Matching Items (19)

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Stochastic Learning in Oxide Binary Synaptic Device for Neuromorphic Computing

Description

Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The

Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design.

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2013-10-31

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Voltage Sense Amplifier (VSA) Design For RRAM Cross-Point Memory Array Structures

Description

RRAM is an emerging technology that looks to replace FLASH NOR and possibly NAND memory. It is attractive because it uses an adjustable resistance and does not rely on charge; in the sub-10nm feature size circuitry this is critical. However,

RRAM is an emerging technology that looks to replace FLASH NOR and possibly NAND memory. It is attractive because it uses an adjustable resistance and does not rely on charge; in the sub-10nm feature size circuitry this is critical. However, RRAM cross-point arrays suffer tremendously from leakage currents that prevent proper readings in larger array sizes. In this research an exponential IV selector was added to each cell to minimize this current. Using this technique the largest array-size supportable was determined to be 512x512 cells using the conventional voltage sense amplifier by HSPICE simulations. However, with the increase in array size, the sensing latency also remarkably increases due to more sneak path currents, approaching 873 ns for the 512x512 array.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Digital Modeling of Analog Effect Circuits

Description

While SPICE circuit simulation software gives researchers and industry accurate information regarding the behavior and characteristics of circuits, the auditory effect of SPICE circuit simulation on audio circuits is not well documented. This project takes a thoroughly analyzed and popular

While SPICE circuit simulation software gives researchers and industry accurate information regarding the behavior and characteristics of circuits, the auditory effect of SPICE circuit simulation on audio circuits is not well documented. This project takes a thoroughly analyzed and popular audio effect circuit called the Ibanez Tubescreamer and simulates its distortion effect on a .wav file in order to hear the effect of SPICE simulation. Specifically, the TS-808 schematic is drawn in the SPICE program LTSPICE and simulated using generated sinusoids and recorded .wav files. Specific components are imported using .MODEL and .SUBCKT to accurately represent the diodes, bipolar transistors, op amps, and other components in order to hear how each component affects the response. Various transient responses are extracted as .wav files and assembled as figures in order to characterize the result of the circuit on the input. Once the actual circuit is built and debugged, all of the same transient analysis is applied and then compared to the SPICE simulation figures gathered in the digital simulation. These results are then compared along with a subjective hearing test of the digital simulation and analog circuit in order to test the validity of the SPICE simulations. The digital simulations reveal that the distortion follows the signature characteristics of Ibanez Tubescreamer which shows that SPICE simulation will give insight into the real effects of audio circuits modeled in SPICE programs. Diodes--such as Silicon, Germanium, Zener, Red LEDs and Blue LEDs--can dramatically change the waveforms and sound of the inputs within the circuit where as the Op-amps--such as the JRC4558, TL072, and NE5532--have little to no effect on the waveforms and subjective effects on the output .wav files. After building the circuit and hearing the difference between the analog circuit and digital simulation, the differences between the two are apparent but very similar in nature--proving that the SPICE simulation can give meaningful insight into the sound of the actual analog circuit. Some of the differences can be explained by the variance of equipment and environment used in recording and playback. Since this project did not use high fidelity audio recording equipment and consistency in the equipment used for playback, it is uncertain if the simulation and actual circuit could be classified as completely accurate. Any further work on the project would be recording and playing back in a constant environment and looking into a wider range of specific components instead of looking into one permutation.

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2015-12

Multi-Level Control of Conductive Nano-Filament Evolution in HfO2 ReRAM by Pulse-Train Operations

Description

Precise electrical manipulation of nanoscale defects such as vacancy nano-filaments is highly desired for the multi-level control of ReRAM. In this paper we present a systematic investigation on the pulse-train operation scheme for reliable multi-level control of conductive filament evolution.

Precise electrical manipulation of nanoscale defects such as vacancy nano-filaments is highly desired for the multi-level control of ReRAM. In this paper we present a systematic investigation on the pulse-train operation scheme for reliable multi-level control of conductive filament evolution. By applying the pulse-train scheme to a 3 bit per cell HfO2 ReRAM, the relative standard deviations of resistance levels are improved up to 80% compared to the single-pulse scheme. The observed exponential relationship between the saturated resistance and the pulse amplitude provides evidence for the gap-formation model of the filament-rupture process.

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Date Created
2014-03-26

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Current Sensing Amplifier Design for RRAM Crossbar Arrays

Description

Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) is an emerging type of non-volatile memory technology that seeks to replace FLASH memory. The RRAM crossbar array is advantageous in its relatively small cell area and faster read latency in comparison to NAND and

Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) is an emerging type of non-volatile memory technology that seeks to replace FLASH memory. The RRAM crossbar array is advantageous in its relatively small cell area and faster read latency in comparison to NAND and NOR FLASH memory; however, the crossbar array faces design challenges of its own in sneak-path currents that prevent proper reading of memory stored in the RRAM cell. The Current Sensing Amplifier is one method of reading RRAM crossbar arrays. HSpice simulations are used to find the associated reading delays of the Current Sensing Amplifier with respect to various sizes of RRAM crossbar arrays, as well as the largest array size compatible for accurate reading. It is found that up to 1024x1024 arrays are achievable with a worst-case read delay of 815ps, and it is further likely 2048x2048 arrays are able to be read using the Current Sensing Amplifier. In comparing the Current Sensing Amplifier latency results with previously obtained latency results from the Voltage Sensing Amplifier, it is shown that the Voltage Sensing Amplifier reads arrays in sizes up to 256x256 faster while the Current Sensing Amplifier reads larger arrays faster.

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Date Created
2016-12

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RRAM-based PUF: design and applications in cryptography

Description

The recent flurry of security breaches have raised serious concerns about the security of data communication and storage. A promising way to enhance the security of the system is through physical root of trust, such as, through use of physical

The recent flurry of security breaches have raised serious concerns about the security of data communication and storage. A promising way to enhance the security of the system is through physical root of trust, such as, through use of physical unclonable functions (PUF). PUF leverages the inherent randomness in physical systems to provide device specific authentication and encryption.

In this thesis, first the design of a highly reliable resistive random access memory (RRAM) PUF is presented. Compared to existing 1 cell/bit RRAM, here the sum of the read-out currents of multiple RRAM cells are used for generating one response bit. This method statistically minimizes any early-lifetime failure due to RRAM retention degradation at high temperature or under voltage stress. Using a device model that was calibrated using IMEC HfOx RRAM experimental data, it was shown that an 8 cells/bit architecture achieves 99.9999% reliability for a lifetime >10 years at 125℃ . Also, the hardware area overhead of the proposed 8 cells/bit RRAM PUF architecture was smaller than 1 cell/bit RRAM PUF that requires error correction coding to achieve the same reliability.

Next, a basic security primitive is presented, where the RRAM PUF is embedded in the cryptographic module, SHA-256. This architecture is referred to as Embedded PUF or EPUF. EPUF has a security advantage over SHA-256 as it never exposes the PUF response to the outside world. Instead, in each round, the PUF response is used to change a few bits of the message word to produce a unique message digest for each IC. The use of EPUF as a key generation module for AES is also shown. The hardware area requirement for SHA-256 and AES-128 is then analyzed using synthesis results based on TSMC 65nm library. It is shown that the area overhead of 8 cells/bit RRAM PUF is only 1.08% of the SHA-256 module and 0.04% of the AES-128 module. The security analysis of the PUF based systems is also presented. It is shown that the EPUF-based systems are resistant towards standard attacks on PUFs, and that the security of the cryptographic modules is not compromised.

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2015

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A comprehensive study of impact of growth conditions on structural and magnetic properties of CZTB thin films

Description

Soft magnetic materials have been studied extensively in the recent past due to their applications in micro-transformers, micro-inductors, spin dependent memories etc. The unique features of these materials are the high frequency operability and high magnetic anisotropy. High uniaxial anisotropy

Soft magnetic materials have been studied extensively in the recent past due to their applications in micro-transformers, micro-inductors, spin dependent memories etc. The unique features of these materials are the high frequency operability and high magnetic anisotropy. High uniaxial anisotropy is one of the most important properties for these materials. There are many methods to achieve high anisotropy energy (Hk) which include sputtering with presence of magnetic field, exchange bias and oblique angle sputtering.

This research project focuses on analyzing different growth techniques of thin films of Cobalt, Zirconium Tantalum Boron (CZTB) and the quality of the films resulted. The measurements include magnetic moment measurements using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer, electrical measurements using 4 point resistivity methods and structural characterization using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Subtle changes in the growth mechanism result in different properties of these films and they are most suited for certain applications.

The growth methods presented in this research are oblique angled sputtering with localized magnetic field and oblique sputtering without presence of magnetic field. The uniaxial anisotropy can be controlled by changing the angle during sputtering. The resulting film of CZTB is tested for magnetic anisotropy and soft magnetism at room temperature by using Lakeshore 7500 Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The results are presented, analyzed and explained using characterization techniques. Future work includes magnetic field presence during deposition, magnetic devices of this film with giga hertz range operating frequencies.

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Date Created
2015

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Testing of threshold logic latch based hybrid circuits

Description

The advent of threshold logic simplifies the traditional Boolean logic to the single level multi-input function. Threshold logic latch (TLL), among implementations of threshold logic, is functionally equivalent to a multi-input function with an edge triggered flip-flop, which stands out

The advent of threshold logic simplifies the traditional Boolean logic to the single level multi-input function. Threshold logic latch (TLL), among implementations of threshold logic, is functionally equivalent to a multi-input function with an edge triggered flip-flop, which stands out to improve area and both dynamic and leakage power consumption, providing an appropriate design alternative. Accordingly, the TLL standard cell library is designed. Through technology mapping, hybrid circuit is generated by absorbing the logic cone backward from each flip-flip to get the smallest remaining feeder. With the scan test methodology adopted, design for testability (DFT) is proposed, including scan element design and scan chain insertion. Test synthesis flow is then introduced, according to the Cadence tool, RTL compiler. Test application is the process of applying vectors and the response analysis, which is mainly about the testbench design. A parameterized generic self-checking Verilog testbench is designed for static fault detection. Test development refers to the fault modeling, and test generation. Firstly, functional truth table test generation on TLL cells is proposed. Before the truth table test of the threshold function, the dependence of sequence of vectors applied, i.e., the dependence of current state on the previous state, should be eliminated. Transition test (dynamic pattern) on all weak inputs is proved to be able to test the reset function, which is supposed to erase the history in the reset phase before every evaluation phase. Remaining vectors in the truth table except the weak inputs are then applied statically (static pattern). Secondly, dynamic patterns for all weak inputs are proposed to detect structural transistor level faults analyzed in the TLL cell, with single fault assumption and stuck-at faults, stuck-on faults, and stuck-open faults under consideration. Containing those patterns, the functional test covers all testable structural faults inside the TLL. Thirdly, with the scope of the whole hybrid netlist, the procedure of test generation is proposed with three steps: scan chain test; test of feeders and other scan elements except TLLs; functional pattern test of TLL cells. Implementation of this procedure is discussed in the automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) chapter.

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Date Created
2013

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Modeling and simulation tools for aging effects in scaled CMOS design

Description

The aging process due to Bias Temperature Instability (both NBTI and PBTI) and Channel Hot Carrier (CHC) is a key limiting factor of circuit lifetime in CMOS design. Threshold voltage shift due to BTI is a strong function of stress

The aging process due to Bias Temperature Instability (both NBTI and PBTI) and Channel Hot Carrier (CHC) is a key limiting factor of circuit lifetime in CMOS design. Threshold voltage shift due to BTI is a strong function of stress voltage and temperature complicating stress and recovery prediction. This poses a unique challenge for long-term aging prediction for wide range of stress patterns. Traditional approaches usually resort to an average stress waveform to simplify the lifetime prediction. They are efficient, but fail to capture circuit operation, especially under dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) or in analog/mixed signal designs where the stress waveform is much more random. This work presents a suite of modelling solutions for BTI that enable aging simulation under all possible stress conditions. Key features of this work are compact models to predict BTI aging based on Reaction-Diffusion theory when the stress voltage is varying. The results to both reaction-diffusion (RD) and trapping-detrapping (TD) mechanisms are presented to cover underlying physics. Silicon validation of these models is performed at 28nm, 45nm and 65nm technology nodes, at both device and circuit levels. Efficient simulation leveraging the BTI models under DVS and random input waveform is applied to both digital and analog representative circuits such as ring oscillators and LNA. Both physical mechanisms are combined into a unified model which improves prediction accuracy at 45nm and 65nm nodes. Critical failure condition is also illustrated based on NBTI and PBTI at 28nm. A comprehensive picture for duty cycle shift is shown. DC stress under clock gating schemes results in monotonic shift in duty cycle which an AC stress causes duty cycle to converge close to 50% value. Proposed work provides a general and comprehensive solution to aging analysis under random stress patterns under BTI.

Channel hot carrier (CHC) is another dominant degradation mechanism which affects analog and mixed signal circuits (AMS) as transistor operates continuously in saturation condition. New model is proposed to account for e-e scattering in advanced technology nodes due to high gate electric field. The model is validated with 28nm and 65nm thick oxide data for different stress voltages. It demonstrates shift in worst case CHC condition to Vgs=Vds from Vgs=0.5Vds. A novel iteration based aging simulation framework for AMS designs is proposed which eliminates limitation for conventional reliability tools. This approach helps us identify a unique positive feedback mechanism termed as Bias Runaway. Bias runaway, is rapid increase of the bias voltage in AMS circuits which occurs when the feedback between the bias current and the effect of channel hot carrier turns into positive. The degradation of CHC is a gradual process but under specific circumstances, the degradation rate can be dramatically accelerated. Such a catastrophic phenomenon is highly sensitive to the initial operation condition, as well as transistor gate length. Based on 65nm silicon data, our work investigates the critical condition that triggers bias runaway, and the impact of gate length tuning. We develop new compact models as well as the simulation methodology for circuit diagnosis, and propose design solutions and the trade-offs to avoid bias runaway, which is vitally important to reliable AMS designs.

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Date Created
2014

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Reconfigurable architectures and systems for IoT applications

Description

Internet of Things (IoT) has become a popular topic in industry over the recent years, which describes an ecosystem of internet-connected devices or things that enrich the everyday life by improving our productivity and efficiency. The primary components of the

Internet of Things (IoT) has become a popular topic in industry over the recent years, which describes an ecosystem of internet-connected devices or things that enrich the everyday life by improving our productivity and efficiency. The primary components of the IoT ecosystem are hardware, software and services. While the software and services of IoT system focus on data collection and processing to make decisions, the underlying hardware is responsible for sensing the information, preprocess and transmit it to the servers. Since the IoT ecosystem is still in infancy, there is a great need for rapid prototyping platforms that would help accelerate the hardware design process. However, depending on the target IoT application, different sensors are required to sense the signals such as heart-rate, temperature, pressure, acceleration, etc., and there is a great need for reconfigurable platforms that can prototype different sensor interfacing circuits.

This thesis primarily focuses on two important hardware aspects of an IoT system: (a) an FPAA based reconfigurable sensing front-end system and (b) an FPGA based reconfigurable processing system. To enable reconfiguration capability for any sensor type, Programmable ANalog Device Array (PANDA), a transistor-level analog reconfigurable platform is proposed. CAD tools required for implementation of front-end circuits on the platform are also developed. To demonstrate the capability of the platform on silicon, a small-scale array of 24×25 PANDA cells is fabricated in 65nm technology. Several analog circuit building blocks including amplifiers, bias circuits and filters are prototyped on the platform, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the platform for rapid prototyping IoT sensor interfaces.

IoT systems typically use machine learning algorithms that run on the servers to process the data in order to make decisions. Recently, embedded processors are being used to preprocess the data at the energy-constrained sensor node or at IoT gateway, which saves considerable energy for transmission and bandwidth. Using conventional CPU based systems for implementing the machine learning algorithms is not energy-efficient. Hence an FPGA based hardware accelerator is proposed and an optimization methodology is developed to maximize throughput of any convolutional neural network (CNN) based machine learning algorithm on a resource-constrained FPGA.

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Date Created
2016