Matching Items (15)

137649-Thumbnail Image.png

The CARE/ERS System: Developing and Evaluating Smart Homes for Autism

Description

An investigation of the Caregiver Autism Residential E-health (CARE) system composed of low-cost, end-user deployable smart home technology and accompanying heuristics for rule-based models of human behavior has been evaluated

An investigation of the Caregiver Autism Residential E-health (CARE) system composed of low-cost, end-user deployable smart home technology and accompanying heuristics for rule-based models of human behavior has been evaluated for its potential as an empowering assistive technology with the capacity to enhance the well-being of people living with autism, their caregivers, and family members. It allows adults living with autism to create personalized smart home interventions that provide motivational support and is accompanied by guidelines for a safe and effective means of behavioral change. This investigation contributes a participatory co-design approach which addresses both the role of flexibility for the dynamic needs of the individual while offering strategies for dealing with the challenges of designing assistive smart home technologies for the needs of individuals across the wide range of autism spectrum disorders.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

137342-Thumbnail Image.png

Social Intelligence Training: A Pilot Study

Description

Humans require sufficient social understanding and connectedness to thrive (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). The current study evaluates the effectiveness of the Social Intelligence Institute's training program pilot. At a middle

Humans require sufficient social understanding and connectedness to thrive (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). The current study evaluates the effectiveness of the Social Intelligence Institute's training program pilot. At a middle school in Phoenix, Arizona, students in a 7th and 8th grade class participated in this pilot program during the spring of 2013. Pre- and post-test questionnaires administered indicated changes in participants reported measures of Perspective Taking, Empathetic Concern, Interpersonal Expectations, and Relationship Self-Efficacy. The program consists of seven modules, each with several sessions, including instructional videos with reflection questions and class discussions. It was predicted that there would be a significant increase in mean scores for the dependent variables in the questionnaire mentioned above from the pre-test to the post-test. However, the null hypotheses were not rejected; statistical significance in t-tests of the measured variables were not met. Yet, the program was more effective for 8th graders than for 7th graders for Perspective Taking. This study of the SI pilot program demonstrates areas of improvement and provides support for wider implementation in the future.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

136657-Thumbnail Image.png

How Social Intelligence Correlates with and Affects Securely and Insecurely Attached Individuals

Description

The author examined the relationship between social intelligence and attachment style, specifically how attachment style affects how individuals respond to social intelligence training. Students at the Herberger Young Scholars Academy,

The author examined the relationship between social intelligence and attachment style, specifically how attachment style affects how individuals respond to social intelligence training. Students at the Herberger Young Scholars Academy, a school for the highly gifted, completed an online social intelligence training program through the Social Intelligence Institute and were assessed on a number of items. These items include the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale (TSIS), the Attachment Questionnaire for Children (AQ-C), and a daily diary measure in which they recorded and rated their social interactions day to day. All participants were found to be either securely or insecurely attached, and those that were insecurely attached were further divided into insecure anxious attachment style and insecure avoidant attachment style. It was hypothesized that those with a secure attachment style would have higher initial TSIS scores than those with an insecure attachment style. It was also hypothesized that insecurely attached individuals would benefit more from the social intelligence training program than securely attached individuals indicated by "In tune" scores from the daily diaries, and insecure avoidant individuals would benefit more from the program than insecure anxious individuals indicated by "In tune" scores from the daily diaries. None of these hypotheses were supported by the data, as there was no significant difference between the initial social intelligence scores of the three attachment styles, and none of the variables measured were found to be significant predictors of "In tune" scores. Key Words: social intelligence, social intelligence training, attachment, attachment style, children, adolescents, gifted, IQ, high IQ

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12

137024-Thumbnail Image.png

Heart Rate Variability as a Moderator of the Relations Between Marital Support and Social and Emotional Functioning Among Female Fibromyalgia Patients

Description

Being able to self-regulate has been found to be an important part of a person’s physiological and psychological health. It allows someone to regulate their emotions well in trying to

Being able to self-regulate has been found to be an important part of a person’s physiological and psychological health. It allows someone to regulate their emotions well in trying to obtain a goal, or in realizing a goal is unobtainable and re-evaluating the situation to form an obtainable goal (Rasmussen, Wrosch, Scheier & Carver, 2006). Self-regulation can be measured in many ways, but a physiological measure of self-regulation is heart rate variability (HRV). HRV monitors the body’s response to emotional stressors through measuring how variable a person’s heartbeat is (Appelhans & Luecken, 2006). A second potential factor contributing to self-regulation is social closeness. Research has also shown that the more social closeness a person experiences, the better able they are to regulate their emotions (Kok & Fredrickson, 2010; Kok et al., 2013). Social closeness is assessed via self-reports. There is a difference between partners’ and self-reports, such that the partners tend to be more positive when asked about the participants through questionnaires (Vuorisalmi, Sarkeala, Hervonen & Jylhä, 2012). When examining the relationship between reports of spouses, research has shown that the husbands are worse at reliably reporting their wives’ behaviors, but are more reliable when reporting on personal situations between the couple than is the wife (Khawaja & Tewtel-Salem, 2004). To date we know that a higher HRV is associated with better self-regulation and that social closeness leads to better emotional regulation; however, we do not know if HRV and social closeness combine to predict better functionality or if it matters if the husbands or wives are filling out the self-reports on social closeness. This study investigated four hypotheses regarding the relations between HRV and social relations between partners and how the social or emotional functioning of female fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The first hypothesis is that when the FM patient feels disregard from her partner, she is more likely to exhibit a decline in her social functioning, and that this decline is less pronounced in high HRV. The second hypothesis is that if a FM patient feels disregarded by her partner, her emotional functioning will become inhibited; furthermore, that this relationship is moderated by her HRV. The third hypothesis is that when her partner feels he disregards her, her social functioning is impaired, and that this relationship is moderated by her HRV. The last hypothesis is that when her partner feels he disregards her, her emotional functioning declines, and that this relationship is moderated by HRV. The FM patient’s HRV was measured in a laboratory setting, and the partner disregard was measured by a partner survey that was administered to both the FM patient and her partner. Through the analysis of all of the results, none of the four hypotheses had significant results showing that none of them were supported by this experiment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

Can We Learn to Treat One Another Better? A Test of a Social Intelligence Curriculum

Description

This paper reports on the first test of the value of an online curriculum in social intelligence (SI). Built from current social and cognitive neuroscience research findings, the 50 session

This paper reports on the first test of the value of an online curriculum in social intelligence (SI). Built from current social and cognitive neuroscience research findings, the 50 session SI program was administered, with facilitation in Spanish by classroom instructors, to 207 students from Universidad Rey Juan Carlos in Madrid as part of their undergraduate classes. All materials were translated into Castilian Spanish, including outcome measures of SI that have been used in prior studies to provide valid estimates of two key components of social intelligence: 1) Sensitivity to others and 2) confidence in one’s capacity to manage social situations. Pre- and Posttest were administered to participants in the SI training, and also to 87 students in similar classes who did not receive the program who served as the control group. Gender and emotional intelligence levels at pretest also were examined as potential individual differences that might affect the impact of the program on study outcomes. Repeated measures ANOVAs on study outcomes revealed significant increases, from pre to post, in most measures of social intelligence for program participants in comparison to controls, with no effects of gender or age on program effectiveness. Prior scores on emotional intelligence were not a prerequisite for learning from the program. Some findings suggest ways the program may be improved to have stronger effects. Nonetheless, the findings indicate that the SI program tested here shows considerable promise as a means to increase the willingness of young adults to take the perspective of others and enhance their efficacy for initiating and sustaining positive social connections.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-06-15

Childhood Trauma and Personal Mastery: Their Influence on Emotional Reactivity to Everyday Events in a Community Sample of Middle-Aged Adults

Description

Childhood trauma is associated with premature declines in health in midlife and old age. Pathways that have been implicated, but less studied include social-emotional regulation, biological programming, and habitual patterns

Childhood trauma is associated with premature declines in health in midlife and old age. Pathways that have been implicated, but less studied include social-emotional regulation, biological programming, and habitual patterns of thought and action. In this study we focused on childhood trauma’s influence via alterations in social-emotional regulation to everyday life events, a pathway that has been linked to subsequent health effects. Data from a 30-day daily diary of community residents who participated in a study of resilience in Midlife (n = 191, Mage = 54, SD = 7.50, 54% women) was used to examine whether self-reports of childhood trauma were associated with daily well-being, as well as reported and emotional reactivity to daily negative and positive events. Childhood trauma reports were associated with reporting lower overall levels of and greater variability in daily well-being. Childhood trauma was linked to greater reports of daily negative events, but not to positive events. Focusing on emotional reactivity to daily events, residents who reported higher levels of childhood trauma showed stronger decreases in well-being when experiencing negative events and also stronger increases in well-being with positive events. For those reporting childhood trauma, higher levels of mastery were associated with stronger decreases in well-being with negative events and stronger increases in well-being with positive events, suggesting that mastery increases sensitivity to daily negative and positive events. Our results suggest that childhood trauma may lead to poorer health in midlife through disturbances in the patterns of everyday life events and responses to those events. Further, our findings indicate that mastery may have a different meaning for those who experienced childhood trauma. We discuss social-emotional regulation as one pathway linking childhood trauma to health, and psychosocial resources to consider when building resilience-promoting interventions for mitigating the detrimental health effects of childhood trauma.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-04-07

129440-Thumbnail Image.png

Associations Between Financial Stress and Interpersonal Events: A Daily Diary Study of Middle-Aged Adults and Their Life Circumstances

Description

This study examined the relationships between daily negative financial events and positive and negative interpersonal events, as well as the moderating effects of life circumstances, for a sample of 182

This study examined the relationships between daily negative financial events and positive and negative interpersonal events, as well as the moderating effects of life circumstances, for a sample of 182 adults between the age of 40 and 65 providing 30 days of diary data collected between 2008 and 2011. There was a significant and positive relationship between daily negative interpersonal events and daily levels of both negative interpersonal events and positive interpersonal events; these relationships varied by income, employment status, parenting roles, and the experience of major financial challenges over the previous year. The moderating effect of income was nonlinear but its effect disappeared when the interaction between major financial challenges over the previous year and daily negative financial events was entered into the model. The results were interpreted in the context of the stress proliferation and resource mobilization theoretical models and directions for future studies were delineated with respect to individual- and community-level factors that influence the role of financial events on the daily social worlds of middle-aged adults.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12-01

150207-Thumbnail Image.png

Genetic influences on the dynamics of pain and affect in fibromyalgia

Description

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic musculoskeletal disorder characterized by widespread pain, fatigue, and a variety of other comorbid physiological and psychological characteristics, including a deficit of positive affect. Recently, the

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic musculoskeletal disorder characterized by widespread pain, fatigue, and a variety of other comorbid physiological and psychological characteristics, including a deficit of positive affect. Recently, the focus of research on the pathophysiology of FM has considered the role of a number of genomic variants. In the current manuscript, case-control analyses did not support the hypothesis that FM patients would differ from other chronic pain groups in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) genotype. However, evidence is provided in support of the hypothesis that functional single nucleotide polymorphisms on the COMT and OPRM1 genes would be associated with risk and resilience, respectively, in a dual processing model of pain-related positive affective regulation in FM. Forty-six female patients with a physician-confirmed diagnosis of FM completed an electronic diary that included once-daily assessments of positive affect and soft tissue pain. Multilevel modeling yielded a significant gene X environment interaction, such that individuals with met/met genotype on COMT experienced a greater decline in positive affect as daily pain increased than did either val/met or val/val individuals. A gene X environment interaction for OPRM1 also emerged, indicating that individuals with at least one asp allele were more resilient to elevations in daily pain than those homozygous for the asn allele. In sum, the findings offer researchers ample reason to further investigate the contribution of the catecholamine and opioid systems, and their associated genomic variants, to the still poorly understood experience of FM.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

154045-Thumbnail Image.png

The role of adult attachment anxiety in the relation between cognitions and daily pain in Fibromyalgia patients

Description

An abundance of data has established the links between both pain-related cognitions and relationship attachment qualities in the experience of pain, including long-term functional health in chronic pain patients.

An abundance of data has established the links between both pain-related cognitions and relationship attachment qualities in the experience of pain, including long-term functional health in chronic pain patients. However, relatively few studies have explored the dynamic relation between pain and pain-related cognitions within a day, and no studies have tested the moderating role of relationship attachment on the within-day cognition—pain association in chronic pain patients. The objectives of this study were to: 1) assess whether late morning pain flares predicted changes in afternoon positive and negative pain-related cognitive appraisals, and whether these changes in turn predicted end-of-day pain, and 2) explore whether adult attachment anxiety moderated the pain-cognition relation in individuals with chronic pain due to fibromyalgia. One hundred and seventy four partnered individuals with fibromyalgia completed initial assessments of demographics and attachment anxiety, and subsequently completed electronic assessments of pain intensity and positive and negative cognitive pain-related appraisals three times a day for three weeks. Multilevel structural equation modeling established that a latent negative cognitive appraisal factor (encompassing shared variance from catastrophizing, pain irritation, and self-criticism related to pain) mediated the link between late morning and end-of-day pain intensity, in line with the hypothesis. Analyses also provided some support for a mediating role for a positive cognitive appraisal factor (a composite of pain control, pain self-efficacy, and feeling pain without reacting) in the daily course of pain; the mediated effect for positive appraisals was weaker than the mediated effect of negative appraisals, but was sustained in a model that included negative appraisals. Inconsistent with prediction, attachment anxiety did not moderate the within-day links between pain and cognitions. These findings establish the dynamic links within day between pain and pain-related cognitions, and highlight the potential impact of both negative and positive cognitions on daily pain regulation. They point to the value of broadening cognitive-behavioral treatment strategies for chronic pain patients to target not only negative but also positive cognitions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

152883-Thumbnail Image.png

Resilience profiles and postpartum depression in low-Income Mexican American women

Description

The primary aim of this study was to investigate resilient profiles in low-income Mexican American (MA) mothers. MA mothers are part of an under researched population, the fastest growing

The primary aim of this study was to investigate resilient profiles in low-income Mexican American (MA) mothers. MA mothers are part of an under researched population, the fastest growing ethnic minority group, and have the highest birth rate in the United States, presenting a significant public health concern. The transition to motherhood can be an emotionally and physically complex time for women, particularly in the context of a stressful low-income environment. Although most low-income women navigate this transition well, a significant number of mothers develop moderate to severe depressive symptoms. The proposed research investigated profiles of resilience during the prenatal period using a person-centered approach via latent profile analysis. In alignment with current resilience theories, several domains of resilience were investigated including psychological, social, and cultural adherence (e.g., maintaining specific cultural traditions). Concurrent prenatal depressive symptoms and stress were correlated with the profiles in order to establish validity. Six week postpartum depressive symptoms and physiological processes (e.g., overall cortisol output, heart rate variability, and sleep) were also predicted by the prenatal resilient profiles. The resulting data revealed three separate profiles: low-resource, high-resource Anglo, and high-resource Mexican. These resilience profiles had differential associations with concurrent depressive symptoms and stress, such that women in the high-resource profiles reported less depressive symptoms and stress prenatally. Further, profile differences regarding cortisol output, resting heart rate variability, were also found, but there were no differences in insomnia symptoms. Profile classification also moderated the effects of prenatal economic stress on postpartum depressive symptoms, such that women in the high-resource Mexican profile were at risk for higher postpartum depressive symptoms under high economic stress compared to the high-resource Anglo group, which demonstrated a more resilient response. Overall, the results suggest the presence of multiple clusters of prenatal resilience within a sample of MA mothers facing health disparities, with various effects on perinatal mental health and postpartum physiological processes. The results also highlight the need for multi-dimensional models of resilience and the possible implications for interventions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014