Matching Items (4)

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Enhanced Lipid Productivity and Photosynthesis Efficiency in a Desmodesmus sp. Mutant Induced by Heavy Carbon Ions

Description

The unicellular green microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 can produce more than 50% total lipid of cell dry weight under high light and nitrogen-limitation conditions. After irradiation by heavy [superscript 12]C[superscript

The unicellular green microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 can produce more than 50% total lipid of cell dry weight under high light and nitrogen-limitation conditions. After irradiation by heavy [superscript 12]C[superscript 6+] ion beam of 10, 30, 60, 90 or 120 Gy, followed by screening of resulting mutants on 24-well microplates, more than 500 mutants were obtained. One of those, named D90G-19, exhibited lipid productivity of 0.298 g L[superscript −1]⋅d[superscript −1], 20.6% higher than wild type, likely owing to an improved maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) of photosynthesis under stress. This work demonstrated that heavy-ion irradiation combined with high-throughput screening is an effective means for trait improvement. The resulting mutant D90G-19 may be used for enhanced lipid production.

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Date Created
  • 2013-04-09

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Palladium-platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

Description

Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system

Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can be attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. These results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability.

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Date Created
  • 2015-07-01

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Path integral Monte Carlo simulations of semiconductor quantum dots and quantum wires

Description

he accurate simulation of many-body quantum systems is a challenge for computational physics. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are a class of algorithms that can be used to solve the many-body

he accurate simulation of many-body quantum systems is a challenge for computational physics. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are a class of algorithms that can be used to solve the many-body problem. I study many-body quantum systems with Path Integral Monte Carlo techniques in three related areas of semiconductor physics: (1) the role of correlation in exchange coupling of spins in double quantum dots, (2) the degree of correlation and hyperpolarizability in Stark shifts in InGaAs/GaAs dots, and (3) van der Waals interactions between 1-D metallic quantum wires at finite temperature. The two-site model is one of the simplest quantum problems, yet the quantitative mapping from a three-dimensional model of a quantum double dot to an effective two-site model has many subtleties requiring careful treatment of exchange and correlation. I calculate exchange coupling of a pair of spins in a double dot from the permutations in a bosonic path integral, using Monte Carlo method. I also map this problem to a Hubbard model and find that exchange and correlation renormalizes the model parameters, dramatically decreasing the effective on-site repulsion at larger separations. Next, I investigated the energy, dipole moment, polarizability and hyperpolarizability of excitonic system in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots of different shapes and successfully give the photoluminescence spectra for different dots with electric fields in both the growth and transverse direction. I also showed that my method can deal with the higher-order hyperpolarizability, which is most relevant for fields directed in the lateral direction of large dots. Finally, I show how van der Waals interactions between two metallic quantum wires change with respect to the distance between them. Comparing the results from quantum Monte Carlo and the random phase approximation, I find similar power law dependance. My results for the calculation in quasi-1D and exact 1D wires include the effect of temperature, which has not previously been studied.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Modeling, Control and Design of Modular Multilevel Converters for High Power Applications

Description

Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) have become an attractive technology for high power applications. One of the main challenges associated with control and operation of the MMC-based systems is to smoothly

Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) have become an attractive technology for high power applications. One of the main challenges associated with control and operation of the MMC-based systems is to smoothly precharge submodule (SM) capacitors to the nominal voltage during the startup process. The existing closed-loop methods require additional effort to analyze the small-signal model of MMC and tune control parameters. The existing open-loop methods require auxiliary voltage sources to charge SM capacitors, which add to the system complexity and cost. A generalized precharging strategy is proposed in this thesis.

For large-scale MMC-embedded power systems, it is required to investigate dynamic performance, fault characteristics, and stability. Modeling of the MMC is one of the challenges associated with the study of large-scale MMC-based power systems. The existing models of MMC did not consider the various configurations of SMs and different operating conditions. An improved equivalent circuit model is proposed in this thesis.

The solid state transformer (SST) has been investigated for the distribution systems to reduce the volume and weight of power transformer. Recently, the MMC is employed into the SST due to its salient features. For design and control of the MMC-based SST, its operational principles are comprehensively analyzed. Based on the analysis, its mathematical model is developed for evaluating steady-state performances. For optimal design of the MMC-based SST, the mathematical model is modified by considering circuit parameters.

One of the challenges of the MMC-based SST is the balancing of capacitor voltages. The performances of various voltage balancing algorithms and different modulation methods have not been comprehensively evaluated. In this thesis, the performances of different voltage-balancing algorithms and modulation methods are analyzed and evaluated. Based on the analysis, two improved voltage-balancing algorithms are proposed in this thesis.

For design of the MMC-based SST, existing references only focus on optimal design of medium-frequency transformer (MFT). In this thesis, an optimal design procedure is developed for the MMC under medium-frequency operation based on the mathematical model of the MMC-based SST. The design performance of MMC is comprehensively evaluated based on free system parameters.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020