogap during recognition tunneling experiments.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Nanofluidic pathways for single molecule translocation and sequencing: nanotubes and nanopores

Description

Driven by the curiosity for the secret of life, the effort on sequencing of DNAs and other large biopolymers has never been respited. Advanced from recent sequencing techniques, nanotube and

Driven by the curiosity for the secret of life, the effort on sequencing of DNAs and other large biopolymers has never been respited. Advanced from recent sequencing techniques, nanotube and nanopore based sequencing has been attracting much attention. This thesis focuses on the study of first and crucial compartment of the third generation sequencing technique, the capture and translocation of biopolymers, and discuss the advantages and obstacles of two different nanofluidic pathways, nanotubes and nanopores for single molecule capturing and translocation. Carbon nanotubes with its constrained structure, the frictionless inner wall and strong electroosmotic flow, are promising materials for linearly threading DNA and other biopolymers for sequencing. Solid state nanopore on the other hand, is a robust chemical, thermal and mechanical stable nanofluidic device, which has a high capturing rate and, to some extent, good controllable threading ability for DNA and other biomolecules. These two different but similar nanofluidic pathways both provide a good preparation of analyte molecules for the sequencing purpose. In addition, more and more research interests have move onto peptide chains and protein sensing. For proteome is better and more direct indicators for human health, peptide chains and protein sensing have a much wider range of applications on bio-medicine, disease early diagnoses, and etc. A universal peptide chain nanopore sensing technique with universal chemical modification of peptides is discussed in this thesis as well, which unifies the nanopore capturing process for vast varieties of peptides. Obstacles of these nanofluidic pathways are also discussed. In the end of this thesis, a proposal of integration of solid state nanopore and fixed-gap recognition tunneling sequencing technique for a more accurate DNA and peptide readout is discussed, together with some early study work, which gives a new direction for nanopore based sequencing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Application of recognition tunneling in single molecule identification

Description

Single molecule identification is one essential application area of nanotechnology. The application areas including DNA sequencing, peptide sequencing, early disease detection and other industrial applications such as quantitative and quantitative

Single molecule identification is one essential application area of nanotechnology. The application areas including DNA sequencing, peptide sequencing, early disease detection and other industrial applications such as quantitative and quantitative analysis of impurities, etc. The recognition tunneling technique we have developed shows that after functionalization of the probe and substrate of a conventional Scanning Tunneling Microscope with recognition molecules ("tethered molecule-pair" configuration), analyte molecules trapped in the gap that is formed by probe and substrate will bond with the reagent molecules. The stochastic bond formation/breakage fluctuations give insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level. The distinct time domain and frequency domain features of tunneling signals were extracted from raw signals of analytes such as amino acids and their enantiomers. The Support Vector Machine (a machine-learning method) was used to do classification and predication based on the signal features generated by analytes, giving over 90% accuracy of separation of up to seven analytes. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid Peptide/DNA sequencing and molecule identification at single molecule level.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014