Matching Items (19)

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Current Sensing Amplifier Design for RRAM Crossbar Arrays

Description

Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) is an emerging type of non-volatile memory technology that seeks to replace FLASH memory. The RRAM crossbar array is advantageous in its relatively small cell

Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) is an emerging type of non-volatile memory technology that seeks to replace FLASH memory. The RRAM crossbar array is advantageous in its relatively small cell area and faster read latency in comparison to NAND and NOR FLASH memory; however, the crossbar array faces design challenges of its own in sneak-path currents that prevent proper reading of memory stored in the RRAM cell. The Current Sensing Amplifier is one method of reading RRAM crossbar arrays. HSpice simulations are used to find the associated reading delays of the Current Sensing Amplifier with respect to various sizes of RRAM crossbar arrays, as well as the largest array size compatible for accurate reading. It is found that up to 1024x1024 arrays are achievable with a worst-case read delay of 815ps, and it is further likely 2048x2048 arrays are able to be read using the Current Sensing Amplifier. In comparing the Current Sensing Amplifier latency results with previously obtained latency results from the Voltage Sensing Amplifier, it is shown that the Voltage Sensing Amplifier reads arrays in sizes up to 256x256 faster while the Current Sensing Amplifier reads larger arrays faster.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Digital Modeling of Analog Effect Circuits

Description

While SPICE circuit simulation software gives researchers and industry accurate information regarding the behavior and characteristics of circuits, the auditory effect of SPICE circuit simulation on audio circuits is not

While SPICE circuit simulation software gives researchers and industry accurate information regarding the behavior and characteristics of circuits, the auditory effect of SPICE circuit simulation on audio circuits is not well documented. This project takes a thoroughly analyzed and popular audio effect circuit called the Ibanez Tubescreamer and simulates its distortion effect on a .wav file in order to hear the effect of SPICE simulation. Specifically, the TS-808 schematic is drawn in the SPICE program LTSPICE and simulated using generated sinusoids and recorded .wav files. Specific components are imported using .MODEL and .SUBCKT to accurately represent the diodes, bipolar transistors, op amps, and other components in order to hear how each component affects the response. Various transient responses are extracted as .wav files and assembled as figures in order to characterize the result of the circuit on the input. Once the actual circuit is built and debugged, all of the same transient analysis is applied and then compared to the SPICE simulation figures gathered in the digital simulation. These results are then compared along with a subjective hearing test of the digital simulation and analog circuit in order to test the validity of the SPICE simulations. The digital simulations reveal that the distortion follows the signature characteristics of Ibanez Tubescreamer which shows that SPICE simulation will give insight into the real effects of audio circuits modeled in SPICE programs. Diodes--such as Silicon, Germanium, Zener, Red LEDs and Blue LEDs--can dramatically change the waveforms and sound of the inputs within the circuit where as the Op-amps--such as the JRC4558, TL072, and NE5532--have little to no effect on the waveforms and subjective effects on the output .wav files. After building the circuit and hearing the difference between the analog circuit and digital simulation, the differences between the two are apparent but very similar in nature--proving that the SPICE simulation can give meaningful insight into the sound of the actual analog circuit. Some of the differences can be explained by the variance of equipment and environment used in recording and playback. Since this project did not use high fidelity audio recording equipment and consistency in the equipment used for playback, it is uncertain if the simulation and actual circuit could be classified as completely accurate. Any further work on the project would be recording and playing back in a constant environment and looking into a wider range of specific components instead of looking into one permutation.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Voltage Sense Amplifier (VSA) Design For RRAM Cross-Point Memory Array Structures

Description

RRAM is an emerging technology that looks to replace FLASH NOR and possibly NAND memory. It is attractive because it uses an adjustable resistance and does not rely on charge;

RRAM is an emerging technology that looks to replace FLASH NOR and possibly NAND memory. It is attractive because it uses an adjustable resistance and does not rely on charge; in the sub-10nm feature size circuitry this is critical. However, RRAM cross-point arrays suffer tremendously from leakage currents that prevent proper readings in larger array sizes. In this research an exponential IV selector was added to each cell to minimize this current. Using this technique the largest array-size supportable was determined to be 512x512 cells using the conventional voltage sense amplifier by HSPICE simulations. However, with the increase in array size, the sensing latency also remarkably increases due to more sneak path currents, approaching 873 ns for the 512x512 array.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing

Description

Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive

Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design.

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Date Created
  • 2013-10-31

Multi-level control of conductive nano-filament evolution in HfO2 ReRAM by pulse-train operations

Description

Precise electrical manipulation of nanoscale defects such as vacancy nano-filaments is highly desired for the multi-level control of ReRAM. In this paper we present a systematic investigation on the pulse-train

Precise electrical manipulation of nanoscale defects such as vacancy nano-filaments is highly desired for the multi-level control of ReRAM. In this paper we present a systematic investigation on the pulse-train operation scheme for reliable multi-level control of conductive filament evolution. By applying the pulse-train scheme to a 3 bit per cell HfO2 ReRAM, the relative standard deviations of resistance levels are improved up to 80% compared to the single-pulse scheme. The observed exponential relationship between the saturated resistance and the pulse amplitude provides evidence for the gap-formation model of the filament-rupture process.

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Date Created
  • 2014-03-26

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Testing of threshold logic latch based hybrid circuits

Description

The advent of threshold logic simplifies the traditional Boolean logic to the single level multi-input function. Threshold logic latch (TLL), among implementations of threshold logic, is functionally equivalent to a

The advent of threshold logic simplifies the traditional Boolean logic to the single level multi-input function. Threshold logic latch (TLL), among implementations of threshold logic, is functionally equivalent to a multi-input function with an edge triggered flip-flop, which stands out to improve area and both dynamic and leakage power consumption, providing an appropriate design alternative. Accordingly, the TLL standard cell library is designed. Through technology mapping, hybrid circuit is generated by absorbing the logic cone backward from each flip-flip to get the smallest remaining feeder. With the scan test methodology adopted, design for testability (DFT) is proposed, including scan element design and scan chain insertion. Test synthesis flow is then introduced, according to the Cadence tool, RTL compiler. Test application is the process of applying vectors and the response analysis, which is mainly about the testbench design. A parameterized generic self-checking Verilog testbench is designed for static fault detection. Test development refers to the fault modeling, and test generation. Firstly, functional truth table test generation on TLL cells is proposed. Before the truth table test of the threshold function, the dependence of sequence of vectors applied, i.e., the dependence of current state on the previous state, should be eliminated. Transition test (dynamic pattern) on all weak inputs is proved to be able to test the reset function, which is supposed to erase the history in the reset phase before every evaluation phase. Remaining vectors in the truth table except the weak inputs are then applied statically (static pattern). Secondly, dynamic patterns for all weak inputs are proposed to detect structural transistor level faults analyzed in the TLL cell, with single fault assumption and stuck-at faults, stuck-on faults, and stuck-open faults under consideration. Containing those patterns, the functional test covers all testable structural faults inside the TLL. Thirdly, with the scope of the whole hybrid netlist, the procedure of test generation is proposed with three steps: scan chain test; test of feeders and other scan elements except TLLs; functional pattern test of TLL cells. Implementation of this procedure is discussed in the automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) chapter.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Cu-Silica Based Programmable Metallization Cell: Fabrication, Characterization and Applications

Description

The Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a novel solid-state resistive switching technology. It has a simple metal-insulator-metal “MIM” structure with one metal being electrochemically active (Cu) and the other one

The Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) is a novel solid-state resistive switching technology. It has a simple metal-insulator-metal “MIM” structure with one metal being electrochemically active (Cu) and the other one being inert (Pt or W), an insulating film (silica) acts as solid electrolyte for ion transport is sandwiched between these two electrodes. PMC’s resistance can be altered by an external electrical stimulus. The change of resistance is attributed to the formation or dissolution of Cu metal filament(s) within the silica layer which is associated with electrochemical redox reactions and ion transportation. In this dissertation, a comprehensive study of microfabrication method and its impacts on performance of PMC device is demonstrated, gamma-ray total ionizing dose (TID) impacts on device reliability is investigated, and the materials properties of doped/undoped silica switching layers are illuminated by impedance spectroscopy (IS). Due to the inherent CMOS compatibility, Cu-silica PMCs have great potential to be adopted in many emerging technologies, such as non-volatile storage cells and selector cells in ultra-dense 3D crosspoint memories, as well as electronic synapses in brain-inspired neuromorphic computing. Cu-silica PMC device performance for these applications is also assessed in this dissertation.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Energy-efficient digital circuit design using threshold logic gates

Description

Improving energy efficiency has always been the prime objective of the custom and automated digital circuit design techniques. As a result, a multitude of methods to reduce power without sacrificing

Improving energy efficiency has always been the prime objective of the custom and automated digital circuit design techniques. As a result, a multitude of methods to reduce power without sacrificing performance have been proposed. However, as the field of design automation has matured over the last few decades, there have been no new automated design techniques, that can provide considerable improvements in circuit power, leakage and area. Although emerging nano-devices are expected to replace the existing MOSFET devices, they are far from being as mature as semiconductor devices and their full potential and promises are many years away from being practical.

The research described in this dissertation consists of four main parts. First is a new circuit architecture of a differential threshold logic flipflop called PNAND. The PNAND gate is an edge-triggered multi-input sequential cell whose next state function is a threshold function of its inputs. Second a new approach, called hybridization, that replaces flipflops and parts of their logic cones with PNAND cells is described. The resulting \hybrid circuit, which consists of conventional logic cells and PNANDs, is shown to have significantly less power consumption, smaller area, less standby power and less power variation.

Third, a new architecture of a field programmable array, called field programmable threshold logic array (FPTLA), in which the standard lookup table (LUT) is replaced by a PNAND is described. The FPTLA is shown to have as much as 50% lower energy-delay product compared to conventional FPGA using well known FPGA modeling tool called VPR.

Fourth, a novel clock skewing technique that makes use of the completion detection feature of the differential mode flipflops is described. This clock skewing method improves the area and power of the ASIC circuits by increasing slack on timing paths. An additional advantage of this method is the elimination of hold time violation on given short paths.

Several circuit design methodologies such as retiming and asynchronous circuit design can use the proposed threshold logic gate effectively. Therefore, the use of threshold logic flipflops in conventional design methodologies opens new avenues of research towards more energy-efficient circuits.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Multilevel resistance programming in conductive bridge resistive memory

Description

This work focuses on the existence of multiple resistance states in a type of emerging non-volatile resistive memory device known commonly as Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) or Conductive Bridge Random

This work focuses on the existence of multiple resistance states in a type of emerging non-volatile resistive memory device known commonly as Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) or Conductive Bridge Random Access Memory (CBRAM), which can be important for applications such as multi-bit memory as well as non-volatile logic and neuromorphic computing. First, experimental data from small signal, quasi-static and pulsed mode electrical characterization of such devices are presented which clearly demonstrate the inherent multi-level resistance programmability property in CBRAM devices. A physics based analytical CBRAM compact model is then presented which simulates the ion-transport dynamics and filamentary growth mechanism that causes resistance change in such devices. Simulation results from the model are fitted to experimental dynamic resistance switching characteristics. The model designed using Verilog-a language is computation-efficient and can be integrated with industry standard circuit simulation tools for design and analysis of hybrid circuits involving both CMOS and CBRAM devices. Three main circuit applications for CBRAM devices are explored in this work. Firstly, the susceptibility of CBRAM memory arrays to single event induced upsets is analyzed via compact model simulation and experimental heavy ion testing data that show possibility of both high resistance to low resistance and low resistance to high resistance transitions due to ion strikes. Next, a non-volatile sense amplifier based flip-flop architecture is proposed which can help make leakage power consumption negligible by allowing complete shutdown of power supply while retaining its output data in CBRAM devices. Reliability and energy consumption of the flip-flop circuit for different CBRAM low resistance levels and supply voltage values are analyzed and compared to CMOS designs. Possible extension of this architecture for threshold logic function computation using the CBRAM devices as re-configurable resistive weights is also discussed. Lastly, Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) based gradual resistance change behavior in CBRAM device fabricated in back-end-of-line on a CMOS die containing integrate and fire CMOS neuron circuits is demonstrated for the first time which indicates the feasibility of using CBRAM devices as electronic synapses in spiking neural network hardware implementations for non-Boolean neuromorphic computing.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Design of Resistive Synaptic Devices and Array Architectures for Neuromorphic Computing

Description

Over the past few decades, the silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been greatly scaled down to achieve higher performance, density and lower power consumption. As the device dimension is approaching

Over the past few decades, the silicon complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been greatly scaled down to achieve higher performance, density and lower power consumption. As the device dimension is approaching its fundamental physical limit, there is an increasing demand for exploration of emerging devices with distinct operating principles from conventional CMOS. In recent years, many efforts have been devoted in the research of next-generation emerging non-volatile memory (eNVM) technologies, such as resistive random access memory (RRAM) and phase change memory (PCM), to replace conventional digital memories (e.g. SRAM) for implementation of synapses in large-scale neuromorphic computing systems.

Essentially being compact and “analog”, these eNVM devices in a crossbar array can compute vector-matrix multiplication in parallel, significantly speeding up the machine/deep learning algorithms. However, non-ideal eNVM device and array properties may hamper the learning accuracy. To quantify their impact, the sparse coding algorithm was used as a starting point, where the strategies to remedy the accuracy loss were proposed, and the circuit-level design trade-offs were also analyzed. At architecture level, the parallel “pseudo-crossbar” array to prevent the write disturbance issue was presented. The peripheral circuits to support various parallel array architectures were also designed. One key component is the read circuit that employs the principle of integrate-and-fire neuron model to convert the analog column current to digital output. However, the read circuit is not area-efficient, which was proposed to be replaced with a compact two-terminal oscillation neuron device that exhibits metal-insulator-transition phenomenon.

To facilitate the design exploration, a circuit-level macro simulator “NeuroSim” was developed in C++ to estimate the area, latency, energy and leakage power of various neuromorphic architectures. NeuroSim provides a wide variety of design options at the circuit/device level. NeuroSim can be used alone or as a supporting module to provide circuit-level performance estimation in neural network algorithms. A 2-layer multilayer perceptron (MLP) simulator with integration of NeuroSim was demonstrated to evaluate both the learning accuracy and circuit-level performance metrics for the online learning and offline classification, as well as to study the impact of eNVM reliability issues such as data retention and write endurance on the learning performance.

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Date Created
  • 2018