Matching Items (8)

127868-Thumbnail Image.png

Multiplexed Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays

Description

Rationale: Cell-free protein microarrays display naturally-folded proteins based on just-in-time in situ synthesis, and have made important contributions to basic and translational research. However, the risk of spot-to-spot cross-talk from

Rationale: Cell-free protein microarrays display naturally-folded proteins based on just-in-time in situ synthesis, and have made important contributions to basic and translational research. However, the risk of spot-to-spot cross-talk from protein diffusion during expression has limited the feature density of these arrays.
Methods: In this work, we developed the Multiplexed Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array (M-NAPPA), which significantly increases the number of displayed proteins by multiplexing as many as five different gene plasmids within a printed spot.
Results: Even when proteins of different sizes were displayed within the same feature, they were readily detected using protein-specific antibodies. Protein-protein interactions and serological antibody assays using human viral proteome microarrays demonstrated that comparable hits were detected by M-NAPPA and non-multiplexed NAPPA arrays. An ultra-high density proteome microarray displaying > 16k proteins on a single microscope slide was produced by combining M-NAPPA with a photolithography-based silicon nano-well platform. Finally, four new tuberculosis-related antigens in guinea pigs vaccinated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) were identified with M-NAPPA and validated with ELISA.
Conclusion: All data demonstrate that multiplexing features on a protein microarray offer a cost-effective fabrication approach and have the potential to facilitate high throughput translational research.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-09-20

128250-Thumbnail Image.png

In situ drug-receptor binding kinetics in single cells: a quantitative label-free study of anti-tumor drug resistance

Description

Many drugs are effective in the early stage of treatment, but patients develop drug resistance after a certain period of treatment, causing failure of the therapy. An important example is

Many drugs are effective in the early stage of treatment, but patients develop drug resistance after a certain period of treatment, causing failure of the therapy. An important example is Herceptin, a popular monoclonal antibody drug for breast cancer by specifically targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2). Here we demonstrate a quantitative binding kinetics analysis of drug-target interactions to investigate the molecular scale origin of drug resistance. Using a surface plasmon resonance imaging, we measured the in situ Herceptin-Her2 binding kinetics in single intact cancer cells for the first time, and observed significantly weakened Herceptin-Her2 interactions in Herceptin-resistant cells, compared to those in Herceptin-sensitive cells. We further showed that the steric hindrance of Mucin-4, a membrane protein, was responsible for the altered drug-receptor binding. This effect of a third molecule on drug-receptor interactions cannot be studied using traditional purified protein methods, demonstrating the importance of the present intact cell-based binding kinetics analysis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-10-14

128481-Thumbnail Image.png

AAgAtlas 1.0: a human autoantigen database

Description

Autoantibodies refer to antibodies that target self-antigens, which can play pivotal roles in maintaining homeostasis, distinguishing normal from tumor tissue and trigger autoimmune diseases. In the last three decades, tremendous

Autoantibodies refer to antibodies that target self-antigens, which can play pivotal roles in maintaining homeostasis, distinguishing normal from tumor tissue and trigger autoimmune diseases. In the last three decades, tremendous efforts have been devoted to elucidate the generation, evolution and functions of autoantibodies, as well as their target autoantigens. However, reports of these countless previously identified autoantigens are randomly dispersed in the literature. Here, we constructed an AAgAtlas database 1.0 using text-mining and manual curation. We extracted 45 830 autoantigen-related abstracts and 94 313 sentences from PubMed using the keywords of either ‘autoantigen’ or ‘autoantibody’ or their lexical variants, which were further refined to 25 520 abstracts, 43 253 sentences and 3984 candidates by our bio-entity recognizer based on the Protein Ontology. Finally, we identified 1126 genes as human autoantigens and 1071 related human diseases, with which we constructed a human autoantigen database (AAgAtlas database 1.0). The database provides a user-friendly interface to conveniently browse, retrieve and download human autoantigens as well as their associated diseases. The database is freely accessible at http://biokb.ncpsb.org/aagatlas/. We believe this database will be a valuable resource to track and understand human autoantigens as well as to investigate their functions in basic and translational research.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-10-19

128036-Thumbnail Image.png

Mycobacterial Membrane Vesicles Administered Systemically in Mice Induce a Protective Immune Response to Surface Compartments of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Description

Pathogenic and nonpathogenic species of bacteria and fungi release membrane vesicles (MV), containing proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids, into the extracellular milieu. Previously, we demonstrated that several mycobacterial species, including bacillus

Pathogenic and nonpathogenic species of bacteria and fungi release membrane vesicles (MV), containing proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids, into the extracellular milieu. Previously, we demonstrated that several mycobacterial species, including bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, release MV containing lipids and proteins that subvert host immune response in a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent manner (R. Prados-Rosales et al., J. Clin. Invest. 121:1471–1483, 2011, doi:10.1172/JCI44261). In this work, we analyzed the vaccine potential of MV in a mouse model and compared the effects of immunization with MV to those of standard BCG vaccination. Immunization with MV from BCG or M. tuberculosis elicited a mixed humoral and cellular response directed to both membrane and cell wall components, such as lipoproteins. However, only vaccination with M. tuberculosis MV was able to protect as well as live BCG immunization. M. tuberculosis MV boosted BCG vaccine efficacy. In summary, MV are highly immunogenic without adjuvants and elicit immune responses comparable to those achieved with BCG in protection against M. tuberculosis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-30

137471-Thumbnail Image.png

Global Identification of AMPylation Substrates for SidM using Human Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays

Description

AMPylation is a post-translation modification that has an important role in the survival of many bacterial pathogens by affecting the host cell's molecular signaling. In the course of studying this

AMPylation is a post-translation modification that has an important role in the survival of many bacterial pathogens by affecting the host cell's molecular signaling. In the course of studying this intercellular manipulation, there has only been modest progression in the identification of the enzymes with AMPylation capabilities (AMPylators) and their respective targets. The reason for these minimal developments is the inability to analyze a large subset of these proteins. Therefore, to increase the efficiency of the identification and characterization of the proteins, Yu et al developed a high-throughput non-radioactive discovery platform using Human Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA) and a validation platform using bead-based assays. The large-scale unbiased screening of potential substrates for two bacterial AMPylators containing Fic domain, VopS and IbpAFic2, had been performed and dozens of novel substrates were identified and confirmed. With the efficiency of this method, the platform was extended to the identification of novel substrates for a Legionella virulence factor, SidM, containing a different adenylyl transferase domain. The screening was performed using NAPPA arrays comprising of 10,000 human proteins, the active AMPylator SidM, and its inactive D110/112A mutant as a negative control. Many potential substrates of SidM were found, including Rab GTPases and non-GTPase proteins. Several of which have been confirmed with the bead-based AMPylation assays.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

AMPylation of Rho GTPases Subverts Multiple Host Signaling Processes

Description

Rho GTPases are frequent targets of virulence factors as they are keystone signaling molecules. Herein, we demonstrate that AMPylation of Rho GTPases by VopS is a multifaceted virulence mechanism that

Rho GTPases are frequent targets of virulence factors as they are keystone signaling molecules. Herein, we demonstrate that AMPylation of Rho GTPases by VopS is a multifaceted virulence mechanism that counters several host immunity strategies. Activation of NFκB, Erk, and JNK kinase signaling pathways were inhibited in a VopS-dependent manner during infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Phosphorylation and degradation of IKBα were inhibited in the presence of VopS as was nuclear translocation of the NFκB subunit p65. AMPylation also prevented the generation of superoxide by the phagocytic NADPH oxidase complex, potentially by inhibiting the interaction of Rac and p67. Furthermore, the interaction of GTPases with the E3 ubiquitin ligases cIAP1 and XIAP was hindered, leading to decreased degradation of Rac and RhoA during infection. Finally, we screened for novel Rac1 interactions using a nucleic acid programmable protein array and discovered that Rac1 binds to the protein C1QA, a protein known to promote immune signaling in the cytosol. Interestingly, this interaction was disrupted by AMPylation. We conclude that AMPylation of Rho Family GTPases by VopS results in diverse inhibitory consequences during infection beyond the most obvious phenotype, the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-11-21

Exploration of Panviral Proteome: High-Throughput Cloning and Functional Implications in Virus-host Interactions

Description

Throughout the long history of virus-host co-evolution, viruses have developed delicate strategies to facilitate their invasion and replication of their genome, while silencing the host immune responses through various mechanisms.

Throughout the long history of virus-host co-evolution, viruses have developed delicate strategies to facilitate their invasion and replication of their genome, while silencing the host immune responses through various mechanisms. The systematic characterization of viral protein-host interactions would yield invaluable information in the understanding of viral invasion/evasion, diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of a viral infection, and mechanisms of host biology. With more than 2,000 viral genomes sequenced, only a small percent of them are well investigated. The access of these viral open reading frames (ORFs) in a flexible cloning format would greatly facilitate both in vitro and in vivo virus-host interaction studies. However, the overall progress of viral ORF cloning has been slow. To facilitate viral studies, we are releasing the initiation of our panviral proteome collection of 2,035 ORF clones from 830 viral genes in the Gateway® recombinational cloning system. Here, we demonstrate several uses of our viral collection including highly efficient production of viral proteins using human cell-free expression system in vitro, global identification of host targets for rubella virus using Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA) containing 10,000 unique human proteins, and detection of host serological responses using micro-fluidic multiplexed immunoassays. The studies presented here begin to elucidate host-viral protein interactions with our systemic utilization of viral ORFs, high-throughput cloning, and proteomic technologies. These valuable plasmid resources will be available to the research community to enable continued viral functional studies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-11-30

Quantifying antibody binding on protein microarrays using microarray nonlinear calibration

Description

We present a microarray nonlinear calibration (MiNC) method for quantifying antibody binding to the surface of protein microarrays that significantly increases the linear dynamic range and reduces assay variation compared

We present a microarray nonlinear calibration (MiNC) method for quantifying antibody binding to the surface of protein microarrays that significantly increases the linear dynamic range and reduces assay variation compared with traditional approaches. A serological analysis of guinea pig Mycobacterium tuberculosis models showed that a larger number of putative antigen targets were identified with MiNC, which is consistent with the improved assay performance of protein microarrays. MiNC has the potential to be employed in biomedical research using multiplex antibody assays that need quantitation, including the discovery of antibody biomarkers, clinical diagnostics with multi-antibody signatures, and construction of immune mathematical models.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-08-12