Matching Items (36)

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Quantum Chaotic Tunneling in Graphene Systems With Electron-Electron Interactions

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An outstanding and fundamental problem in contemporary physics is to include and probe the many-body effect in the study of relativistic quantum manifestations of classical chaos. We address this problem using graphene systems described by the Hubbard Hamiltonian in the

An outstanding and fundamental problem in contemporary physics is to include and probe the many-body effect in the study of relativistic quantum manifestations of classical chaos. We address this problem using graphene systems described by the Hubbard Hamiltonian in the setting of resonant tunneling. Such a system consists of two symmetric potential wells separated by a potential barrier, and the geometric shape of the whole domain can be chosen to generate integrable or chaotic dynamics in the classical limit. Employing a standard mean-field approach to calculating a large number of eigenenergies and eigenstates, we uncover a class of localized states with near-zero tunneling in the integrable systems. These states are not the edge states typically seen in graphene systems, and as such they are the consequence of many-body interactions. The physical origin of the non-edge-state type of localized states can be understood by the one-dimensional relativistic quantum tunneling dynamics through the solutions of the Dirac equation with appropriate boundary conditions. We demonstrate that, when the geometry of the system is modified to one with chaos, the localized states are effectively removed, implying that in realistic situations where many-body interactions are present, classical chaos is capable of facilitating greatly quantum tunneling. This result, besides its fundamental importance, can be useful for the development of nanoscale devices such as graphene-based resonant-tunneling diodes.

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2014-12-16

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Relativistic Quantum Tunneling of a Dirac Fermion in Nonhyperbolic Chaotic Systems

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Nonhyperbolicity, as characterized by the coexistence of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) tori and chaos in the phase space, is generic in classical Hamiltonian systems. An open but fundamental question in physics concerns the relativistic quantum manifestations of nonhyperbolic dynamics. We choose the

Nonhyperbolicity, as characterized by the coexistence of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) tori and chaos in the phase space, is generic in classical Hamiltonian systems. An open but fundamental question in physics concerns the relativistic quantum manifestations of nonhyperbolic dynamics. We choose the mushroom billiard that has been mathematically proven to be nonhyperbolic, and study the resonant tunneling dynamics of a massless Dirac fermion. We find that the tunneling rate as a function of the energy exhibits a striking "clustering" phenomenon, where the majority of the values of the rate concentrate on a narrow region, as a result of the chaos component in the classical phase space. Relatively few values of the tunneling rate, however, spread outside the clustering region due to the integrable component. Resonant tunneling of electrons in nonhyperbolic chaotic graphene systems exhibits a similar behavior. To understand these numerical results, we develop a theoretical framework by combining analytic solutions of the Dirac equation in certain integrable domains and physical intuitions gained from current understanding of the quantum manifestations of chaos. In particular, we employ a theoretical formalism based on the concept of self-energies to calculate the tunneling rate and analytically solve the Dirac equation in one dimension as well as in two dimensions for a circular-ring-type of tunneling systems exhibiting integrable dynamics in the classical limit. Because relatively few and distinct classical periodic orbits are present in the integrable component, the corresponding relativistic quantum states can have drastically different behaviors, leading to a wide spread in the values of the tunneling rate in the energy-rate plane. In contrast, the chaotic component has embedded within itself an infinite number of unstable periodic orbits, which provide far more quantum states for tunneling. Due to the nature of chaos, these states are characteristically similar, leading to clustering of the values of the tunneling rate in a narrow band. The appealing characteristic of our work is a demonstration and physical understanding of the "mixed" role played by chaos and regular dynamics in shaping relativistic quantum tunneling dynamics.

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2013-09-18

New multi-nodal wireless communication system method

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The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method of dividing wireless communication (such as the 802.11a/b/g
and cellular UMTS MAC protocols) across multiple unreliable communication links (such as Ethernet). The purpose is to introduce the appropriate

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method of dividing wireless communication (such as the 802.11a/b/g
and cellular UMTS MAC protocols) across multiple unreliable communication links (such as Ethernet). The purpose is to introduce the appropriate hardware, software, and system architecture required to provide the basis for a wireless system (using a 802.11a/b/g
and cellular protocols as a model) that can scale to support thousands of users simultaneously (say in a large office building, super chain store, etc.) or in a small, but very dense communication RF region. Elements of communication between a base station and a Mobile Station will be analyzed statistically to demonstrate higher throughput, fewer collisions and lower bit error rates (BER) with the given bandwidth defined by the 802.11n wireless specification (use of MIMO channels will be evaluated). A new network nodal paradigm will be presented. Alternative link layer communication techniques will be recommended and analyzed for the affect on mobile devices. The analysis will describe how the algorithms used by state machines implemented on Mobile Stations and Wi-Fi client devices will be influenced by new base station transmission behavior. New hardware design techniques that can be used to optimize this architecture as well as hardware design principles in regard to the minimal hardware functional blocks required to support such a system design will be described. Hardware design and verification simulation techniques to prove the hardware design will accommodate an acceptable level of performance to meet the strict timing as it relates to this new system architecture.

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2014

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FPGA-based implementation of QR decomposition

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This thesis report aims at introducing the background of QR decomposition and its application. QR decomposition using Givens rotations is a efficient method to prevent directly matrix inverse in solving least square minimization problem, which is a typical approach for

This thesis report aims at introducing the background of QR decomposition and its application. QR decomposition using Givens rotations is a efficient method to prevent directly matrix inverse in solving least square minimization problem, which is a typical approach for weight calculation in adaptive beamforming. Furthermore, this thesis introduces Givens rotations algorithm and two general VLSI (very large scale integrated circuit) architectures namely triangular systolic array and linear systolic array for numerically QR decomposition. To fulfill the goal, a 4 input channels triangular systolic array with 16 bits fixed-point format and a 5 input channels linear systolic array are implemented on FPGA (Field programmable gate array). The final result shows that the estimated clock frequencies of 65 MHz and 135 MHz on post-place and route static timing report could be achieved using Xilinx Virtex 6 xc6vlx240t chip. Meanwhile, this report proposes a new method to test the dynamic range of QR-D. The dynamic range of the both architectures can be achieved around 110dB.

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2014

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Design and performance analysis of fiber wireless networks

Description

A Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) network integrates a passive optical network (PON) with wireless mesh networks (WMNs) to provide high speed backhaul via the PON while offering the flexibility and mobility of a WMN. Generally, increasing the size of a WMN leads

A Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) network integrates a passive optical network (PON) with wireless mesh networks (WMNs) to provide high speed backhaul via the PON while offering the flexibility and mobility of a WMN. Generally, increasing the size of a WMN leads to higher wireless interference and longer packet delays. The partitioning of a large WMN into several smaller WMN clusters, whereby each cluster is served by an Optical Network Unit (ONU) of the PON, is examined. Existing WMN throughput-delay analysis techniques considering the mean load of the nodes at a given hop distance from a gateway (ONU) are unsuitable for the heterogeneous nodal traffic loads arising from clustering. A simple analytical queuing model that considers the individual node loads to accurately characterize the throughput-delay performance of a clustered FiWi network is introduced. The accuracy of the model is verified through extensive simulations. It is found that with sufficient PON bandwidth, clustering substantially improves the FiWi network throughput-delay performance by employing the model to examine the impact of the number of clusters on the network throughput-delay performance. Different traffic models and network designs are also studied to improve the FiWi network performance.

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2015

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Voice over LTE study and test strategy definition

Description

Voice and other circuit switched services in a LTE deployment can be based on a Circuit Switched Fall Back mechanism or on the upcoming Voice Over LTE option. Voice Over LTE option can be used with its SIP based signaling

Voice and other circuit switched services in a LTE deployment can be based on a Circuit Switched Fall Back mechanism or on the upcoming Voice Over LTE option. Voice Over LTE option can be used with its SIP based signaling to route voice calls and other circuit switched services over the LTE's packet switched core. The main issue that is faced though is the validation of this approach before the deployment over commercial network. The test strategy devised as a result of this work will be able to visit corner scenarios and error sensitive services, so that signaling involved can be verified to ensure a robust deployment of the Voice Over LTE network. Signaling test strategy is based on the observations made during a simulated Voice Over LTE call inside the lab in a controlled environment. Emergency services offered are carefully studied to devise a robust test strategy to make sure that any service failure is avoided. Other area were the service is routed via different protocol stack layer than it normally is in a legacy circuit switched core are identified and brought into the scope of the test strategy.

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2014

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Capacity limit, link scheduling and power control in wireless networks

Description

The rapid advancement of wireless technology has instigated the broad deployment of wireless networks. Different types of networks have been developed, including wireless sensor networks, mobile ad hoc networks, wireless local area networks, and cellular networks. These networks have different

The rapid advancement of wireless technology has instigated the broad deployment of wireless networks. Different types of networks have been developed, including wireless sensor networks, mobile ad hoc networks, wireless local area networks, and cellular networks. These networks have different structures and applications, and require different control algorithms. The focus of this thesis is to design scheduling and power control algorithms in wireless networks, and analyze their performances. In this thesis, we first study the multicast capacity of wireless ad hoc networks. Gupta and Kumar studied the scaling law of the unicast capacity of wireless ad hoc networks. They derived the order of the unicast throughput, as the number of nodes in the network goes to infinity. In our work, we characterize the scaling of the multicast capacity of large-scale MANETs under a delay constraint D. We first derive an upper bound on the multicast throughput, and then propose a lower bound on the multicast capacity by proposing a joint coding-scheduling algorithm that achieves a throughput within logarithmic factor of the upper bound. We then study the power control problem in ad-hoc wireless networks. We propose a distributed power control algorithm based on the Gibbs sampler, and prove that the algorithm is throughput optimal. Finally, we consider the scheduling algorithm in collocated wireless networks with flow-level dynamics. Specifically, we study the delay performance of workload-based scheduling algorithm with SRPT as a tie-breaking rule. We demonstrate the superior flow-level delay performance of the proposed algorithm using simulations.

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2013

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Spectral efficiency of MIMO ad hoc networks with partial channel state information

Description

As the number of devices with wireless capabilities and the proximity of these devices to each other increases, better ways to handle the interference they cause need to be explored. Also important is for these devices to keep u

As the number of devices with wireless capabilities and the proximity of these devices to each other increases, better ways to handle the interference they cause need to be explored. Also important is for these devices to keep up with the demand for data rates while not compromising on industry established expectations of power consumption and mobility. Current methods of distributing the spectrum among all participants are expected to not cope with the demand in a very near future. In this thesis, the effect of employing sophisticated multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems in this regard is explored. The efficacy of systems which can make intelligent decisions on the transmission mode usage and power allocation to these modes becomes relevant in the current scenario, where the need for performance far exceeds the cost expendable on hardware. The effect of adding multiple antennas at either ends will be examined, the capacity of such systems and of networks comprised of many such participants will be evaluated. Methods of simulating said networks, and ways to achieve better performance by making intelligent transmission decisions will be proposed. Finally, a way of access control closer to the physical layer (a 'statistical MAC') and a possible metric to be used for such a MAC is suggested.

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2014

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Resource allocation for video streaming in multi-user wireless networks

Description

Survey indicates a rise of 81% in mobile data usage in the year 2013. A fair share of this total data demand can be attributed to video streaming. The encoding structure of videos, introduces nuances that can be utilized to

Survey indicates a rise of 81% in mobile data usage in the year 2013. A fair share of this total data demand can be attributed to video streaming. The encoding structure of videos, introduces nuances that can be utilized to ensure a fair and optimal means of streaming the video data. This dissertation proposes a novel user and packet scheduling algorithm that guarantees a fair allocation of resources. MS-SSIM index

is used to calculate the mean opinion score (DMOS) to evaluate the quality of the received video. Simulations indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing algorithms in the literature.

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2014

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Wireless network design and optimization: from social awareness to security

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A principal goal of this dissertation is to study wireless network design and optimization with the focus on two perspectives: 1) socially-aware mobile networking and computing; 2) security and privacy in wireless networking. Under this common theme, this dissertation can

A principal goal of this dissertation is to study wireless network design and optimization with the focus on two perspectives: 1) socially-aware mobile networking and computing; 2) security and privacy in wireless networking. Under this common theme, this dissertation can be broadly organized into three parts.

The first part studies socially-aware mobile networking and computing. First, it studies random access control and power control under a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework. The socially-aware Nash equilibria (SNEs) are derived and analyzed. Then, it studies mobile crowdsensing under an incentive mechanism that exploits social trust assisted reciprocity (STAR). The efficacy of the STAR mechanism is thoroughly investigated. Next, it studies mobile users' data usage behaviors under the impact of social services and the wireless operator's pricing. Based on a two-stage Stackelberg game formulation, the user demand equilibrium (UDE) is analyzed in Stage II and the optimal pricing strategy is developed in Stage I. Last, it studies opportunistic cooperative networking under an optimal stopping framework with two-level decision-making. For both cases with or without dedicated relays, the optimal relaying strategies are derived and analyzed.

The second part studies radar sensor network coverage for physical security. First, it studies placement of bistatic radar (BR) sensor networks for barrier coverage. The optimality of line-based placement is analyzed, and the optimal placement of BRs on a line segment is characterized. Then, it studies the coverage of radar sensor networks that exploits the Doppler effect. Based on a Doppler coverage model, an efficient method is devised to characterize Doppler-covered regions and an algorithm is developed to find the minimum radar density required for Doppler coverage.

The third part studies cyber security and privacy in socially-aware networking and computing. First, it studies random access control, cooperative jamming, and spectrum access under an extended SGUM framework that incorporates negative social ties. The SNEs are derived and analyzed. Then, it studies pseudonym change for personalized location privacy under the SGUM framework. The SNEs are analyzed and an efficient algorithm is developed to find an SNE with desirable properties.

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2015