Matching Items (9)

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Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise

Description

Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects

Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210–2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210–2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210–2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410–0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-02-26

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Exercise Improves Immune Function, Antidepressive Response, and Sleep Quality in Patients with Chronic Primary Insomnia

Description

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderate aerobic exercise training on sleep, depression, cortisol, and markers of immune function in patients with chronic primary insomnia.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderate aerobic exercise training on sleep, depression, cortisol, and markers of immune function in patients with chronic primary insomnia. Twenty-one sedentary participants (16 women aged 44.7 ± 9 years) with chronic primary insomnia completed a 4-month intervention of moderate aerobic exercise. Compared with baseline, polysomnographic data showed improvements following exercise training. Also observed were reductions in depression symptoms and plasma cortisol. Immunologic assays revealed a significant increase in plasma apolipoprotein A (140.9 ± 22 to 151.2 ± 22 mg/dL) and decreases in CD4 (915.6 ± 361 to 789.6 ± 310 mm[superscript 3]) and CD8 (532.4 ± 259 to 435.7 ± 204 mm[superscript 3]). Decreases in cortisol were significantly correlated with increases in total sleep time (r = -0.51) and REM sleep (r = -0.52). In summary, long-term moderate aerobic exercise training improved sleep, reduced depression and cortisol, and promoted significant changes in immunologic variables.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-21

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Effects of Decreased Opportunity to Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Mood by Sex in Older Adults

Description

Objectives: The goal of this study was to compare older adults (ages 60 to 80) with a fixed sleep schedule compared to a restricted sleep schedule. The purpose was to

Objectives: The goal of this study was to compare older adults (ages 60 to 80) with a fixed sleep schedule compared to a restricted sleep schedule. The purpose was to determine if reducing one's sleep by an hour each night for 12 weeks, led to worse cognition and mood over time. Study Design: The study contained two groups: older adults with their sleep restricted and older adults with their sleep un-restricted. Participants were recruited by researchers at Arizona State University and The University of Arizona by advertising in newspapers, on flyers in senior centers, and on radio stations. After rigorous screening for health conditions, current sleep patterns and depression, individuals entered the study. Participants completed the Geriatric Depression Scale after two weeks of baseline, and again after treatment week 14 of the study. Likewise, males and females performed three cognitive tests after two weeks of baseline, and again after treatment week 14 of the study. These cognitive tests included Stroop Color and Word Test, Trail making and PVT. Results: The depression scale and three cognitive tests showed that there was no significant difference with cognition and mood over 14 weeks between individuals with a fixed sleep schedule compared to a restricted sleep schedule. Conclusions: Reducing older adult's sleep duration by an hour each night for 14 weeks does not produce negative effects, and does not provoke signs of depression or weakened cognition.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Impact of Sleep Restriction on Muscle Recovery Following Eccentric Exercise

Description

This study was designed with the goal of measuring the effects of sleep deprivation on muscle function. Participants in this study consisted of 19 individuals, 11 of which were in

This study was designed with the goal of measuring the effects of sleep deprivation on muscle function. Participants in this study consisted of 19 individuals, 11 of which were in the restricted group (age 251) and 8 were in the control group (age 231). Measurements of muscle function included isometric strength, isokinetic velocity, and muscle soreness. Isometric strength and isokinetic velocity were taken for knee extension using a dynamometer. Muscle soreness was measured via a 100mm likert visual analogue scale for the step-up and step-down movements with the effected leg. Measurements were taken at baseline, and 48 hours after the damaging bout of eccentric exercise following either 8 hours of sleep per night or 3 hours of sleep per night. Results show that there were no statistical differences between groups for either measurements of isometric strength, isokinetic velocity, or muscle soreness. Due to possible confounding factors, future research needs to be conducted in order to get a better understanding of the effects of sleep deprivation on muscle function.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Assisted Cycling Therapy Improves Self-Efficacy in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on self-efficacy (SE) in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty-nine participants were randomly divided into a voluntary cycling group (VC)

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on self-efficacy (SE) in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty-nine participants were randomly divided into a voluntary cycling group (VC) (i.e., self-selected cadence), an assisted cycling group (ACT) (i.e., at least 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor), or a no exercise group (NC). In each cycling intervention the participant completed 30 minute cycling sessions, three times per week for a total of eight weeks. Two subsets of the Physical Activity and Self Efficacy Survey were administered prior to cycling (i.e., pretest) and after the eight week intervention (i.e., post-test). The results were consistent with the hypothesis that self-efficacy would improve after ACT, however there was not improvement after the VC condition as hypothesized. It was also hypothesized that exercise perception would improve following the ACT intervention; execise perception showed a trend of improvement after ACT, but the data did not reach significance. Limitations include the wide variability of the DS population. This limitation is responsible for the variation in mental age seen in the intervention groups and could be responsible for the non-significance of the exercise perception data. To generalize our results for parents, therapists, teachers, etc., our recommendation is for persons with DS to participate in physical activity that is easy for them at first \u2014 a simplified sport or active game, assisted cycling, brisk walking \u2014 so that they have a positive experience with exercise. Showing individuals with DS that they can be proficient exercisers will likely improve their self-efficacy and motivate them to engage in more PA over time. In conclusion, eight weeks of moderate ACT exercise demonstrated a significant trend for improved self-efficacy in adolescents with DS.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Assisted Cycling Therapy Improves Childhood Depression in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

Description

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on depression in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty nine participants were randomly divided into a voluntary cycling group (VC)

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on depression in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty nine participants were randomly divided into a voluntary cycling group (VC) (i.e., self-selected cadence), an assisted cycling group (AC) (i.e., at least 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor), or a no exercise group (NC). In each cycling intervention the participant completed 30 minute cycling sessions, three times per week for a total of eight weeks. The Children's Depression Inventory II was administered prior to cycling (i.e., pretest) and after the eight week intervention (i.e., posttest). Although the data did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance, the results of the study demonstrated partial support for our hypothesis that adolescents with DS showed improvements in depression as measured by the Children's Depression Inventory II following assisted cycling, but not following eight weeks of voluntary cycling. In other words, eight weeks of moderate AC exercise demonstrated a trend for improved depression in adolescents with DS.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Differential increase in prevalence estimates of inadequate sleep among black and white Americans

Description

Background
The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was used to ascertain whether increases in inadequate sleep differentially affected black and white Americans. We tested the hypothesis that prevalence estimates of

Background
The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was used to ascertain whether increases in inadequate sleep differentially affected black and white Americans. We tested the hypothesis that prevalence estimates of inadequate sleep were consistently greater among blacks, and that temporal changes have affected these two strata differentially.
Methods
NHIS is an ongoing cross-sectional study of non-institutionalized US adults (≥18 years) providing socio-demographic, health risk, and medical factors. Sleep duration was coded as very short sleep [VSS] (<5 h), short sleep [SS] (5–6 h), or long sleep [LS] (>8 h), referenced to 7–8 h sleepers. Analyses adjusted for NHIS’ complex sampling design using SAS-callable SUDAAN.
Results
Among whites, the prevalence of VSS increased by 53 % (1.5 % to 2.3 %) from 1977 to 2009 and the prevalence of SS increased by 32 % (19.3 % to 25.4 %); prevalence of LS decreased by 30 % (11.2 % to 7.8 %). Among blacks, the prevalence of VSS increased by 21 % (3.3 % to 4.0 %) and the prevalence of SS increased by 37 % (24.6 % to 33.7 %); prevalence of LS decreased by 42 % (16.1 % to 9.4 %). Adjusted multinomial regression analysis showed that odds of reporting inadequate sleep for whites were: VSS (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI = 1.13-1.74, p < 0.001), SS (OR = 1.34, 95 % CI = 1.25-1.44, p < 0.001), and LS (OR = 0.94, 95 % CI = 0.85-1.05, NS). For blacks, estimates were: VSS (OR = 0.83, 95 % CI = 0.60-1.40, NS), SS (OR = 1.21, 95 % CI = 1.05-1.50, p < 0.001), and LS (OR = 0.84, 95 % CI = 0.64-1.08, NS).
Conclusions
Blacks and whites are characteristically different regarding the prevalence of inadequate sleep over the years. Temporal changes in estimates of inadequate sleep seem dependent upon individuals’ race/ethnicity.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-11-26

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Effects of Pharmacotherapy on Combat-Related PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis

Description

The efficacy of pharmacotherapy for PTSD, anxiety, and depression among combat veterans is not well-established.
Objectives
To estimate the effect of pharmacotherapy on PTSD, anxiety, and depression among combat veterans;

The efficacy of pharmacotherapy for PTSD, anxiety, and depression among combat veterans is not well-established.
Objectives
To estimate the effect of pharmacotherapy on PTSD, anxiety, and depression among combat veterans; to determine whether the effects varied according to patient and intervention characteristics; and to examine differential effects of pharmacotherapy on outcomes.
Materials and Methods
Google Scholar, PILOTS, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science databases were searched through November 2014. Searches resulted in eighteen double-blind, placebo controlled trials of 773 combat veterans diagnosed with PTSD and included only validated pre- and post-intervention PTSD and anxiety or depression measures. Authors extracted data on effect sizes, moderators, and study quality. Hedges’ d effect sizes were computed and random effects models estimated sampling error and population variance. The Johnson-Neyman procedure identified the critical points in significant interactions to define regions of significance.
Results
Pharmacotherapy significantly reduced (Δ, 95%CI) PTSD (0.38, 0.23-0.52), anxiety (0.42, 0.30-0.54), and depressive symptoms (0.52, 0.35-0.70). The effects of SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants on PTSD were greater than other medications independent of treatment duration. The effect of SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants were greater than other medications up to 5.2 and 13.6 weeks for anxiety and depression, respectively. The magnitude of the effect of pharmacotherapy on concurrently-measured PTSD, anxiety, and depression did not significantly differ.
Conclusions
Pharmacotherapy reduced PTSD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in combat veterans. The effects of SSRIs and tricyclic antidepressants were greater for PTSD and occurred quicker for anxiety and depression than other medications.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05-28

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Associations amongst physical activity, substance use and fitness industry trends

Description

Dietary supplement (DS) use among adults is on the rise. This growing trend in DS use mirrors the quick and exponential growth of the fitness industry. The fitness industry focuses

Dietary supplement (DS) use among adults is on the rise. This growing trend in DS use mirrors the quick and exponential growth of the fitness industry. The fitness industry focuses on the “appearance of health”, although some individuals focus on their appearance over and above their health. As a result of this focus on appearance, certain aspects of this unregulated industry promote unhealthy standards of beauty and an increase in negative body image, and influences at-risk youth to engage in dangerous practices such as extreme diet and exercise routines, or the misuse of dietary supplements. All of these factors have been linked to appearance and performance enhancing drug use, which is associated with substance use in athletes and non-athletes. This study sought to explore the role of gender as it pertained to dietary supplement use, specifically how gender differences amongst predictors of DS use (including BMI, physical activity, and body image) were associated with overall substance use in college students. The relationship between current DS use and other substance use was also examined. Students recruited from ASU fitness centers completed a survey which included questions on demographics, height and weight to calculate BMI, and several published, standardized questionnaires used to measure drug use, physical activity, body image, steroid and ephedrine use and attitudes, and dietary supplement use. There were significant gender differences in DS use as well as predictors or DS use. Controlling for demographic information, energy enhancing DS use and knowing someone who used steroids increased the likelihood an individual intended on using steroids in the future. Body image was not related to substance use in males, and physical activity mediated the relationship between DS use and substance use in males. While body image was associated with substance use in females, neither physical activity nor body image mediated the relationship between DS use and substance use in females.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017