Matching Items (47)

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Understanding Current Foundation Practices for High Rise Buildings

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After describing the types of foundation systems employed for high rise buildings, this thesis discusses the process of foundation design for tall buildings as it is practiced today, including computer

After describing the types of foundation systems employed for high rise buildings, this thesis discusses the process of foundation design for tall buildings as it is practiced today, including computer programs used in designing the foundations of high rise buildings. This thesis then presents the geotechnical in-situ and laboratory tests used to establish the parameters required for input to design analyses for high rise building foundations. This thesis subsequently describes the Construction Quality Assurance practices used in the construction of the foundations of high rise buildings. This thesis next presents several case histories detailing the foundation practices employed in the design and construction of modern high rise buildings. Finally, this thesis provides some concluding thoughts regarding the development of the geotechnical practices when designing and constructing high rise buildings.

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  • 2013-05

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Effective Stabilization of Expansive Soils

Description

Expansive soils in the United States cause extensive damage to roadways, buildings, and various structures. There are several treatment or methods of mitigation for these expansive soils. These treatments can

Expansive soils in the United States cause extensive damage to roadways, buildings, and various structures. There are several treatment or methods of mitigation for these expansive soils. These treatments can be physical or chemical treatments that serve to provide more suitable building qualities for foundations and roadways alike. The main issue with expansive soils, is the volumetric variations, which are known as swelling and consolidation. These behaviors of the soil are usually stabilized through the use of lime solution, Portland Cement Concrete, and a newer technology in chemical treatments, sodium silicate solutions. Although the various chemical treatments show benefits in certain areas, the most beneficial method for stabilization comes from the combination of the chemical treatments. Lime and Portland cement concrete are the most effective in terms of increasing compressive strength and reduction of swell potential. However, with the introduction of silicate into either treatment, the efficacy of the treatments increases by a large amount lending itself more as an additive for the former processes. Sodium silicate solution does not lend itself to effectively increase the compressive strength of expansive soils. The sodium silicate solution treatment needs extensive research and development to further improve the process. A proposed experiment plan has been recommended to develop trends of pH and temperature and its influence on the effectiveness of the treatment. Nonetheless, due to the high energy consumption of the other processes, sodium silicate solution may be a proper step in decreases the carbon footprint, that is currently being created by the synthesis of Portland Cement Concrete and lime.

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  • 2018-12

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Assessment of the Vertical Stratification of Microbial Community Structure in Permafrost Peatlands

Description

Peatlands are a type of wetlands where the rate of accumulation of organic matter exceed the rate of decomposition and have accumulated more than 30 cm of peat (Joosten and

Peatlands are a type of wetlands where the rate of accumulation of organic matter exceed the rate of decomposition and have accumulated more than 30 cm of peat (Joosten and Clark, 2002). Peatlands store approximately 30% of all terrestrial carbon as recalcitrant peat, partially decomposed plant and microbial biomass, while simultaneously producing almost 40% of the globally emitted methane (Schmidt et al., 2016), making peatlands an important component of the carbon budgets. Published research indicates that the efficiency of carbon usage among microbial communities can determine the soil-carbon response to rising temperatures (Allison et al. 2010). By determining carbon consumption in peatland soils, total community respiration response, and community structure change with additions, models of carbon use efficiency in permafrost peatlands will be well-informed and have a better understanding of how the peatlands will respond to, and utilize, increased availability of carbon compounds due to the melting permafrost. To do this, we will sequence Lutose deep core samples to observe baseline microbial community structure at different depths and different age-gradients, construct substrate incubations of glucose and propionate and observe community respiration response via a gas chromatography flame ionization detector, track the glucose and propionate additions with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and sequence the samples once more to determine if there was a deviation from the initial community structure obtained prior to the incubations. We found that our initial sequencing data was supported by previous work (Lin et al., 2014), however we were unable to sequence samples post-incubation due to time constraints. In this sequencing analysis we found that the strongest variable that made samples biologically similar was the age-gradient site in which they were extracted. We found that the group with glucose additions produced the most carbon dioxide compared with the other treatments, but was not the treatment that dominated the production of methane. Finally, in the HPLC samples that were analyzed, we found that glucose is likely forming the most by-product accumulation from mass balance calculations, while propionate is likely forming the least. Future experimentation should focus on the shortcomings of this experiment. Further analysis of 16S rRNA sequencing data from after the incubations should be analyzed to determine the change in microbial community structure throughout the experiment. Furthermore, HPLC analysis for the several samples need to be done and followed up with mass balance to determine where the added glucose and propionate are being allocated within the soil. Once these pieces of the puzzle are put into place, our original question of how the microbial community structure changes at different depths and age-gradients within permafrost peatlands will be conclusively answered.

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  • 2018-05

A Reflection on Translating a Thesis on Soil Pollution in Jiangsu

Description

This project took thesis written in Mandarin researching heavy metal pollution in the Jiangsu region of province and translated it to English. Then the reflection process was discussed, considering the

This project took thesis written in Mandarin researching heavy metal pollution in the Jiangsu region of province and translated it to English. Then the reflection process was discussed, considering the translation challenges between Mandarin and English and how the scientific nature of the piece played into that process.

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  • 2020-12

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Microbially Induced Desaturation and Precipitation (MIDP) Pressure Contours

Description

This thesis is part of a larger research project, conducted by Elizabeth Stallings Young, which aims to improve understanding about the factors controlling the process of MIDP and the interaction

This thesis is part of a larger research project, conducted by Elizabeth Stallings Young, which aims to improve understanding about the factors controlling the process of MIDP and the interaction between the biochemical reactions and the hydrological properties of soils treated with MIDP. Microbially Induced Desaturation and Precipitation (MIDP) is a bio-geotechnical process by which biogenic gas production and calcite mineral bio-cementation are induced in the pore space between the soil particles, which can mitigate earthquake induced liquefaction (Kavazanjian et al. 2015). In this process substrates are injected which stimulate indigenous nitrate reducing bacteria to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, while precipitating calcium carbonate minerals. The biogenic gas production has been shown to dampen pore pressure build up under dynamic loading conditions and significantly increase liquefaction resistance (Okamura and Soga 2006), while the precipitation of calcium carbonate minerals cements adjacent granular particles together. The objective of this thesis was to analyze the recorded pore pressure development as a result of biogenic gas formation and migration, over the entire two-dimensional flow field, by generating dynamic pressure contour plots, using MATLAB and ImageJ software. The experiment was run in a mesoscale tank that was approximately 114 cm tall, 114 cm wide and 5.25 cm thick. Substrate was flushed through the soil body and the denitrifying reaction occurred, producing gas and correspondingly, pressure. The pressure across the tank was recorded with pore pressure sensors and was loaded into a datalogger. This time sensitive data file was loaded into a MATLAB script, MIDPCountourGen.m, to create pressure contours for the tank. The results from this thesis include the creation of MIDPContourGen.m and a corresponding How-To Guide and pore pressure contours for the F60 tank. This thesis concluded that the MIDP reaction takes a relatively short amount of time and that the residual pressure in the tank after the water flush on day 17 offers a proof of effect of the MIDP reaction.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Novel biopolymer treatment for wind induced soil erosion

Description

It is estimated that wind induced soil transports more than 500 x 106 metric tons of fugitive dust annually. Soil erosion has negative effects on human health, the productivity of

It is estimated that wind induced soil transports more than 500 x 106 metric tons of fugitive dust annually. Soil erosion has negative effects on human health, the productivity of farms, and the quality of surface waters. A variety of different polymer stabilizers are available on the market for fugitive dust control. Most of these polymer stabilizers are expensive synthetic polymer products. Their adverse effects and expense usually limits their use. Biopolymers provide a potential alternative to synthetic polymers. They can provide dust abatement by encapsulating soil particles and creating a binding network throughout the treated area. This research into the effectiveness of biopolymers for fugitive dust control involved three phases. Phase I included proof of concept tests. Phase II included carrying out the tests in a wind tunnel. Phase III consisted of conducting the experiments in the field. Proof of concept tests showed that biopolymers have the potential to reduce soil erosion and fugitive dust transport. Wind tunnel tests on two candidate biopolymers, xanthan and chitosan, showed that there is a proportional relationship between biopolymer application rates and threshold wind velocities. The wind tunnel tests also showed that xanthan gum is more successful in the field than chitosan. The field tests showed that xanthan gum was effective at controlling soil erosion. However, the chitosan field data was inconsistent with the xanthan data and field data on bare soil.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Laboratory determination of hydraulic conductivity functions for unsaturated cracked fine grained soil

Description

In geotechnical engineering, measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils can be time consuming and tedious. The various applications that require knowledge of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity

In geotechnical engineering, measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils can be time consuming and tedious. The various applications that require knowledge of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function are great, and in geotechnical engineering, they range from modeling seepage through landfill covers to determining infiltration of water under a building slab. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function can be measured using various direct and indirect techniques. The instantaneous profile method has been found to be the most promising unsteady state method for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function for fine grained soils over a wide range of suction values. The instantaneous profile method can be modified by using different techniques to measure suction and water content and also through the way water is introduced or removed from the soil profile. In this study, the instantaneous profile method was modified by creating duplicate soil samples compacted into cylindrical tubes at two different water contents. The techniques used in the duplicate method to measure the water content and matric suction included volumetric moisture probes, manual water content measurements, and filter paper tests. The experimental testing conducted in this study provided insight into determining the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using the instantaneous profile method for a sandy clay soil and recommendations are provided for further evaluation. Overall, this study has demonstrated that the presence of cracks has no significant impact on the hydraulic behavior of soil in high suction ranges. The results of this study do not examine the behavior of cracked soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at low suction and at moisture contents near saturation.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Estimating the soil-water characteristic curve using grain size analysis and plasticity index

Description

The infrastructure is built in Unsaturated Soils. However, the geotechnical practitioners insist in designing the structures based on Saturated Soil Mechanics. The design of structures based on unsaturated soil mechanics

The infrastructure is built in Unsaturated Soils. However, the geotechnical practitioners insist in designing the structures based on Saturated Soil Mechanics. The design of structures based on unsaturated soil mechanics is desirable because it reduces cost and it is by far a more sustainable approach. The research community has identified the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve as the most important soil property when dealing with unsaturated conditions. This soil property is unpopular among practitioners because the laboratory testing takes an appreciable amount of time. Several authors have attempted predicting the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve; however, most of the published predictions are based on a very limited soil database. The National Resources Conservation Service has a vast database of engineering soil properties with more than 36,000 soils, which includes water content measurements at different levels of suctions. This database was used in this study to validate two existing models that based the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve prediction on statistical analysis. It was found that although the predictions are acceptable for some ranges of suctions; they did not performed that well for others. It was found that the first model validated was accurate for fine-grained soils, while the second model was best for granular soils. For these reasons, two models to estimate the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve are proposed. The first model estimates the fitting parameters of the Fredlund and Xing (1994) function separately and then, the predicted parameters are fitted to the Fredlund and Xing function for an overall estimate of the degree of saturation. Results show an overall improvement on the predicted values when compared to existing models. The second model is based on the relationship between the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve and the Pore-Size Distribution of the soils. The process allows for the prediction of the entire Soil-Water Characteristic Curve function and proved to be a better approximation than that used in the first attempt. Both models constitute important tools in the implementation of unsaturated soil mechanics into engineering practice due to the link of the prediction with simple and well known engineering soil properties.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Stabilization and imaging of cohesionless soil specimens

Description

This dissertation describes development of a procedure for obtaining high quality, optical grade sand coupons from frozen sand specimens of Ottawa 20/30 sand for image processing and analysis to quantify

This dissertation describes development of a procedure for obtaining high quality, optical grade sand coupons from frozen sand specimens of Ottawa 20/30 sand for image processing and analysis to quantify soil structure along with a methodology for quantifying the microstructure from the images. A technique for thawing and stabilizing frozen core samples was developed using optical grade Buehler® Epo-Tek® epoxy resin, a modified triaxial cell, a vacuum/reservoir chamber, a desiccator, and a moisture gauge. The uniform epoxy resin impregnation required proper drying of the soil specimen, application of appropriate confining pressure and vacuum levels, and epoxy mixing, de-airing and curing. The resulting stabilized sand specimen was sectioned into 10 mm thick coupons that were planed, ground, and polished with progressively finer diamond abrasive grit levels using the modified Allied HTP Inc. polishing method so that the soil structure could be accurately quantified using images obtained with the use of an optical microscopy technique. Illumination via Bright Field Microscopy was used to capture the images for subsequent image processing and sand microstructure analysis. The quality of resulting images and the validity of the subsequent image morphology analysis hinged largely on employment of a polishing and grinding technique that resulted in a flat, scratch free, reflective coupon surface characterized by minimal microstructure relief and good contrast between the sand particles and the surrounding epoxy resin. Subsequent image processing involved conversion of the color images first to gray scale images and then to binary images with the use of contrast and image adjustments, removal of noise and image artifacts, image filtering, and image segmentation. Mathematical morphology algorithms were used on the resulting binary images to further enhance image quality. The binary images were then used to calculate soil structure parameters that included particle roundness and sphericity, particle orientation variability represented by rose diagrams, statistics on the local void ratio variability as a function of the sample size, and the local void ratio distribution histograms using Oda's method and Voronoi tessellation method, including the skewness, kurtosis, and entropy of a gamma cumulative probability distribution fit to the local void ratio distribution.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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The impact of liquefaction on the microstructure of cohesionless soils

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The effect of earthquake-induced liquefaction on the local void ratio distribution of cohesionless soil is evaluated using x-ray computed tomography (CT) and an advanced image processing software package. Intact, relatively

The effect of earthquake-induced liquefaction on the local void ratio distribution of cohesionless soil is evaluated using x-ray computed tomography (CT) and an advanced image processing software package. Intact, relatively undisturbed specimens of cohesionless soil were recovered before and after liquefaction by freezing and coring soil deposits created by pluviation and by sedimentation through water. Pluviated soil deposits were liquefied in the small geotechnical centrifuge at the University of California at Davis shared-use National Science Foundation (NSF)-supported Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) facility. A soil deposit created by sedimentation through water was liquefied on a small shake table in the Arizona State University geotechnical laboratory. Initial centrifuge tests employed Ottawa 20-30 sand but this material proved to be too coarse to liquefy in the centrifuge. Therefore, subsequent centrifuge tests employed Ottawa F60 sand. The shake table test employed Ottawa 20-30 sand. Recovered cores were stabilized by impregnation with optical grade epoxy and sent to the University of Texas at Austin NSF-supported facility at the University of Texas at Austin for high-resolution CT scanning of geologic media. The local void ratio distribution of a CT-scanned core of Ottawa 20-30 sand evaluated using Avizo® Fire, a commercially available advanced program for image analysis, was compared to the local void ratio distribution established on the same core by analysis of optical images to demonstrate that analysis of the CT scans gave similar results to optical methods. CT scans were subsequently conducted on liquefied and not-liquefied specimens of Ottawa 20-30 sand and Ottawa F60 sand. The resolution of F60 specimens was inadequate to establish the local void ratio distribution. Results of the analysis of the Ottawa 20-30 specimens recovered from the model built for the shake table test showed that liquefaction can substantially influence the variability in local void ratio, increasing the degree of non-homogeneity in the specimen.

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Date Created
  • 2013