Matching Items (87)

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Nested Capacitor Power Generation Through Aligning Fields

Description

Two nested capacitors can produce work if the electric fields are not aligned, and the purpose of this research was to explore the possibility of using that generation instead of DC motors. The work the capacitors produce is determined by

Two nested capacitors can produce work if the electric fields are not aligned, and the purpose of this research was to explore the possibility of using that generation instead of DC motors. The work the capacitors produce is determined by the strength of the fields and materials that is composed of. The power density of the object is then determined by the volume. As the electric field increases in strength, the power increases, so to create a very strong internal field. The nested capacitors use a dielectric to prevent breakdown from the strength of the field. Additionally, as the nested capacitors decrease in size, their power density increases rapidly \u2014 becoming close to a dc motor's power density around the 500mm^2 size. When the result was simulated, it was discovered that the electric field was not contained to the dielectric and would result in sparking. Several other concerns would need to be addressed for this to become a viable solution.

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2018-05

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Codoping Zinc Oxide Nanowires

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The zinc oxide nanowires being grown are not developing properly and need to be fixed. In order to do this, the furnace equipment and experimental procedure must be tested until the results produced yield acceptable quality zinc oxide nanowires. After

The zinc oxide nanowires being grown are not developing properly and need to be fixed. In order to do this, the furnace equipment and experimental procedure must be tested until the results produced yield acceptable quality zinc oxide nanowires. After experimentation the nanowires were produced to an acceptable quality. With quality nanowires to experiment with, testing began to examine the effects of different thicknesses of aluminum dopants. Once doped and annealed, the wires were transferred to a substrate with a grid so contact points could be applied. However; the experiment was phased out once this step was half way complete due to the lab shifting to examine co-doping zinc oxide nanowires as explored in part two of this paper. The goal of co-doping zinc oxide film is to create an ideal p
type relationship for power generation, so this project focuses on altering the electrical properties of zinc oxide through doping that will allow more energy to be generated from the solar panels than current zinc oxide solar panels. The zinc oxide film doped with manganese was sputtered onto a silicon substrate. The experiment failed to create a co-doped sample because an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reading of the sample proved no nitrogen existed in the zinc oxide doped with manganese film. This experiment leads into this research teams work with co-doping, so instead of viewing this project as a failure it is seen as a learning experience. The research team is examining the results and creating new experiments to run to fix the problem. I currently work with my mentor Dr. Hongbin Yu and Seung Ho Ahn while doing research.

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2014-05

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RFID Assisted Traffic Sign Recognition System for Autonomous Vehicles

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This research report investigates the feasibility of using RFID in Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) Systems for autonomous vehicles, specifically driver-less cars. Driver-less cars are becoming more prominent in society but must be designed to integrate with the current transportation infrastructure.

This research report investigates the feasibility of using RFID in Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) Systems for autonomous vehicles, specifically driver-less cars. Driver-less cars are becoming more prominent in society but must be designed to integrate with the current transportation infrastructure. Current research in TSR systems use image processing as well as LIDAR to identify traffic signs, yet these are highly dependent on lighting conditions, camera quality and sign visibility. The read rates of current TSR systems in literature are approximately 96 percent. The usage of RFID in TSR systems can improve the performance of traditional TSR systems. An RFID TSR was designed for the Autonomous Pheeno Test-bed at the Arizona State University (ASU) Autonomous Collective Systems (ACS) Laboratory. The system was tested with varying parameters to see the effect of the parameters on the read rate. It was found that high reader strength and low tag distance had a maximum read rate of 96.3 percent, which is comparable to existing literature. It was proven that an RFID TSR can perform as well as traditional TSR systems, and has the capacity to improve accuracy when used alongside RGB cameras and LIDAR.

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2018-05

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Integrated Solid State LIDAR and Camera Sensor for Autonomous Vehicles

Description

The focus of this study was to address the problem of prohibitively expensive LiDARs currently being used in autonomous vehicles by analyzing the capabilities and shortcomings of affordable LiDARs as replacements. This involved the characterization of affordable LiDARs that are

The focus of this study was to address the problem of prohibitively expensive LiDARs currently being used in autonomous vehicles by analyzing the capabilities and shortcomings of affordable LiDARs as replacements. This involved the characterization of affordable LiDARs that are currently available on the market. The characterization of the LiDARs involved testing refresh rates, field of view, distance the sensors could detect, reflectivity, and power of the emitters. The four LiDARs examined in this study were the Scanse, RPLIDAR A2, LeddarTech Vu8, and LeddarTech M16. Of these low cost LiDAR options we find the two best options for use in affordable autonomous vehicle sensors to be the RPLIDAR A2 and the LeddarTech M16.

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2018-05

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Ultra High Strain Sensing using an Optical Scanning Methodology

Description

A novel strain sensing procedure using an optical scanning methodology and diffraction grating is explored. The motivation behind this study is due to uneven thermal strain distribution across semiconductor chips that are composed of varying materials. Due to the unique

A novel strain sensing procedure using an optical scanning methodology and diffraction grating is explored. The motivation behind this study is due to uneven thermal strain distribution across semiconductor chips that are composed of varying materials. Due to the unique properties of the materials and the different coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), one can expect the material that experiences the highest strain to be the most likely failure point of the chip. As such, there is a need for a strain sensing technique that offers a very high strain sensitivity, a high spatial resolution while simultaneously achieving a large field of view. This study goes through the optical setup as well as the evolution of the optical grating in an effort to improve the strain sensitivity of this setup.

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2014-05

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A CMOS analog front-end circuit for micro-fluxgate sensors

Description

Fluxgate sensors are magnetic field sensors that can measure DC and low frequency AC magnetic fields. They can measure much lower magnetic fields than other magnetic sensors like Hall effect sensors, magnetoresistive sensors etc. They also have high linearity, high

Fluxgate sensors are magnetic field sensors that can measure DC and low frequency AC magnetic fields. They can measure much lower magnetic fields than other magnetic sensors like Hall effect sensors, magnetoresistive sensors etc. They also have high linearity, high sensitivity and low noise. The major application of fluxgate sensors is in magnetometers for the measurement of earth's magnetic field. Magnetometers are used in navigation systems and electronic compasses. Fluxgate sensors can also be used to measure high DC currents. Integrated micro-fluxgate sensors have been developed in recent years. These sensors have much lower power consumption and area compared to their PCB counterparts. The output voltage of micro-fluxgate sensors is very low which makes the analog front end more complex and results in an increase in power consumption of the system. In this thesis a new analog front-end circuit for micro-fluxgate sensors is developed. This analog front-end circuit uses charge pump based excitation circuit and phase delay based read-out chain. With these two features the power consumption of analog front-end is reduced. The output is digital and it is immune to amplitude noise at the output of the sensor. Digital output is produced without using an ADC. A SPICE model of micro-fluxgate sensor is used to verify the operation of the analog front-end and the simulation results show very good linearity.

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2013

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Integrated inductors with micro-patterned magnetic thin films for RF and power applications

Description

With increasing demand for System on Chip (SoC) and System in Package (SiP) design in computer and communication technologies, integrated inductor which is an essential passive component has been widely used in numerous integrated circuits (ICs) such as in voltage

With increasing demand for System on Chip (SoC) and System in Package (SiP) design in computer and communication technologies, integrated inductor which is an essential passive component has been widely used in numerous integrated circuits (ICs) such as in voltage regulators and RF circuits. In this work, soft ferromagnetic core material, amorphous Co-Zr-Ta-B, was incorporated into on-chip and in-package inductors in order to scale down inductors and improve inductors performance in both inductance density and quality factor. With two layers of 500 nm Co-Zr-Ta-B films a 3.5X increase in inductance and a 3.9X increase in quality factor over inductors without magnetic films were measured at frequencies as high as 1 GHz. By laminating technology, up to 9.1X increase in inductance and more than 5X increase in quality factor (Q) were obtained from stripline inductors incorporated with 50 nm by 10 laminated films with a peak Q at 300 MHz. It was also demonstrated that this peak Q can be pushed towards high frequency as far as 1GHz by a combination of patterning magnetic films into fine bars and laminations. The role of magnetic vias in magnetic flux and eddy current control was investigated by both simulation and experiment using different patterning techniques and by altering the magnetic via width. Finger-shaped magnetic vias were designed and integrated into on-chip RF inductors improving the frequency of peak quality factor from 400 MHz to 800 MHz without sacrificing inductance enhancement. Eddy current and magnetic flux density in different areas of magnetic vias were analyzed by HFSS 3D EM simulation. With optimized magnetic vias, high frequency response of up to 2 GHz was achieved. Furthermore, the effect of applied magnetic field on on-chip inductors was investigated for high power applications. It was observed that as applied magnetic field along the hard axis (HA) increases, inductance maintains similar value initially at low fields, but decreases at larger fields until the magnetic films become saturated. The high frequency quality factor showed an opposite trend which is correlated to the reduction of ferromagnetic resonant absorption in the magnetic film. In addition, experiments showed that this field-dependent inductance change varied with different patterned magnetic film structures, including bars/slots and fingers structures. Magnetic properties of Co-Zr-Ta-B films on standard organic package substrates including ABF and polyimide were also characterized. Effects of substrate roughness and stress were analyzed and simulated which provide strategies for integrating Co-Zr-Ta-B into package inductors and improving inductors performance. Stripline and spiral inductors with Co-Zr-Ta-B films were fabricated on both ABF and polyimide substrates. Maximum 90% inductance increase in hundreds MHz frequency range were achieved in stripline inductors which are suitable for power delivery applications. Spiral inductors with Co-Zr-Ta-B films showed 18% inductance increase with quality factor of 4 at frequency up to 3 GHz.

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2013

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Codoped zinc oxide by a novel co-spray deposition technique for solar cells applications

Description

Zinc oxide (ZnO), a naturally n-type semiconductor has been identified as a promising candidate to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent electrode in solar cells, because of its wide bandgap (3.37 eV), abundant source materials and suitable refractive

Zinc oxide (ZnO), a naturally n-type semiconductor has been identified as a promising candidate to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent electrode in solar cells, because of its wide bandgap (3.37 eV), abundant source materials and suitable refractive index (2.0 at 600 nm). Spray deposition is a convenient and low cost technique for large area and uniform deposition of semiconductor thin films. In particular, it provides an easier way to dope the film by simply adding the dopant precursor into the starting solution. In order to reduce the resistivity of undoped ZnO, many works have been done by doping in the ZnO with either group IIIA elements or VIIA elements using spray pyrolysis. However, the resistivity is still too high to meet TCO's resistivity requirement. In the present work, a novel co-spray deposition technique is developed to bypass a fundamental limitation in the conventional spray deposition technique, i.e. the deposition of metal oxides from incompatible precursors in the starting solution. With this technique, ZnO films codoped with one cationic dopant, Al, Cr, or Fe, and an anionic dopant, F, have been successfully synthesized, in which F is incompatible with all these three cationic dopants. Two starting solutions were prepared and co-sprayed through two separate spray heads. One solution contained only the F precursor, NH 4F. The second solution contained the Zn and one cationic dopant precursors, Zn(O 2CCH 3) 2 and AlCl 3, CrCl 3, or FeCl 3. The deposition was carried out at 500 &degC; on soda-lime glass in air. Compared to singly-doped ZnO thin films, codoped ZnO samples showed better electrical properties. Besides, a minimum sheet resistance, 55.4 Ω/sq, was obtained for Al and F codoped ZnO films after vacuum annealing at 400 &degC;, which was lower than singly-doped ZnO with either Al or F. The transmittance for the Al and F codoped ZnO samples was above 90% in the visible range. This co-spray deposition technique provides a simple and cost-effective way to synthesize metal oxides from incompatible precursors with improved properties.

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2013

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Modelling and simulation of plasmonic waveguides and nanolasers

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This thesis summarizes modeling and simulation of plasmonic waveguides and nanolasers. The research includes modeling of dielectric constants of doped semiconductor as a potential plasmonic material, simulation of plasmonic waveguides with different configurations and geometries, simulation and design of plasmonic

This thesis summarizes modeling and simulation of plasmonic waveguides and nanolasers. The research includes modeling of dielectric constants of doped semiconductor as a potential plasmonic material, simulation of plasmonic waveguides with different configurations and geometries, simulation and design of plasmonic nanolasers. In the doped semiconductor part, a more accurate model accounting for dielectric constant of doped InAs was proposed. In the model, Interband transitions accounted for by Adachi's model considering Burstein-Moss effect and free electron effect governed by Drude model dominate in different spectral regions. For plasmonic waveguide part, Insulator-Metal-Insulator (IMI) waveguide, silver nanowire waveguide with and without substrate, Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) waveguide and Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor-Insulator-Metal (MISIM) waveguide were investigated respectively. Modal analysis was given for each part. Lastly, a comparative study of plasmonic and optical modes in an MSM disk cavity was performed by FDTD simulation for room temperature at the telecommunication wavelength. The results show quantitatively that plasmonic modes have advantages over optical modes in the scalability down to small size and the cavity Quantum Electrodynamics(QED) effects due to the possibility of breaking the diffraction limit. Surprisingly for lasing characteristics, though plasmonic modes have large loss as expected, minimal achievable threshold can be attained for whispering gallery plasmonic modes with azimuthal number of 2 by optimizing cavity design at 1.55µm due to interplay of metal loss and radiation loss.

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2014