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多元化集团母公司心智图 对公司战略成效的影响:理论与案例分析

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中国自80年代以来随着改革开放和经济发展潮流,一批批本土企业快速成长,已经从单一主业壮大成熟,完成资本积累并快速朝多元化、规模化发展。截止到2019年中国有129家企业进入世界500强,而该数量在2011年为69家 ,2005年为18家。这一数据反映了中国大型集团的增长速度之快、数量之多令人刮目相看。

然而,大型企业集团在经营规模上的庞大并不能掩盖其管理水平的低下与尴尬,这一点从多数企业的规模和利润比率就可窥见一斑。从战略管理角度看,集团企业在单一主业上的业务战略管理水平(竞争战略)经过30多年的发展和沉淀已经相对成熟,在某一行业领域也发展沉淀了很多成熟的职业经理人和专业人才。但是,国内至今很少有多元化集团战略管理(公司层面战略)的专题研究,且在多元化集团战略管理实践方面缺少经验和积累。多元化集团战略及管理领域的研究具有重要的现实意义和学术价值。

公司层面战略的研究起始于20世纪50年代,现有研究领域以西方学者为主,涉及公司层面战略的诸多领域,比如分部化、一般管理技能共用、协同效应、多元化、业务组合规划、基于价值的规划、重组、核心竞争力和资源共享、母合优势等全新和具有全球影响力的母公司管理概念。本文涉及的多元化集团公司战略三要素:母公司管理机制、业务组合、母子公司管控及子公司之间联接之前有西方学者作为独立课题都曾研究过,但作为整体性研究较少。中国目前研究该公司层面战略成果较少,市场上从事该领域的咨询机构也很少,少数咨询公司业务以多元化集团战略管控咨询方面为主。本文将从多元化集团母公司心智图对公司层面战略成效影响的研究作为核心内容,这项研究在中国乃至在世界范围内尚属初步尝试。

母公司心智图代表了某一时期多元化集团核心决策层的战略管理思维水平现状,是核心决策层对多元化集团公司战略三个核心要素及其相互关系的认知和掌握程度的集中体现。母公司心智图水平的测量可以从核心决策层的构成合理性及成员背景、核心决策层对行业及业务组合的认知水平、核心决策层对对母公司管理机制的认知水平、核心决策层对母子公司之间的联接及影响的认知水平以及核心决策层对多元化集团战略管理的综合能力水平这五个维度,共15个指标进行测量,总分100分。掌握了母公司的心智图就能够识别整个公司战略管理的现状及逻辑。母公司心智图决定了母公司管理机制、母子公司的联接影响方式(母公司如何影响和联接旗下业务)和业务组合(公司资金和管理的投向),而这三个核心要素的决策决定了公司层面战略的成效。母公司心智图的水平将很大程度上正面影响公司的战略成效。

本文将深入针对具有三个不同心智图水平的多元化集团进行案例分析,分别研究不同的母公司心智图水平如何通过影响业务组合决策、母公司管理机制建设、母子公司联接进而影响公司的战略成效。

关键词: 多元化集团、母公司心智图、心智图测量、公司层面战略管理三支柱、战略成效

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  • 2020

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并购背景下教育行业品牌价值研究

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企业并购是经济管理领域长盛不衰的研究话题,也是企业高投资与高风险并行的战略举措。并购后对品牌进行有效整合是实现并购价值的重要过程,只有对并购后的品牌进行整合,才能使并购取得应有的并购协同效应。在消费者导向意识不断深化,服务导向逐渐成为服务行业的主流导向的背景下,研究品牌并购中消费者感知及其忠诚显得尤为重要。企业并购过程中面临的风险与挑战之一就是消费者未必对商家的品牌并购行为买账,消费者忠诚受到影响。尽管已有学者提出品牌并购的企业更应关注消费者及其忠诚,但目前从消费者感知角度研究企业或品牌并购行为的研究较少。为了揭示消费者感知品牌并购的过程,探究品牌并购是否及如何影响消费者感知及忠诚,本文基于深度访谈法与情境下问卷调查法分析了消费者对品牌并购的感知及结果,并设计两项研究:研究一在理论分析与前人研究基础上,通过对消费者的深度访谈,确立了消费者感知的品牌并购价值的四个维度,分别为品牌联想、产品联想、组织联想与人员服务品质,并在借鉴前人研究结合本研究的具体背景,得出消费者感知的品牌并购价值的测量条目。研究二通过情境模拟下的问卷调查法,检验了消费者感知品牌并购价值、感知质量、感知价值、品牌忠诚、产品涉入以及品牌知名度之间的关系。在此基础上,本文对L教育集团在实践运营过程中的品牌并购案例进行详细分析,发现了L教育集团发起品牌并购的原因以及并购过程中存在的问题和改进建议。

研究结果显示:(1)消费者感知的品牌并购价值的四个维度分别为品牌联想、产品联想、组织联想与人员服务品质;(2)消费者感知品牌并购价值与感知质量有显著正相关关系,表明消费者感知品牌并购价值能够提高消费者的感知质量;(3)消费者感知质量对其感知价值有显著的正向影响,表明感知质量正向预测消费者的感知价值水平;(4)消费者感知质量对其品牌忠诚有显著的积极作用;(5)消费者感知品牌并购价值与消费者感知价值存在显著的正相关关系;(6)消费者感知品牌并购价值对消费者品牌忠诚的路径系数达到显著性水平;(7)消费者感知质量在感知并购价值与感知价值、品牌忠诚之间起部分中介作用;(8)产品涉入与品牌知名度在消费者感知并购价值与感知质量的关系之间起调节作用。

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  • 2019

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A Study on Investment and Financing Model of Urban Rail ——With Case Study on Metro Rail Transit in city A, China

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As an alternative to the traditional public transportation system, (urban) rail transit has many advantages such as large capacity, fast speed, tight schedule, safety and comfort, and punctuality, , and

As an alternative to the traditional public transportation system, (urban) rail transit has many advantages such as large capacity, fast speed, tight schedule, safety and comfort, and punctuality, , and has gradually become a top choice of many cities in countering environmental pollution and optimizing traffic quality. At the same time, we must also see that huge amounts of capital are required for the construction of rail transit. The traditional reliance on government investment clearly has its own limitations. The investment not only has a long cost-recovery cycle and a low rate of return, but also hardly attracts investments from the private sector. Therefore, when the government vigorously promotes the construction of a rail transit system, it is generally faced with problems such as a large funding gap and an overall financial loss. Therefore, how to establish a reasonable and efficient mode of investment and financing and further broaden the financing channels for rail transit projects is of great practical significance for improving the profitability of rail transit enterprises and realizing the sustainable development of rail transit. This thesis attempts to study the issue, in general, and further exmines a detailed case study of metro rail transit in a Chinsese city (city A), in particular.

The thesis first studies the concept and attributes of urban rail transit, and analyzes four modes and corresponding cases of urban rail transit investment and financing., It then discusses the characteristics of investment and financing of urban rail transit projects and the concept of investment and financing. Moreover, this thesis focuses on the current situation, characteristics and challenges of city A’s rail transit construction,. More specifically, it takes an in-depth look at the financial planning, investment and financing planning and the investment and financing channels products. The study innovatively puts forward three models, namely, PPP, TOD, ABS of rail transit investment and financing products. Based on the AHP decision-making method, the study shows PPP as the optimal integrated choice for city A. Finally, based on the core issues of the domestic urban rail transit project investment and financing, this thesis analyzes the rationality of the PPP model thoroughly and comes up with some managerial and policy suggestions on how to further optimize the investment and financing of the urban rail transit construction from the perspectives of the government management and the rail transit enterprises

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  • 2018

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国家集中采购试点政策对制药企业和制药产业的影响评估

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当今中国,人口老龄化趋势正驱动卫生总费用快速攀升,国家医保基金可持续性面临挑战。从卫生费用结构来看,中国长期以来存在药品费用占卫生总费用比例高、用药结构相对不合理等问题,限制了基金使用效率的提升,不利于医保基金的可持续发展。医保控费尤其是控制药品花费的必要性日益凸显。2018年末,新组建的国家医保局在“4+7城市”启动了国家药品集中采购试点工作,通过“量价挂钩”“以量换价”的形式,实现了25个药品品种的大幅降价,在减轻患者经济负担、节省医保费用、净化流通环境等方面成效显著。可以预期,在医保控费压力下,以带量采购为核心的集中采购将成为一项长期的政策选项。与此同时,该项政策将通过对价格信号的重大调整和采购量的重新分配重塑市场格局,对制药产业和制药企业产生深刻影响。因此,对集中采购政策的实施影响进行全面、审慎的评估,一方面能形成对集中采购政策执行现状的深刻理解,另一方面也能基于政策实施后的产业影响,对推广实施集中采购政策形成针对性建议。 本文通过文献梳理、案例研究、问卷分析和回归预测分析等多元研究方法,对国家药品集中采购试点政策实施后对制药企业和制药行业的影响进行了深入分析。研究发现,在企业层面,受制于本国制药企业发展阶段和价格下降导致的利润压缩,国家集中采购试点政策将在一定程度上影响中标药品对于大量中国患者需求的满足并对中标药品的质量控制形成一定压力;产业层面,由于价格下降和市场格局变动导致企业预期变化,国家集中采购试点政策将使得仿制药企业对待药品的“质量和疗效一致性评价”更为审慎,短期内在被采购的药物分子领域形成一家独大的局面,长远将导致行业集中度的进一步提高。针对上述研究发现。
本文分别从带量采购政策的政策设计、带量采购中标药品质量监管政策和仿制药产业鼓励政策等维度提出了相应优化建议。建议政府在带量采购政策设计上坚持分类采购原则,强化中标企业产能、产量的核实,加大自由竞争市场份额,合理划分带量采购片区,避免医院采用“一刀切”的政策使用中标药;在质量监管上加强针对性质量监管,运用风险工具进行评估,针对高危风险制定风险最小化措施,加强推进ICH Q10在仿制药企业中的落地;在仿制药产业鼓励政策上落实“质量和疗效一致性评价”鼓励政策,为高质量仿制药提供积极的市场环境,优化流通环节费率计算方式。

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  • 2020

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B-Park公司在上海三甲医院智能停车项目的融资策略优化研究

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中国改革开放40年,全国人民整体生活水平提升,家用轿车已经全面普及,医疗及需求的提升,导致医院停车空间严重欠缺。而智能立体停车设备,可以采用零星用地,解决医院停车难题。

建设领域常用的融资手段,在智能停车位建设上尚不能完全适应,本文的智能停车位建设在医院,受土地性质的限制,在融资方面受到的限制也比较多。因而本文围绕以医院建设智能停车位的资金需求而展开的融资方案研究,采用实地研究中的案例研究方法,案例研究自变量中,2016年2月-2017年12月,耗时20个月,以上海的107家医院62个融资需求的智能停车位的收益稳定性、建设批量、建设速度、收益权期限、建设投入、运营收入、运营支出及智能停车设备建成后的综合收益做充分的研究统计分析;案例研究因变量中,2016年10月-2017年12月,耗时14个月,对145家金融机构、210位机构负责人,诸如银行、信托、基金、保理、融资租赁、资产管理、小额贷款、消费金融、私募、ABS、保险、融资担保、融资中介、风险投资、证券等多个机构的风控标准要素如增信要求、担保条件、合作模式、放款额度、资金期限、资金成本、投资方案、融资费用、放款速度等多个投资条件实施访谈研究统计分析,总结提炼对照假设获得对应的高匹配程度的多种组合融资方案,高度优化了B-Park公司的初始融资方案。

本文一个主要的研究结论是:医院智能停车项目可以采取单一融资模式,也可以采取集成融资模式,揭示了在新的环境创新科技金融领域的融资方案。此外,项目的投资收益表现对收费价格很敏感,但是对资金成本(年利率)不是很敏感。结果表明,在新的环境下,

科技金融领域的融资方案得到了创新。这是一篇典型的生产、教学和研究论文,为我国停车建设融资需求的快速发展,特别是医院停车建设融资需求提供了较高的研究参考。

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  • 2019

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银行卡跨境支付资金清算效率研究

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本论文研究的目的是针对银行卡跨境支付行为,根据不同的跨境支付渠道,结合资金清算的不同模式下的资金清算效率进行研究,并对现有清算系统内,运用理论和模型,对如何提高银行卡跨境资金清算进行阐述分析,力图在现有跨境资金清算金融设施的基础上,对银行卡跨境资金清算的流动性管理、头寸控制、增加清算周期等因素进行研究分析,进而尝试提出清算机制和流程的优化设计,以促进跨境资金提高周转效率,节约社会交易成本和持卡人资金成本。

论文将对相关银行卡跨境支付、清算基本流程、涉及的相关系统进行说明,并对全球和世界主要国家的银行卡市场进行介绍,结合我国银行卡跨境业务的现状、跨境支付清算涉及的主要环节、清算系统,通过不同层次、不同模型的分类比对,提出提高银行卡跨境支付资金清算的关键节点,并加以聚焦、深入测算、推导。研究的最终目的是期望通过对以上的分析,能够对银行卡资金清算参与主体对清算模式的选择、流动性节约、头寸管理等有所帮助,让清算主体能籍此对支付通道、清算模式、账户管理等选择上有所参考,促进卡组织(支付系统)籍此提高清算效率,从而降低整体交易和资金成本,提高支付行业整体资金资源的使用效率。

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  • 2019

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企业所有制属性、组织认同度与员工创新能力研究 —基于航天产业视角

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航天产业属于技术密集型行业,现阶段中国航天的发展需要巨额资金和科研人力资本。传统航天企业内员工相较商业航天企业缺乏创新精神,“搭便车”现象严重,缺乏以创新为内在增长动力的传统航天产业,其发展持续性终究得不到满足。相比而言,国内外的商业航天企业却展现出较强的创新能力。遗憾的是,虽然航天产业的高科技属性决定了科研人员的关键角色,但目前的研究几乎没有系统地研究过不同的体制对航天产业创新的影响机制,而有限的研究也集中在讨论宏观环境对行业创新的影响。本研究将弥补这方面研究的不足,分析传统航天模式与新兴商业航天模式下科研人员创新力差别的内在动因,力求给传统航天产业的发展提供有实际意义的参考和建议。

作者自2008年加入传统航天院所从事科研工作,2014年创立中国第一家商业卫星公司,在实践中充分利用面试知识型员工的机会,并深入访谈了不同职级的科研人员,覆盖了30家商业航天公司(截至2016年上市公司54家),包括来自中国传统航天的科研院所、直属航天企业及新兴商业航天公司300余人。通过多次沟通、邮件往来等方式进一步调查研究,发现不同所有制公司的员工在组织认同度方面存在较为明显的差异。为了系统科学地理解组织认同度在航天行业内如何影响不同体制下的科研人员的创新,本研究采用问卷调查的形式收集了1200份问卷,研究在传统航天及商业航天这两种不同所有制的航天企业中,组织认同度与科研人员创新能力的关系。从实证结果来看,航天产业员工组织认同度会显著影响员工的创新绩效,组织认同度越高的员工其创新能力往往更强,员工创新绩效越高。与此同时,通过进一步研究分析发现,航天产业公司所有权属性的差异在组织认同影响员工创新能力的过程中起着调节作用。具体而言,传统航天企业中的员工,其组织认同度对其员工创新能力影响更小,商业航天公司员工创新能力受到其组织认同度的影响相对较大。

研究结果从某种程度上反映了航天领域不同所有权属性企业所具有的不同的组织文化、组织价值观与组织结构会导致其员工个体组织认同度对其创新行为的影响产生差异。从组织文化的角度出发,商业航天企业其组织文化相对于传统航天企业而言更加自由,对员工创意、创新行为限制更少,这种自由的文化刺激并提高了员工的组织认同度,使得个体创新行为的效果更加显著。另外,从组织价值观的角度而言,商业航天企业员工相对于传统航天企业员工来讲更加看重创新行为的意义,其对员工创新行为的重视使其员工组织认同度对员工取得创新绩效产生了催化作用。最后,从组织结构的角度来看,商业航天企业其管理层相对而言往往更愿意接受企业中员工的创意与创新行为,给员工留下了相当大的创新空间,这种灵活的管理方式从某种程度上也会促进组织认同度对员工创新行为产生影响。

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Date Created
  • 2019

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A Study on Risk of Internet Finance Based on Industrial Economics

Description

Under the background of the "new normal" of China's economy and the contraction of traditional financial sector, the development of Internet finance provides new financing channels for SMEs and individual

Under the background of the "new normal" of China's economy and the contraction of traditional financial sector, the development of Internet finance provides new financing channels for SMEs and individual financial needs. But with rapid development of the Internet finance, the overall risk also appears gradually as well as the platform differentiation appears more evidently. China's Internet financial industry enters the stage of standardization development. In order to effectively prevent and resolve Internet financial risks and create a good internet financial environment, we need to identify the risk factors of Internet financial industry. Through reference carding of the existing literature, this paper proposes a research hypothesis that the industrial economic background is negatively related to the operating risk of the Internet financial platform. After descriptive statistical analysis of the current situation of the Internet financial industry in China, this paper collects 600 P2P net-lending platforms data manually, and uses Probit model to test the research hypothesis. Ceteris paribus, the result show that compared with the platform without industrial economic background, the risk probability of the industrial economic background platform will be reduced by 6.5 percentage points, and there is no regional difference in this result. This paper explains the result from two layers which are the relieving information asymmetry and the platform’s reputation mechanism. The study also finds that in addition to the industrial economic background, the P2P platform's registered capital, operation time, whether the platform funds have the corresponding third-party guarantee and the information disclosure of platform executives will significantly reduce business risk probability of the platforms. The above research conclusions also passed the robust test. Finally, this paper makes a case analysis of the two Internet Financial platforms in Suning Finance and Tuniu Finance, which have different industrial economic background and mode of operation. It also summarizes the risk control system.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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A Study of Franchising Models in Express Delivery Services in China

Description

With regard to business modules in Chinese delivery services companies, there has long been a heated debate on whether franchising or direct management is the better module for Chinese market.

With regard to business modules in Chinese delivery services companies, there has long been a heated debate on whether franchising or direct management is the better module for Chinese market. But most prior discussion was lightweight, unconvincing and without any theoretical framework.

This research examines three major management problems in Chinese delivery services: 1. The reason for choosing franchising module, 2. The relationship between franchising module and implementation of the product, 3. The functions of IT in delivery services. By reviewing theories on enterprise boundary and summarizing the six features of franchising contracts in Chinese delivery business as well as the five properties of delivery products, two contract models are finally set up with five beneficial conclusions which are proved by a very solid empirical data analysis.

The purpose of this research is to either support or weaken the current theories on enterprise boundary as well as to offer meaningful inspirations for the management of express delivery companies in China.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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From Preference to Choice: An Empirical Analysis of Consumer Decision Making in

Description

In this study I investigate the factors that may influence consumer preference and choice in China’s home interior decoration industry. With the fast development of information technology such as the

In this study I investigate the factors that may influence consumer preference and choice in China’s home interior decoration industry. With the fast development of information technology such as the internet in China, it becomes increasingly important to have a more precise understanding of consumer preference and choice in home interior decoration decisions so that companies in this industry can provide better services to meet customer needs. Using survey data from a sample of potential customers and a sample of existing customers of a large home interior decoration company, I find that (1) internet has become the mostly used channel by consumers to gather information about home interior decoration, (2) design style is the most influential factor in consumers’ choice of home interior decoration company, and (3) consumers are more likely to choose home interior decoration companies to provide full services when they are between 35 to 45 years old or above 55 years old, when it is the first time for them to purchase a real estate property, and when they are located in the Eastern region of China. Findings of this study can help home interior decoration companies better understand customer needs and preferences, facilitate changes in their marketing and sales strategies, and consequently strengthen their competitive advantage.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015