Matching Items (14)

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3D Printed Robotic Arm

Description

For those interested in the field of robotics, there are not many options to get your hands on a physical robot without paying a steep price. This is why the

For those interested in the field of robotics, there are not many options to get your hands on a physical robot without paying a steep price. This is why the folks at BCN3D Technologies decided to design a fully open-source 3D-printable robotic arm. Their goal was to reduce the barrier to entry for the field of robotics and make it exponentially more accessible for people around the world. For our honors thesis, we chose to take the design from BCN3D and attempt to build their robot, to see how accessible the design truly is. Although their designs were not perfect and we were forced to make some adjustments to the 3D files, overall the work put forth by the people at BCN3D was extremely useful in successfully building a robotic arm that is programmed with ease.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Autonomous Racing: An Exploration of Localization, Waypoint Following, and Actuation for High-Speed Autonomous Vehicles

Description

The objective of this project was to research and experimentally test methods of localization, waypoint following, and actuation for high-speed driving by an autonomous vehicle. This thesis describes the implementation

The objective of this project was to research and experimentally test methods of localization, waypoint following, and actuation for high-speed driving by an autonomous vehicle. This thesis describes the implementation of LiDAR localization techniques, Model Predictive Control waypoint following, and communication for actuation on a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro, Arizona State University’s former EcoCAR. The LiDAR localization techniques include the NDT Mapping and Matching algorithms from the open-source autonomous vehicle platform, Autoware. The mapping algorithm was supplemented by that of Google Cartographer due to the limitations of map size in Autoware’s algorithms. The Model Predictive Control for waypoint following and the computer-microcontroller-actuator communication line are described. In addition to this experimental work, the thesis discusses an investigation of alternative approaches for each problem.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Variable Damping Control of the Robotic Ankle Joint to Improve Trade-off between Agility and Stability

Description

This paper presents a variable damping controller that can be implemented into wearable and exoskeleton robots. The variable damping controller functions by providing different levels of robotic damping from negative

This paper presents a variable damping controller that can be implemented into wearable and exoskeleton robots. The variable damping controller functions by providing different levels of robotic damping from negative to positive to the coupled human-robot system. The wearable ankle robot was used to test this control strategy in the different directions of motion. The range of damping applied was selected based on the known inherent damping of the human ankle, ensuring that the coupled system became positively damped, and therefore stable. Human experiments were performed to understand and quantify the effects of the variable damping controller on the human user. Within the study, the human subjects performed a target reaching exercise while the ankle robot provided the system with constant positive, constant negative, or variable damping. These three damping conditions could then be compared to analyze the performance of the system. The following performance measures were selected: maximum speed to quantify agility, maximum overshoot to quantify stability, and muscle activation to quantify effort required by the human user. Maximum speed was found to be statistically the same in the variable damping controller and the negative damping condition and to be increased from positive damping controller to variable damping condition by 57.9%, demonstrating the agility of the system. Maximum overshoot was found to significantly decrease overshoot from the negative damping condition to the variable damping controller by 39.6%, demonstrating an improvement in system stability with the variable damping controller. Muscle activation results showed that the variable damping controller required less effort than the positive damping condition, evidenced by the decreased muscle activation of 23.8%. Overall, the study demonstrated that a variable damping controller can balance the trade-off between agility and stability in human-robot interactions and therefore has many practical implications.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-12

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Modeling and H-Infinity Loop Shaping Control of a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Drone

Description

VTOL drones were designed and built at the beginning of the 20th century for military applications due to easy take-off and landing operations. Many companies like Lockheed, Convair, NASA and

VTOL drones were designed and built at the beginning of the 20th century for military applications due to easy take-off and landing operations. Many companies like Lockheed, Convair, NASA and Bell Labs built their own aircrafts but only a few from them came in to the market. Usually, flight automation starts from first principles modeling which helps in the controller design and dynamic analysis of the system.

In this project, a VTOL drone with a shape similar to a Convair XFY-1 is studied and the primary focus is stabilizing and controlling the flight path of the drone in
its hover and horizontal flying modes. The model of the plane is obtained using first principles modeling and controllers are designed to stabilize the yaw, pitch and roll rotational motions.

The plane is modeled for its yaw, pitch and roll rotational motions. Subsequently, the rotational dynamics of the system are linearized about the hover flying mode, hover to horizontal flying mode, horizontal flying mode, horizontal to hover flying mode for ease of implementation of linear control design techniques. The controllers are designed based on an H∞ loop shaping procedure and the results are verified on the actual nonlinear model for the stability of the closed loop system about hover flying, hover to horizontal transition flying, horizontal flying, horizontal to hover transition flying. An experiment is conducted to study the dynamics of the motor by recording the PWM input to the electronic speed controller as input and the rotational speed of the motor as output. A theoretical study is also done to study the thrust generated by the propellers for lift, slipstream velocity analysis, torques acting on the system for various thrust profiles.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Simulation and analysis of walking on compliant surfaces

Description

There are a large group of amputees living in the country and the number of them is supposed to increase a lot in the following years. Among them, lower-limb amputees

There are a large group of amputees living in the country and the number of them is supposed to increase a lot in the following years. Among them, lower-limb amputees are the majority. In order to improve the locomotion of lower-limb amputees, many prostheses have been developed. Most commercially available prostheses are passive. They can not actively provide pure torque as an intact human could do. Powered prostheses have been the focus during the past decades. Some advanced prostheses have been successful in walking on level ground as well as on inclined surface and climbing stairs. However, not much work has been done regarding walking on compliant surfaces. My preliminary studies on myoelectric signals of the lower limbs during walking showed that there exists difference in muscle activation when walking on compliant surfaces. However, the mapping of muscle activities to joint torques for a prosthesis that will be capable of providing the required control to walk on compliant surfaces is not straightforward. In order to explore the effects of surface compliance on leg joint torque, a dynamic model of the lower limb was built using Simscape. The simulated walker (android) was commanded to track the same kinematics data of intact human walking on solid surface. Multiple simulations were done while varying ground stiffness in order to see how the torque at the leg joints would change as a function of the ground compliance. The results of this study could be used for the control of powered prostheses for robust walking on compliant surfaces.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

Effect of Incorporating Aerodynamic Drag Model on Trajectory Tracking Performance of DJI F330 Quadcopter

Description

Control algorithm development for quadrotor is usually based solely on rigid body dynamics neglecting aerodynamics. Recent work has demonstrated that such a model is suited only when operating at or

Control algorithm development for quadrotor is usually based solely on rigid body dynamics neglecting aerodynamics. Recent work has demonstrated that such a model is suited only when operating at or near hover conditions and low-speed flight. When operating in confined spaces or during aggressive maneuvers destabilizing forces and moments are induced due to aerodynamic effects. Studies indicate that blade flapping, induced drag, and propeller drag influence forward flight performance while other effects like vortex ring state, ground effect affect vertical flight performance. In this thesis, an offboard data-driven approach is used to derive models for parasitic (bare-airframe) drag and propeller drag. Moreover, thrust and torque coefficients are identified from static bench tests. Among the two, parasitic drag is compensated for in the position controller module in the PX4 firmware. 2-D circular, straight line, and minimum snap rectangular trajectories with corridor constraints are tested exploiting differential flatness property wherein altitude and yaw angle are constant. Flight tests are conducted at ASU Drone Studio and results of tracking performance with default controller and with drag compensated position controller are presented. Root mean squared tracking error in individual axes is used as a metric to evaluate the model performance. Results indicate that, for circular trajectory, the root mean squared error in the x-axis has reduced by 44.54% and in the y-axis by 39.47%. Compensation in turn degrades the tracking in both axis by a maximum under 12% when compared to the default controller for rectangular trajectory case. The x-axis tracking error for the straight-line case has improved by 44.96% with almost no observable change in the y-axis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Development of a Novel Low Inertia Exoskeleton Device for Characterizing the Neuromuscular Properties of the Human Shoulder

Description

The human shoulder plays an integral role in upper limb motor function. As the basis of arm motion, its performance is vital to the accomplishment of daily tasks. Impaired motor

The human shoulder plays an integral role in upper limb motor function. As the basis of arm motion, its performance is vital to the accomplishment of daily tasks. Impaired motor control, as a result of stroke or other disease, can cause errors in shoulder position to accumulate and propagate to the entire arm. This is why it is a highlight of concern for clinicians and why it is an important point of study. One of the primary causes of impaired shoulder motor control is abnormal mechanical joint impedance, which can be modeled as a 2nd order system consisting of mass, spring and damper. Quantifying shoulder stiffness and damping between healthy and impaired subjects could help improve our collective understanding of how many different neuromuscular diseases impact arm performance. This improved understanding could even lead to better rehabilitation protocols for conditions such as stroke through better identification and targeting of damping dependent spasticity and stiffness dependent hypertonicity. Despite its importance, there is a fundamental knowledge gap in the understanding of shoulder impedance, mainly due to a lack of appropriate characterization tools. Therefore, in order to better quantify shoulder stiffness and damping, a novel low-inertia shoulder exoskeleton is introduced in this work. The device was developed using a newly pioneered parallel actuated robot architecture specifically designed to interface with complex biological joints like the shoulder, hip, wrist and ankle. In addition to presenting the kinematics and dynamics of the shoulder exoskeleton, a series of validation experiments are performed on a human shoulder mock-up to quantify its ability to estimate known impedance properties. Finally, some preliminary data from human experiments is provided to demonstrate the device’s ability to collect the measurements needed to estimate shoulder stiffness and damping while worn by a subject.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Variable Damping Control of a Robotic Arm to Improve Trade-off Between Performance and Stability

Description

Admittance control with fixed damping has been a successful control strategy in previous human-robotic interaction research. This research implements a variable damping admittance controller in a 7-DOF robotic

Admittance control with fixed damping has been a successful control strategy in previous human-robotic interaction research. This research implements a variable damping admittance controller in a 7-DOF robotic arm coupled with a human subject’s arm at the end effector to study the trade-off of agility and stability and aims to produce a control scheme which displays both fast rise time and stability. The variable damping controller uses a measure of intent of movement to vary damping to aid the user’s movement to a target. The range of damping values is bounded by incorporating knowledge of a human arm to ensure the stability of the coupled human-robot system. Human subjects completed experiments with fixed positive, fixed negative, and variable damping controllers to evaluate the variable damping controller’s ability to increase agility and stability. Comparisons of the two fixed damping controllers showed as fixed damping increased, the coupled human-robot system reacted with less overshoot at the expense of rise time, which is used as a measure of agility. The inverse was also true; as damping became increasingly negative, the overshoot and stability of the system was compromised, while the rise time became faster. Analysis of the variable damping controller demonstrated humans could extract the benefits of the variable damping controller in its ability to increase agility in comparison to a positive damping controller and increase stability in comparison to a negative damping controller.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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A Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach for Robotic Bicycle Stabilization

Description

Bicycle stabilization has become a popular topic because of its complex dynamic behavior and the large body of bicycle modeling research. Riding a bicycle requires accurately performing several tasks, such

Bicycle stabilization has become a popular topic because of its complex dynamic behavior and the large body of bicycle modeling research. Riding a bicycle requires accurately performing several tasks, such as balancing and navigation which may be difficult for disabled people. Their problems could be partially reduced by providing steering assistance. For stabilization of these highly maneuverable and efficient machines, many control techniques have been applied – achieving interesting results, but with some limitations which includes strict environmental requirements. This thesis expands on the work of Randlov and Alstrom, using reinforcement learning for bicycle self-stabilization with robotic steering. This thesis applies the deep deterministic policy gradient algorithm, which can handle continuous action spaces which is not possible for Q-learning technique. The research involved algorithm training on virtual environments followed by simulations to assess its results. Furthermore, hardware testing was also conducted on Arizona State University’s RISE lab Smart bicycle platform for testing its self-balancing performance. Detailed analysis of the bicycle trial runs are presented. Validation of testing was done by plotting the real-time states and actions collected during the outdoor testing which included the roll angle of bicycle. Further improvements in regard to model training and hardware testing are also presented.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Cross Platform Training of Neural Networks to Enable Object Identification by Autonomous Vehicles

Description

Autonomous vehicle technology has been evolving for years since the Automated Highway System Project. However, this technology has been under increased scrutiny ever since an autonomous vehicle killed Elaine Herzberg,

Autonomous vehicle technology has been evolving for years since the Automated Highway System Project. However, this technology has been under increased scrutiny ever since an autonomous vehicle killed Elaine Herzberg, who was crossing the street in Tempe, Arizona in March 2018. Recent tests of autonomous vehicles on public roads have faced opposition from nearby residents. Before these vehicles are widely deployed, it is imperative that the general public trusts them. For this, the vehicles must be able to identify objects in their surroundings and demonstrate the ability to follow traffic rules while making decisions with human-like moral integrity when confronted with an ethical dilemma, such as an unavoidable crash that will injure either a pedestrian or the passenger.

Testing autonomous vehicles in real-world scenarios would pose a threat to people and property alike. A safe alternative is to simulate these scenarios and test to ensure that the resulting programs can work in real-world scenarios. Moreover, in order to detect a moral dilemma situation quickly, the vehicle should be able to identify objects in real-time while driving. Toward this end, this thesis investigates the use of cross-platform training for neural networks that perform visual identification of common objects in driving scenarios. Here, the object detection algorithm Faster R-CNN is used. The hypothesis is that it is possible to train a neural network model to detect objects from two different domains, simulated or physical, using transfer learning. As a proof of concept, an object detection model is trained on image datasets extracted from CARLA, a virtual driving environment, via transfer learning. After bringing the total loss factor to 0.4, the model is evaluated with an IoU metric. It is determined that the model has a precision of 100% and 75% for vehicles and traffic lights respectively. The recall is found to be 84.62% and 75% for the same. It is also shown that this model can detect the same classes of objects from other virtual environments and real-world images. Further modifications to the algorithm that may be required to improve performance are discussed as future work.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019