Matching Items (21)

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Locational Reserve Disqualification for Distinct Scenarios

Description

Reserve requirements promote reliability by ensuring resources are available to rebalance the power system following random disturbances. However, reliability is not guaranteed when dispatch is limited by transmission constraints. In

Reserve requirements promote reliability by ensuring resources are available to rebalance the power system following random disturbances. However, reliability is not guaranteed when dispatch is limited by transmission constraints. In this work, we propose a modified form of reserve requirement that identifies response sets for distinct contingency scenarios. The approach disqualifies reserve from counting towards a particular scenario if transmission constraints are likely to render that reserve undeliverable. A decomposition algorithm for security-constrained unit commitment dynamically updates the response sets to address changing conditions. Testing on the RTS 96 test case demonstrates the approach applied in tandem with existing reserve policies to avoid situations where reserve is not deliverable due to transmission constraints. Operational implications of the proposed method are discussed.

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  • 2015-01-01

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Stochastic optimization of product-machine qualification in a semiconductor back-end facility

Description

In order to process a product in a semiconductor back-end facility, a machine needs to be qualified, first by having product-specific software installed and then running test wafers through it

In order to process a product in a semiconductor back-end facility, a machine needs to be qualified, first by having product-specific software installed and then running test wafers through it to verify that the machine is capable of performing the process correctly. In general, not all machines are qualified to process all products due to the high machine qualification cost and tool set availability. The machine qualification decision affects future capacity allocation in the facility and subsequently affects daily production schedules. To balance the tradeoff between current machine qualification costs and future potential backorder costs due to not enough machines qualified with uncertain demand, a stochastic product–machine qualification optimization model is proposed in this article. The L-shaped method and acceleration techniques are proposed to solve the stochastic model. Computational results are provided to show the necessity of the stochastic model and the performance of different solution methods.

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Date Created
  • 2015-07-03

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Radiation dose optimization for critical organs

Description

Ionizing radiation used in the patient diagnosis or therapy has negative effects on the patient body in short term and long term depending on the amount of exposure. More than

Ionizing radiation used in the patient diagnosis or therapy has negative effects on the patient body in short term and long term depending on the amount of exposure. More than 700,000 examinations are everyday performed on Interventional Radiology modalities [1], however; there is no patient-centric information available to the patient or the Quality Assurance for the amount of organ dose received. In this study, we are exploring the methodologies to systematically reduce the absorbed radiation dose in the Fluoroscopically Guided Interventional Radiology procedures. In the first part of this study, we developed a mathematical model which determines a set of geometry settings for the equipment and a level for the energy during a patient exam. The goal is to minimize the amount of absorbed dose in the critical organs while maintaining image quality required for the diagnosis. The model is a large-scale mixed integer program. We performed polyhedral analysis and derived several sets of strong inequalities to improve the computational speed and quality of the solution. Results present the amount of absorbed dose in the critical organ can be reduced up to 99% for a specific set of angles. In the second part, we apply an approximate gradient method to simultaneously optimize angle and table location while minimizing dose in the critical organs with respect to the image quality. In each iteration, we solve a sub-problem as a MIP to determine the radiation field size and corresponding X-ray tube energy. In the computational experiments, results show further reduction (up to 80%) of the absorbed dose in compare with previous method. Last, there are uncertainties in the medical procedures resulting imprecision of the absorbed dose. We propose a robust formulation to hedge from the worst case absorbed dose while ensuring feasibility. In this part, we investigate a robust approach for the organ motions within a radiology procedure. We minimize the absorbed dose for the critical organs across all input data scenarios which are corresponding to the positioning and size of the organs. The computational results indicate up to 26% increase in the absorbed dose calculated for the robust approach which ensures the feasibility across scenarios.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Product design optimization under epistemic uncertainty

Description

This dissertation is to address product design optimization including reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) and robust design with epistemic uncertainty. It is divided into four major components as outlined below. Firstly,

This dissertation is to address product design optimization including reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) and robust design with epistemic uncertainty. It is divided into four major components as outlined below. Firstly, a comprehensive study of uncertainties is performed, in which sources of uncertainty are listed, categorized and the impacts are discussed. Epistemic uncertainty is of interest, which is due to lack of knowledge and can be reduced by taking more observations. In particular, the strategies to address epistemic uncertainties due to implicit constraint function are discussed. Secondly, a sequential sampling strategy to improve RBDO under implicit constraint function is developed. In modern engineering design, an RBDO task is often performed by a computer simulation program, which can be treated as a black box, as its analytical function is implicit. An efficient sampling strategy on learning the probabilistic constraint function under the design optimization framework is presented. The method is a sequential experimentation around the approximate most probable point (MPP) at each step of optimization process. It is compared with the methods of MPP-based sampling, lifted surrogate function, and non-sequential random sampling. Thirdly, a particle splitting-based reliability analysis approach is developed in design optimization. In reliability analysis, traditional simulation methods such as Monte Carlo simulation may provide accurate results, but are often accompanied with high computational cost. To increase the efficiency, particle splitting is integrated into RBDO. It is an improvement of subset simulation with multiple particles to enhance the diversity and stability of simulation samples. This method is further extended to address problems with multiple probabilistic constraints and compared with the MPP-based methods. Finally, a reliability-based robust design optimization (RBRDO) framework is provided to integrate the consideration of design reliability and design robustness simultaneously. The quality loss objective in robust design, considered together with the production cost in RBDO, are used formulate a multi-objective optimization problem. With the epistemic uncertainty from implicit performance function, the sequential sampling strategy is extended to RBRDO, and a combined metamodel is proposed to tackle both controllable variables and uncontrollable variables. The solution is a Pareto frontier, compared with a single optimal solution in RBDO.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Optimization of surgery delivery systems

Description

Optimization of surgical operations is a challenging managerial problem for surgical suite directors. This dissertation presents modeling and solution techniques for operating room (OR) planning and scheduling problems. First, several

Optimization of surgical operations is a challenging managerial problem for surgical suite directors. This dissertation presents modeling and solution techniques for operating room (OR) planning and scheduling problems. First, several sequencing and patient appointment time setting heuristics are proposed for scheduling an Outpatient Procedure Center. A discrete event simulation model is used to evaluate how scheduling heuristics perform with respect to the competing criteria of expected patient waiting time and expected surgical suite overtime for a single day compared to current practice. Next, a bi-criteria Genetic Algorithm is used to determine if better solutions can be obtained for this single day scheduling problem. The efficacy of the bi-criteria Genetic Algorithm, when surgeries are allowed to be moved to other days, is investigated. Numerical experiments based on real data from a large health care provider are presented. The analysis provides insight into the best scheduling heuristics, and the tradeoff between patient and health care provider based criteria. Second, a multi-stage stochastic mixed integer programming formulation for the allocation of surgeries to ORs over a finite planning horizon is studied. The demand for surgery and surgical duration are random variables. The objective is to minimize two competing criteria: expected surgery cancellations and OR overtime. A decomposition method, Progressive Hedging, is implemented to find near optimal surgery plans. Finally, properties of the model are discussed and methods are proposed to improve the performance of the algorithm based on the special structure of the model. It is found simple rules can improve schedules used in practice. Sequencing surgeries from the longest to shortest mean duration causes high expected overtime, and should be avoided, while sequencing from the shortest to longest mean duration performed quite well in our experiments. Expending greater computational effort with more sophisticated optimization methods does not lead to substantial improvements. However, controlling daily procedure mix may achieve substantial improvements in performance. A novel stochastic programming model for a dynamic surgery planning problem is proposed in the dissertation. The efficacy of the progressive hedging algorithm is investigated. It is found there is a significant correlation between the performance of the algorithm and type and number of scenario bundles in a problem instance. The computational time spent to solve scenario subproblems is among the most significant factors that impact the performance of the algorithm. The quality of the solutions can be improved by detecting and preventing cyclical behaviors.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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The application of Bayesian networks in system reliability

Description

In this paper, a literature review is presented on the application of Bayesian networks applied in system reliability analysis. It is shown that Bayesian networks have become a popular modeling

In this paper, a literature review is presented on the application of Bayesian networks applied in system reliability analysis. It is shown that Bayesian networks have become a popular modeling framework for system reliability analysis due to the benefits that Bayesian networks have the capability and flexibility to model complex systems, update the probability according to evidences and give a straightforward and compact graphical representation. Research on approaches for Bayesian network learning and inference are summarized. Two groups of models with multistate nodes were developed for scenarios from constant to continuous time to apply and contrast Bayesian networks with classical fault tree method. The expanded model discretized the continuous variables and provided failure related probability distribution over time.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Mathematical-based approaches for the semiconductor capital equipment installation and qualification scheduling problem

Description

Ramping up a semiconductor wafer fabrication facility is a challenging endeavor. One of the key components of this process is to schedule a large number of activities in installing and

Ramping up a semiconductor wafer fabrication facility is a challenging endeavor. One of the key components of this process is to schedule a large number of activities in installing and qualifying (Install/Qual) the capital intensive and sophisticated manufacturing equipment. Activities in the Install/Qual process share multiple types of expensive and scare resources and each activity might potentially have multiple processing options. In this dissertation, the semiconductor capital equipment Install/Qual scheduling problem is modeled as a multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem (MRCPSP) with multiple special extensions. Three phases of research are carried out: the first phase studies the special problem characteristics of the Install/Qual process, including multiple activity processing options, time-varying resource availability levels, resource vacations, and activity splitting that does not allow preemption. A modified precedence tree-based branch-and-bound algorithm is proposed to solve small size academic problem instances to optimality. Heuristic-based methodologies are the main focus of phase 2. Modified priority rule-based simple heuristics and a modified random key-based genetic algorithm (RKGA) are proposed to search for Install/Qual schedules with short makespans but subject to resource constraints. Methodologies are tested on both small and large random academic problem instances and instances that are similar to the actual Install/Qual process of a major semiconductor manufacturer. In phase 3, a decision making framework is proposed to strategically plan the Install/Qual capacity ramp. Product market demand, product market price, resource consumption cost, as well as the payment of capital equipment, are considered. A modified simulated annealing (SA) algorithm-based optimization module is integrated with a Monte Carlo simulation-based simulation module to search for good capacity ramping strategies under uncertain market information. The decision making framework can be used during the Install/Qual schedule planning phase as well as the Install/Qual schedule execution phase when there is a portion of equipment that has already been installed or qualified. Computational experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the decision making framework.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Robust corrective topology control for system reliability and renewable integration

Description

Corrective transmission topology control schemes are an essential part of grid operations and are used to improve the reliability of the grid as well as the operational efficiency. However, topology

Corrective transmission topology control schemes are an essential part of grid operations and are used to improve the reliability of the grid as well as the operational efficiency. However, topology control schemes are frequently established based on the operator's past knowledge of the system as well as other ad-hoc methods. This research presents robust corrective topology control, which is a transmission switching methodology used for system reliability as well as to facilitate renewable integration.

This research presents three topology control (corrective transmission switching) methodologies along with the detailed formulation of robust corrective switching. The robust model can be solved off-line to suggest switching actions that can be used in a dynamic security assessment tool in real-time. The proposed robust topology control algorithm can also generate multiple corrective switching actions for a particular contingency. The solution obtained from the robust topology control algorithm is guaranteed to be feasible for the entire uncertainty set, i.e., a range of system operating states.

Furthermore, this research extends the benefits of robust corrective topology control to renewable resource integration. In recent years, the penetration of renewable resources in electrical power systems has increased. These renewable resources add more complexities to power system operations, due to their intermittent nature. This research presents robust corrective topology control as a congestion management tool to manage power flows and the associated renewable uncertainty. The proposed day-ahead method determines the maximum uncertainty in renewable resources in terms of do-not-exceed limits combined with corrective topology control. The results obtained from the topology control algorithm are tested for system stability and AC feasibility.

The scalability of do-not-exceed limits problem, from a smaller test case to a realistic test case, is also addressed in this research. The do-not-exceed limit problem is simplified by proposing a zonal do-not-exceed limit formulation over a detailed nodal do-not-exceed limit formulation. The simulation results show that the zonal approach is capable of addressing scalability of the do-not-exceed limit problem for a realistic test case.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Fix-and-optimize heuristic and MP-based approaches for capacitated lot sizing problem with setup carryover, setup splitting and backlogging

Description

In this thesis, a single-level, multi-item capacitated lot sizing problem with setup carryover, setup splitting and backlogging is investigated. This problem is typically used in the tactical and operational planning

In this thesis, a single-level, multi-item capacitated lot sizing problem with setup carryover, setup splitting and backlogging is investigated. This problem is typically used in the tactical and operational planning stage, determining the optimal production quantities and sequencing for all the products in the planning horizon. Although the capacitated lot sizing problems have been investigated with many different features from researchers, the simultaneous consideration of setup carryover and setup splitting is relatively new. This consideration is beneficial to reduce costs and produce feasible production schedule. Setup carryover allows the production setup to be continued between two adjacent periods without incurring extra setup costs and setup times. Setup splitting permits the setup to be partially finished in one period and continued in the next period, utilizing the capacity more efficiently and remove infeasibility of production schedule.

The main approaches are that first the simple plant location formulation is adopted to reformulate the original model. Furthermore, an extended formulation by redefining the idle period constraints is developed to make the formulation tighter. Then for the purpose of evaluating the solution quality from heuristic, three types of valid inequalities are added to the model. A fix-and-optimize heuristic with two-stage product decomposition and period decomposition strategies is proposed to solve the formulation. This generic heuristic solves a small portion of binary variables and all the continuous variables rapidly in each subproblem. In addition, the case with demand backlogging is also incorporated to demonstrate that making additional assumptions to the basic formulation does not require to completely altering the heuristic.

The contribution of this thesis includes several aspects: the computational results show the capability, flexibility and effectiveness of the approaches. The average optimality gap is 6% for data without backlogging and 8% for data with backlogging, respectively. In addition, when backlogging is not allowed, the performance of fix-and-optimize heuristic is stable regardless of period length. This gives advantage of using such approach to plan longer production schedule. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed solution approaches is analyzed so that later research on similar topics could compare the result with different solution strategies.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Routing and scheduling of electric and alternative-fuel vehicles

Description

Vehicles powered by electricity and alternative-fuels are becoming a more popular form of transportation since they have less of an environmental impact than standard gasoline vehicles. Unfortunately, their success is

Vehicles powered by electricity and alternative-fuels are becoming a more popular form of transportation since they have less of an environmental impact than standard gasoline vehicles. Unfortunately, their success is currently inhibited by the sparseness of locations where the vehicles can refuel as well as the fact that many of the vehicles have a range that is less than those powered by gasoline. These factors together create a "range anxiety" in drivers, which causes the drivers to worry about the utility of alternative-fuel and electric vehicles and makes them less likely to purchase these vehicles. For the new vehicle technologies to thrive it is critical that range anxiety is minimized and performance is increased as much as possible through proper routing and scheduling. In the case of long distance trips taken by individual vehicles, the routes must be chosen such that the vehicles take the shortest routes while not running out of fuel on the trip. When many vehicles are to be routed during the day, if the refueling stations have limited capacity then care must be taken to avoid having too many vehicles arrive at the stations at any time. If the vehicles that will need to be routed in the future are unknown then this problem is stochastic. For fleets of vehicles serving scheduled operations, switching to alternative-fuels requires ensuring the schedules do not cause the vehicles to run out of fuel. This is especially problematic since the locations where the vehicles may refuel are limited due to the technology being new. This dissertation covers three related optimization problems: routing a single electric or alternative-fuel vehicle on a long distance trip, routing many electric vehicles in a network where the stations have limited capacity and the arrivals into the system are stochastic, and scheduling fleets of electric or alternative-fuel vehicles with limited locations to refuel. Different algorithms are proposed to solve each of the three problems, of which some are exact and some are heuristic. The algorithms are tested on both random data and data relating to the State of Arizona.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014