Matching Items (20)

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Navigating a Murky Adaptive Comanagement Governance Network: Agua Fria Watershed, Arizona, USA

Description

Adaptive comanagement endeavors to increase knowledge and responsiveness in the face of uncertainty and complexity. However, when collaboration between agency and nonagency stakeholders is mandated, rigid institutions may hinder participation

Adaptive comanagement endeavors to increase knowledge and responsiveness in the face of uncertainty and complexity. However, when collaboration between agency and nonagency stakeholders is mandated, rigid institutions may hinder participation and ecological outcomes. In this case study we analyzed qualitative data to understand how participants perceive strengths and challenges within an emerging adaptive comanagement in the Agua Fria Watershed in Arizona, USA that utilizes insight and personnel from a long-enduring comanagement project, Las Cienegas. Our work demonstrates that general lessons and approaches from one project may be transferable, but particular institutions, management structures, or projects must be place-specific. As public agencies establish and expand governance networks throughout the western United States, our case study has shed light on how to maintain a shared vision and momentum within an inherently murky and shared decision-making environment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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De jure versus de facto institutions: trust, information, and collective efforts to manage the invasive mile-a-minute weed (Mikania micrantha)

Description

Differences in governance relationships and community efforts to remove an exotic, rapidly spreading invasive plant, the-mile-a-minute weed (Mikania micrantha), are explored in five case study community forests in the subtropical

Differences in governance relationships and community efforts to remove an exotic, rapidly spreading invasive plant, the-mile-a-minute weed (Mikania micrantha), are explored in five case study community forests in the subtropical region of Chitwan, Nepal. An institutional analysis informs an examination of the de jure (formal) versus de facto (on the ground) institutions and actor relationships relevant to Mikania removal efforts. Contrary to the expectations set by the de jure situation, we find heterogeneous governance relationships and norms related to Mikania management across community forests. Content analysis of interview data illuminates reoccurring themes and their implications for social and ecological outcomes in the communities. Complex governance relationships and regular discussion of distrust of government and non-government officials help explain collective action efforts and management decisions. The content analysis suggests that Mikania is impacting people’s daily lives but the degree of severity and the response to the disruption varies substantially and is heavily affected by other problems experienced by community forest members. Our results indicate that understanding how the de facto, or on the ground situation, differs from the de jure institutions may be vital in structuring successful efforts to manage invasive species and understanding collective action problems related to other social-ecological threats. We present data-informed propositions about common pool resource management and invasive species. This study contributes to a better scientific understanding of how institutions mediate social-ecological challenges influencing common pool resources more broadly.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-03-06

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The Many Faces of Corporate Social Responsibility

Description

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a fascinating and complex topic. There is consensus that companies both make a large impact on the world and have a responsibility beyond profits. The

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a fascinating and complex topic. There is consensus that companies both make a large impact on the world and have a responsibility beyond profits. The challenge with this responsibility is that determining businesses' responsibility and measuring the impact remains unclear. Scholars most often point to the early to mid 1900s as its starting point and the increased economic growth and workers' unions occurring in the 1950s as one of the reasons for scholars paying more attention to the topic. This thesis project analyzes current examples of CSR from Starbucks and IBM. These companies have reputations for their positive CSR practices. Both companies' availability of information, the vast number of their CSR practices, and efforts to measure the impact set them apart. IBM and Starbucks stand out because of the sheer volume of CSR activities they have, and when examined closely, the mixed, primarily good, impact of these activities is revealed. Having a high number of CSR practices alone does not equate to doing CSR well. Instead, companies' CSR should be examined based on both the number of practices and their impact. Considering both of these metrics will help consumers, as well as other stakeholders, better evaluate the success or failure of CSR in a business.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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A Supporting Model for Teaching Fundamental Ecological Principles to Third Through Fifth Grade Students

Description

In today's world, critical thinking and using a systems approach to problem solving are skills that are far too rare. In the age of information, the truth has become muddled

In today's world, critical thinking and using a systems approach to problem solving are skills that are far too rare. In the age of information, the truth has become muddled by "fake news" and a constant barrage of exaggerations or blatant falsehoods. Without critical thinking skills, "many members of our society do not command the scientific literacy necessary to address important societal issues and concerns" (NCES 2012, p.11). Additionally, far too many people are incapable of thinking long term and understanding how their actions affect others. Because of this shortsightedness our world is facing one of its biggest ecological crises \u2014 global warming confounded by overpopulation and overconsumption. Now, more than ever, it is critical "for our young people to have a basic understanding of the relevant scientific ideas, technologies and ethical issues and powers of reasoning, to be prepared to face these issues" (Harlen et al., 2015). I believe that investigating innovative ways to teach ecology could be an important step to accomplishing this. Learning to think like a scientist forces people to rely on facts, follow similar protocols to deduce these facts, and be able to think critically about misleading events. More specifically, ecology education will allow people to develop those skills while also learning about team work, open-mindedness, and their environment. Ecology is defined as "the branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings" (Dictionary.com, 2018). It is clear that this subcategory of science could act as a powerful introduction to the scientific world and how we relate to it. Its introduction at a young age has the potential to create a generation of conscientious and curious lifelong learners. In an attempt to support effective ways to teach ecology, I developed an educational unit and applied it in different educational contexts. My target audience was elementary aged students and I tested this unit with children in Phoenix Metropolitan Area afterschool programs. I taught core concepts of ecology \u2014 the water cycle, the sun's energy, plants and photosynthesis, and food webs \u2014in a sequence of lesson plans that build upon each other. Finally, I determined the appropriate age group and setting for these lesson plans through research and in-class observations. In this document, I explain the process I went through in developing my lesson plans, why I felt compelled to make them, and my experiences in implementing them.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Food-Energy-Water Nexus in Arizona

Description

Climate change, as it becomes more prevalent, is putting a much harsher strain on the resources of the world, specifically food, energy, and water. With this in mind, now is

Climate change, as it becomes more prevalent, is putting a much harsher strain on the resources of the world, specifically food, energy, and water. With this in mind, now is the time to make a change and begin working towards a more sustainable future for everyone. Arizona is an especially susceptible location that has the opportunity to be the leader of this change. In order to effectively manage this movement through governance, a food-energy-water nexus approach is required. This approach recognizes and accounts for the intricate relationships between these industries in order to promote more resilience and balance throughout the nexus. While the main focus in Arizona tends to be on water, and rightfully so, it is important to understand the intricacies of the food, energy, and water systems together. Right now, the system is fragile and needs a new, more complex approach. Ultimately, legislation that intertwines water rights with agriculture regulation and energy production goals, while also including equity and justice measures, have the capacity to work towards limiting the effects of climate change that Arizona will see. Arizona has the opportunity here to either provide a cautionary tale to other regions of how mismanagement can lead to destruction or can showcase the legislative success that the nexus governance approach can provide.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Community Collective Action: A Case Study Documentary on Phoenix's Sky Harbor Neighborhood Association

Description

This project aims to provide a contextualized history of the Sky Harbor Neighborhood Association‟s community collective action efforts. The Sky Harbor Neighborhood (SHN) of East Phoenix is bounded on the

This project aims to provide a contextualized history of the Sky Harbor Neighborhood Association‟s community collective action efforts. The Sky Harbor Neighborhood (SHN) of East Phoenix is bounded on the West by 24th St., on the East by 32nd St., on the North by Roosevelt St., and the South by Washington Street. SHN is a majority Latino, low-income, working class community (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010) that faces a variety of challenges including low walkability due to inadequate pedestrian infrastructure, low tree coverage, and crime. East Van Buren St., which has a reputation for being one of Phoenix‟s red-light districts, splits the neighborhood in two. In addition, the SHN lacks some key amenities such as grocery stores and is partly considered a food desert by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Economic Research Service, 2012).

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Date Created
  • 2012-12

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CALIXTLAHUACA: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON URBAN FEATURES AND POLITICS

Description

During the current excavations at Calixtlahuaca, many aspects of its urban landscape have been uncovered. By using these details, my objective is to determine the political environment of the site.

During the current excavations at Calixtlahuaca, many aspects of its urban landscape have been uncovered. By using these details, my objective is to determine the political environment of the site. However, in Mesoamerican archaeology, there has been little evaluation of the politics in smaller city-states as compared to larger ones such as Tenochtitlan. In order to solve this dilemma, I compared Calixtlahuaca to two groups of Mesoamerican capital cities: (1) city-state centers such as Cholula, Tlaxcallan, various Aztec city-states; and (2) hillside sites similar to Calixtlahuaca in topographic placement. The importance of certain elements in these sites is more heavily considered than others and sites that have pre-existing knowledge about their political systems took precedence. By comparing urban aspects of these sites including location, population, density, urban layout, and urban architecture, I have created a model that relates urban form to political organization. I applied this model to infer the political organization of Calixtlahuaca. This model can later be applied throughout Mesoamerica and eventually to sites at other regions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Zoning and Community Health: A Case Study into Natural Gas Extraction in Pennsylvania

Description

Natural gas development in the Northern Appalachian region has skyrocketed dramatically over the past decade. Correspondingly to the unprecedented growth rate of the natural gas industry, population health risks have

Natural gas development in the Northern Appalachian region has skyrocketed dramatically over the past decade. Correspondingly to the unprecedented growth rate of the natural gas industry, population health risks have shifted dramatically in response to both aerial and water pollution. With energy as a key input in all sectors of Appalachian life, the Pennsylvania region serves as a fascinating case study where clusters of unconventional gas drilling wells intersect varying population densities and governing laws to create different levels of health risks. Studies have found that horizontal hydraulic fracking corresponds to an increased risk of upper respiratory symptoms (URS), low birth weights, premature births, and certain cancers (White et al., 2009). Also, zoning and local planning laws are policy tools local governments can use to directly influence community wellbeing (Diez-Roux, 2011). This study will focus on the spatial relationship between upper respiratory symptoms (URS), a key volatile health benchmark, and the zoning/planning laws that the Oil and Natural Gas Industry must adhere to. Our project seeks to provide a preliminary understanding of the interplay between different natural gas zoning laws and the resulting health implication risks that appear in the Marcellus shale region of Pennsylvania. This is necessary to appropriately regulate and monitor hydraulic fracking. To get a better understanding of this phenomenon, spatial autocorrelation and analysis of variance statistics are integrated to generate a surface-level understanding of areas impacted by natural gas development. To guide the creation of our models, we geographically process the unconventional well locations, upper respiratory symptom health utilization, and zoning law data to develop insights that policymakers can take into consideration. Regionally, natural gas has become an integrated part of the energy sector and a driver of local economic development. The patterns drawn from this assessment provide a novel way of understanding the population health risks posed by different zoning ordinance models.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Socio-legal Frameworks: An Anthropological Analysis of Sociocultural Influences on Proposed Arrangements for International Administration of the Arctic

Description

The legal infrastructures of nations are built on sociocultural attitudes regarding the function, purpose, appropriate sources, and means of conceptualizing law. The discipline of legal anthropology aims to study conceptions

The legal infrastructures of nations are built on sociocultural attitudes regarding the function, purpose, appropriate sources, and means of conceptualizing law. The discipline of legal anthropology aims to study conceptions of law cross-culturally. This study aims to understand the systems of social attitudes toward law which serve in constructing the socio-legal frameworks on which legal traditions and the types of legal institutions they beget are based. This examination is made through a case study of the ongoing formation of intergovernmental administrative infrastructure in the Arctic, through the lenses of three of its most influential stakeholders. By analyzing the actions of the governments of Canada, the United States, and the Russian Federation in regards to ratification of multilateral administrative instruments, such as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, rationales surrounding the implementation of a bilateral treaty to ameliorate Arctic disputes, as well as other tactics used to resolve said disputes, this study hopes to understand how sociocultural attitudes drive the formation of legal institutions. Analysis of the sociocultural attitudes which inform domestic and intergovernmental legal institutions will be done through historical examination of the legal traditions that underpin the standing legal institutions of each of these three states. This examination has demonstrated that Canada and the United States, which are members of the common law legal tradition, that prioritizes use of established precedent in legal decision making, appear more reticent to ratify measures of international law in the Arctic, which do not have substantial precedent. Meanwhile, the Russian Federation, which is rooted in the civil law tradition, which primarily utilizes direct application of legislative enactments and legal scholarship as its means of determining legal action, has ratified and implemented measures on the solely principles of international law in the Arctic more readily.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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A social-ecological evaluation of conservation markets for wildlife

Description

Many wildlife species that are essential to human livelihoods are targeted with the aim of extracting short-term benefits. Overexploitation, resulting from failed common-pool resource governance, has endangered the sustainability of

Many wildlife species that are essential to human livelihoods are targeted with the aim of extracting short-term benefits. Overexploitation, resulting from failed common-pool resource governance, has endangered the sustainability of large animal species, in particular. Rights-based approaches to wildlife conservation offer a possible path forward. In a wildlife market, property rights, or shares of an animal population, are allocated to resource users with interests in either harvest or preservation. Here, I apply the Social-Ecological Systems (SES) framework (Ostrom, 2009) to identify the conditions under which the ecological, social, and economic outcomes of a conservation market are improved compared to the status quo. I first consider three case studies (Bighorn sheep, white rhino, and Atlantic Bluefin tuna) all of which employ different market mechanisms. Based on the SES framework and these case studies, I then evaluate whether markets are a feasible management option for other socially and ecologically significant species, such as whales (and similar highly migratory species), and whether market instruments are capable of accommodating non-consumptive environmental values in natural resource decision making. My results suggest that spatial and temporal distribution, ethical and cultural relevance, and institutional histories compatible with commodification of wildlife are key SES subsystem variables. Successful conservation markets for cross-boundary marine species, such as whales, sea turtles, and sharks, will require intergovernmental agreements.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014