Matching Items (40)

A Reflection on Translating a Thesis on Soil Pollution in Jiangsu

Description

This project took thesis written in Mandarin researching heavy metal pollution in the Jiangsu region of province and translated it to English. Then the reflection process was discussed, considering the

This project took thesis written in Mandarin researching heavy metal pollution in the Jiangsu region of province and translated it to English. Then the reflection process was discussed, considering the translation challenges between Mandarin and English and how the scientific nature of the piece played into that process.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

137640-Thumbnail Image.png

Understanding Current Foundation Practices for High Rise Buildings

Description

After describing the types of foundation systems employed for high rise buildings, this thesis discusses the process of foundation design for tall buildings as it is practiced today, including computer

After describing the types of foundation systems employed for high rise buildings, this thesis discusses the process of foundation design for tall buildings as it is practiced today, including computer programs used in designing the foundations of high rise buildings. This thesis then presents the geotechnical in-situ and laboratory tests used to establish the parameters required for input to design analyses for high rise building foundations. This thesis subsequently describes the Construction Quality Assurance practices used in the construction of the foundations of high rise buildings. This thesis next presents several case histories detailing the foundation practices employed in the design and construction of modern high rise buildings. Finally, this thesis provides some concluding thoughts regarding the development of the geotechnical practices when designing and constructing high rise buildings.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

129450-Thumbnail Image.png

Modelling resilient modulus seasonal variation of silty sand subgrade soils with matric suction control

Description

The resilient modulus of unbound materials is an important parameter in the mechanistic design of pavements. Although unbound layers are frequently in a partially saturated state, a total stress approach

The resilient modulus of unbound materials is an important parameter in the mechanistic design of pavements. Although unbound layers are frequently in a partially saturated state, a total stress approach is conventionally used in modeling the material behaviour, and therefore pore pressure effects are not considered. In fine-grained unbound materials, the saturation state can affect their mechanical behaviour due to pore pressure effects. In this study a modified test procedure and a predictive resilient modulus model that takes into account the subgrade soil matric suction as a stress state variable is presented. Two different silty sand subgrade materials were tested in unsaturated conditions using a series of repeated load triaxial tests under controlled pore suction conditions to study its influence on the resilient modulus. The test data were further used to obtain the resilient modulus model regression parameters that account for moisture content variations through the matric suction parameter. Generally, the prediction model could effectively capture the resilient modulus behaviour of the subgrades with respect to changes in the normal stress state and the matric suction. Given the completeness of this method, this prediction model is recommended as an improved approach in capturing the moisture content effects on the material stiffness properties.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12-01

133109-Thumbnail Image.png

Effective Stabilization of Expansive Soils

Description

Expansive soils in the United States cause extensive damage to roadways, buildings, and various structures. There are several treatment or methods of mitigation for these expansive soils. These treatments can

Expansive soils in the United States cause extensive damage to roadways, buildings, and various structures. There are several treatment or methods of mitigation for these expansive soils. These treatments can be physical or chemical treatments that serve to provide more suitable building qualities for foundations and roadways alike. The main issue with expansive soils, is the volumetric variations, which are known as swelling and consolidation. These behaviors of the soil are usually stabilized through the use of lime solution, Portland Cement Concrete, and a newer technology in chemical treatments, sodium silicate solutions. Although the various chemical treatments show benefits in certain areas, the most beneficial method for stabilization comes from the combination of the chemical treatments. Lime and Portland cement concrete are the most effective in terms of increasing compressive strength and reduction of swell potential. However, with the introduction of silicate into either treatment, the efficacy of the treatments increases by a large amount lending itself more as an additive for the former processes. Sodium silicate solution does not lend itself to effectively increase the compressive strength of expansive soils. The sodium silicate solution treatment needs extensive research and development to further improve the process. A proposed experiment plan has been recommended to develop trends of pH and temperature and its influence on the effectiveness of the treatment. Nonetheless, due to the high energy consumption of the other processes, sodium silicate solution may be a proper step in decreases the carbon footprint, that is currently being created by the synthesis of Portland Cement Concrete and lime.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

152596-Thumbnail Image.png

Probabilistic based assessment of the influence of nonlinear soil behavior and stratification on the performance of laterally loaded drilled pier foundations

Description

This thesis presents a probabilistic evaluation of multiple laterally loaded drilled pier foundation design approaches using extensive data from a geotechnical investigation for a high voltage electric transmission line. A

This thesis presents a probabilistic evaluation of multiple laterally loaded drilled pier foundation design approaches using extensive data from a geotechnical investigation for a high voltage electric transmission line. A series of Monte Carlo simulations provide insight about the computed level of reliability considering site standard penetration test blow count value variability alone (i.e., assuming all other aspects of the design problem do not contribute error or bias). Evaluated methods include Eurocode 7 Geotechnical Design procedures, the Federal Highway Administration drilled shaft LRFD design method, the Electric Power Research Institute transmission foundation design procedure and a site specific variability based approach previously suggested by the author of this thesis and others. The analysis method is defined by three phases: a) Evaluate the spatial variability of an existing subsurface database. b) Derive theoretical foundation designs from the database in accordance with the various design methods identified. c) Conduct Monti Carlo Simulations to compute the reliability of the theoretical foundation designs. Over several decades, reliability-based foundation design (RBD) methods have been developed and implemented to varying degrees for buildings, bridges, electric systems and other structures. In recent years, an effort has been made by researchers, professional societies and other standard-developing organizations to publish design guidelines, manuals and standards concerning RBD for foundations. Most of these approaches rely on statistical methods for quantifying load and resistance probability distribution functions with defined reliability levels. However, each varies with regard to the influence of site-specific variability on resistance. An examination of the influence of site-specific variability is required to provide direction for incorporating the concept into practical RBD design methods. Recent surveys of transmission line engineers by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) demonstrate RBD methods for the design of transmission line foundations have not been widely adopted. In the absence of a unifying design document with established reliability goals, transmission line foundations have historically performed very well, with relatively few failures. However, such a track record with no set reliability goals suggests, at least in some cases, a financial premium has likely been paid.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

156657-Thumbnail Image.png

Estimation of Pressuremeter Modulus From Shear Wave Velocity In the Sonoran Desert

Description

Laterally-loaded short rigid drilled shaft foundations are the primary foundation used within the electric power transmission line industry. Performance of these laterally loaded foundations is dependent on modulus of the

Laterally-loaded short rigid drilled shaft foundations are the primary foundation used within the electric power transmission line industry. Performance of these laterally loaded foundations is dependent on modulus of the subsurface, which is directly measured by the Pressuremeter (PMT). The PMT test provides the lateral shear modulus at intermediate strains, an equivalent elastic modulus for lateral loading, which mimics the reaction of transmission line foundations within the elastic range of motion. The PMT test, however, is expensive to conduct and rarely performed. Correlations of PMT to blow counts and other index properties have been developed but these correlations have high variability and may result in unconservative foundation design. Variability in correlations is due, in part, because difference of the direction of the applied load and strain level between the correlated properties and the PMT. The geophysical shear wave velocity (S-wave velocity) as measured through refraction microtremor (ReMi) methods can be used as a measure of the small strain, shear modulus in the lateral direction. In theory, the intermediate strain modulus of the PMT is proportional to the small strain modulus of S-wave velocity. A correlation between intermediate strain and low strain moduli is developed here, based on geophysical surveys conducted at fourteen previous PMT testing locations throughout the Sonoran Desert of central Arizona. Additionally, seasonal variability in S-wave velocity of unsaturated soils is explored and impacts are identified for the use of the PMT correlation in transmission line foundation design.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

157789-Thumbnail Image.png

Pore-scale Study of Bio-mineral and Bio-gas Formations in Porous Media

Description

The potential of using bio-geo-chemical processes for applications in geotechnical engineering has been widely explored in order to overcome the limitation of traditional ground improvement techniques. Biomineralization via urea hydrolysis,

The potential of using bio-geo-chemical processes for applications in geotechnical engineering has been widely explored in order to overcome the limitation of traditional ground improvement techniques. Biomineralization via urea hydrolysis, referred to as Microbial or Enzymatic Induced Carbonate Precipitation (MICP/EICP), has been shown to increase soil strength by stimulating precipitation of calcium carbonate minerals, bonding soil particles and filling the pores. Microbial Induced Desaturation and Precipitation (MIDP) via denitrification has also been studied for its potential to stabilize soils through mineral precipitation, but also through production of biogas, which can mitigate earthquake induced liquefaction by desaturation of the soil. Empirical relationships have been established, which relate the amount of products of these biochemical processes to the engineering properties of treated soils. However, these engineering properties may vary significantly depending on the biomineral and biogas formation mechanism and distribution patterns at pore-scale. This research focused on the pore-scale characterization of biomineral and biogas formations in porous media.

The pore-scale characteristics of calcium carbonate precipitation via EICP and biogenic gas formation via MIDP were explored by visual observation in a transparent porous media using a microfluidic chip. For this purpose, an imaging system was designed and image processing algorithms were developed to analyze the experimental images and detect the nucleation and growth of precipitated minerals and formation and migration mechanisms of gas bubbles within the microfluidic chip. Statistical analysis was performed based on the processed images to assess the evolution of biomineral size distribution, the number of precipitated minerals and the porosity reduction in time. The resulting images from the biomineralization study were used in a numerical simulation to investigate the relation between the mineral distribution, porosity-permeability relationships and process efficiency. By comparing biogenic gas production with abiotic gas production experiments, it was found that the gas formation significantly affects the gas distribution and resulting degree of saturation. The experimental results and image analysis provide insight in the kinetics of the precipitation and gas formation processes and their resulting distribution and related engineering properties.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

155204-Thumbnail Image.png

Experimental study of cement stabilized fiber reinforced compressed earth blocks as an alternative building material

Description

Concern and interest about the environment and ecologic systems have promoted the usage of earth as a construction material. Technology advancement has resulted in the evolution of adobe into compressed

Concern and interest about the environment and ecologic systems have promoted the usage of earth as a construction material. Technology advancement has resulted in the evolution of adobe into compressed stabilized earth blocks (CSEB). CSEB’s are prepared by compressing the soil-stabilizer mixture at a particular stress. In order to accomplish the required strength, cement has been used in a regular basis as stabilizing agent. It is of interest to find means to reduce the cement used in their construction without affecting its dry strength and durability. In this study, natural fibers were used along with lower proportions of cement to stabilize soil with varying fine content. Blocks were compacted at 10MPa stress and prepared by using 7%, 5% and 3% cement along with fiber content ranging from 0.25% to 2%. The effect of fine content, cement and fibers on strength and durability of the CSEB blocks were studied. Different sand/fine fractions of a native Arizona soil were used to fabricate the blocks. Results indicate that the compressive strength reaches a maximum value for blocks with 30% fine content and inclusion of fibers up to 0.5% increased the dry compressive strength. The use of 0.25% fiber by weight and 5% cement content showed comparable dry compressive strength to that of the 7% cement blocks with no fibers. The dry strength of the blocks reached an optimal condition when the combination of materials was 30% fines, 5% cement and 0.5% fibers, which satisfied the strength requirement given by the ASTM C62 and ASTM C216 standards for construction material. The CSEB’s with 0.5% fiber had higher toughness. The durability was determined by subjecting the CSEBs to wetting and drying cycles. The blocks with 5% cement withstand the durability test as the dry strength was higher than that required for construction use.

The blocks were also submitted to heating and cooling cycles. After 12 cycles, the specimens showed a reduction in strength, which further increased as the number of cycles increased. Finally, the thermal resistivity of fiber reinforced CSEB was found to be higher than that for clay bricks.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

155418-Thumbnail Image.png

Validation of a numerical model for design of geomembranes subject to extreme loads

Description

A numerical model for design of the geomembrane elements of waste containment systems has been validated by laboratory testing. Due to the absence of any instrumented case histories of seismic

A numerical model for design of the geomembrane elements of waste containment systems has been validated by laboratory testing. Due to the absence of any instrumented case histories of seismic performance of geomembrane liner systems, a large scale centrifuge test of a model geomembrane-lined landfill subject to seismic loading was conducted at the University of California at Davis Centrifuge Test facility as part of National Science Foundation Network for Earthquake the Engineering Simulation Research (NEESR) program. Data collected in the large scale centrifuge test included waste settlement, liner strains and earthquake accelerations at various locations throughout the model. This data on landfill and liner seismic performance has been supplemented with additional laboratory and small scale centrifuge tests to determine the parameters required for the numerical model, including strength and stiffness of the model materials, interface shear strengths, and interface stiffness. The numerical model explicitly assesses the forces and strains in the geomembrane elements of a containment system to subject to both static and seismic loads the computer code FLACTM, a finite difference program for non-linear analysis of continua. The model employs a beam element with zero moment of inertia and with interface elements on both sides to model to represent the geomembrane elements in the liner system. The model also includes non-linear constitutive models for the stress-strain behavior of geomembrane beam elements and an elastic-perfectly plastic model for the load-displacement behavior of the beam interfaces. Parametric studies are conducted with the validated numerical model to develop recommendations for landfill design, construction, and construction quality assurance.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

155622-Thumbnail Image.png

Strain concentrations in polyethylene geomembranes adjacent to seams and scratches

Description

Laboratory testing was conducted to quantify strain concentrations adjacent to seams and scratches in high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes. The tensile strain profile of remnants meeting the ASTM criteria for

Laboratory testing was conducted to quantify strain concentrations adjacent to seams and scratches in high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes. The tensile strain profile of remnants meeting the ASTM criteria for wide-width tensile testing from samples of field seams recovered for construction quality assurance testing was evaluated using digital image correlation (DIC). Strains adjacent to scratches on laboratory prepared samples loaded in tension were also measured using DIC. The tensile strain in the zone adjacent to a seam and the tensile strain adjacent to a scratch were compared to the tensile strains calculated using theoretical strain concentration factors. The relationship between the maximum tensile strain adjacent to a seam and the global nominal strain in the sample was quantified for textured and smooth geomembranes of common thicknesses. Using statistical analysis of the data, bounds were developed for the allowable nominal tensile strain expected to induce maximum tensile strains adjacent to the seam less than or equal to the typical yield strain of HDPE geomembranes, at several confidence levels. Where nominal strain is the global or average strain applied to the sample and maximum strain is the largest tensile strain induced in the sample.

The reduction in the nominal yield strain due to a scratch in a HDPE geomembrane was also quantified. The yield strain was approximately the same as predicted using theoretical strain concentration factors. The difference in the average measured maximum strains adjacent to the seams of textured and smooth HDPE geomembranes was found to be statistically insignificant. However, maximum strains adjacent to extrusion welded seams were somewhat greater than adjacent to fusion welded seams for nominal strains on the order of 3% to 4%. The results of the testing program suggest that the nominal tensile strain should be limited to 4% around dual hot wedge seams and 3% around extrusion fillet seams to avoid maximum strains equal to 11%, a typical yield strain for HDPE geomembranes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017