Matching Items (14)

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Modifying and Optimizing 1H NMR for Amino Acid Analysis

Description

The parameters of microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis (MAAH) and 1H NMR highly affect the quantitative analysis of protein hydrolysates. Microwave-induction source, NMR spectral resolution, and data analysis are key parameters in the nuclear magnetic resonance – amino acid analysis (NMR-AAA) workflow

The parameters of microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis (MAAH) and 1H NMR highly affect the quantitative analysis of protein hydrolysates. Microwave-induction source, NMR spectral resolution, and data analysis are key parameters in the nuclear magnetic resonance – amino acid analysis (NMR-AAA) workflow where errors accrue due to lack of an optimized protocol. Hen egg white lysozyme was hydrolyzed using an 800W domestic microwave oven for varying time points between 10-25 minutes, showing minimal protein hydrolysis after extended time periods. Studies on paramagnetic doping with varying amounts of gadolinium chloride for increased NMR resolution resulted in little T1 reduction in a majority of amino acids and resulted in significant line broadening in concentrations above 1µM. The use of the BAYESIL analysis tool with HOD suppressed 1H-NMR spectra resulted in misplaced template peaks and errors greater than 1% for 10 of 13 profiled amino acids with the highest error being 7.6% (Thr). Comparatively, Chenomx NMR Suite (v7.1) analysis resulted in errors of less than 1% for 9 of 13 profiled amino acids with a highest error value of 3.6% (Lys). Using the optimized protocol, hen egg white lysozyme C was identified at rank 1 with a score of 64 in a Gallus gallus species wide AACompIdent search. This technique reduces error associated with sample handling relative to previously used amino acid analysis (AAA) protocols and requires no derivatization or additional processing of the sample prior to analysis.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Secondary Structure Adopted by the Gly-Gly-X Repetitive Regions of Dragline Spider Silk

Description

Solid-state NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are presented to help elucidate the molecular secondary structure of poly(Gly-Gly-X), which is one of the most common structural repetitive motifs found in orb-weaving dragline spider silk proteins. The combination of NMR and

Solid-state NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are presented to help elucidate the molecular secondary structure of poly(Gly-Gly-X), which is one of the most common structural repetitive motifs found in orb-weaving dragline spider silk proteins. The combination of NMR and computational experiments provides insight into the molecular secondary structure of poly(Gly-Gly-X) segments and provides further support that these regions are disordered and primarily non-β-sheet. Furthermore, the combination of NMR and MD simulations illustrate the possibility for several secondary structural elements in the poly(Gly-Gly-X) regions of dragline silks, including β-turns, 310-helicies, and coil structures with a negligible population of α-helix observed.

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Date Created
2016-12-02

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Characterization of a Lipid Coating on the Surface of Silk Produced by the Embiid Antipaluria urichi

Description

Insects of the order Embiidina spin sheets of very thin silk fibers from their forelimbs to build silken shelters on bark and in leaf litter in tropical climates. Their shelters are very stiff and hydrophobic to keep out predators and

Insects of the order Embiidina spin sheets of very thin silk fibers from their forelimbs to build silken shelters on bark and in leaf litter in tropical climates. Their shelters are very stiff and hydrophobic to keep out predators and rain. In this study, the existence of an outer lipid coating on silk produced by the embiid Antipaluria urichi is shown using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, FT-IR, and water drop contact angle analysis. Subsequently, the composition of the lipid layer is then characterized by 1H NMR and GC-MS.

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Date Created
2014-05

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A Hydrogen (1H) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Method for Amino Acid Analysis

Description

Amino acid analysis (AAA) of egg white lysozyme and bovine Achilles tendon collagen was performed using 1H solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The proteins were hydrolyzed in 6M HCL with and without 0.02% phenol at 110\u00B0C for 24, 48,

Amino acid analysis (AAA) of egg white lysozyme and bovine Achilles tendon collagen was performed using 1H solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The proteins were hydrolyzed in 6M HCL with and without 0.02% phenol at 110\u00B0C for 24, 48, and 72 hours. For both proteins, 18 of 20 amino acids were characterized including hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine in collagen, using 1-dimensional (1D) and 2-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy experiments. Errors ranging from <1% to 8% were seen in treatments with and without phenol. Both proteins could be correctly identified within their own species using the online database search AACompIdent. The proposed approach is a simple analytical technique that does not require the use of column separation or amino acid derivatization prior to compositional analysis.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Synthesis and characterization of thionated reduced graphene oxides and their thin films

Description

Thiol functionalization is one potentially useful way to tailor physical and chemical properties of graphene oxides (GOs) and reduced graphene oxides (RGOs). Despite the ubiquitous presence of thiol functional groups in diverse chemical systems, efficient thiol functionalization has been challenging

Thiol functionalization is one potentially useful way to tailor physical and chemical properties of graphene oxides (GOs) and reduced graphene oxides (RGOs). Despite the ubiquitous presence of thiol functional groups in diverse chemical systems, efficient thiol functionalization has been challenging for GOs and RGOs, or for carbonaceous materials in general. In this work, thionation of GOs has been achieved in high yield through two new methods that also allow concomitant chemical reduction/thermal reduction of GOs; a solid-gas metathetical reaction method with boron sulfides (BxSy) gases and a solvothermal reaction method employing phosphorus decasulfide (P4S10). The thionation products, called "mercapto reduced graphene oxides (m-RGOs)", were characterized by employing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron probe analysis, scanning electron microscopy, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy, nano secondary ion mass spectrometry, Ellman assay and atomic force microscopy. The excellent dispersibility of m-RGOs in various solvents including alcohols has allowed fabrication of thin films of m-RGOs. Deposition of m-RGOs on gold substrates was achieved through solution deposition and the m-RGOs were homogeneously distributed on gold surface shown by atomic force microscopy. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of m-RGOs were obtained by transferring their Langmuir films, formed by simple drop casting of m-RGOs dispersion on water surface, onto various substrates including gold, glass and indium tin oxide. The m-RGO LB films showed low sheet resistances down to about 500 kΩ/sq at 92% optical transparency. The successful results make m-RGOs promising for applications in transparent conductive coatings, biosensing, etc.

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Date Created
2013

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Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical hydrogen insertion in ATP capped palladium nanoparticles

Description

Water-soluble, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-stabilized palladium nanoparticles have been synthesized by reduction of palladium salt in the presence of excess ATP. They have been characterized by electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction in order to

Water-soluble, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-stabilized palladium nanoparticles have been synthesized by reduction of palladium salt in the presence of excess ATP. They have been characterized by electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction in order to determine particle size, shape, composition and crystal structure. The particles were then subsequently attached to a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) in order to explore their electrochemical properties with regard to hydrogen insertion in 1 M sodium hydroxide. The particles were found to be in the size range 2.5 to 4 nm with good size dispersion. The ATP capping ligand allowed the particles to be air-stable and re-dissolved without agglomeration. It was found that the NPs could be firmly attached to the working electrode via cycling the voltage repeatedly in a NP/phosphate solution. Further electrochemical experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption and absorption of hydrogen in the NPs in 1 M sodium hydroxide. Results for cyclic voltammetry experiments were consistent with those for nanostructured and thin-film palladium in basic solution. Absorbed hydrogen content was analyzed as a function of potential. The maximum hydrogen:Pd ratio was found to be ~0.7, close the theoretical maximum value for β phase palladium hydride.

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Date Created
2013

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Identification of structural mechanisms that modulate glycosaminoglycan affinity in various strains of decorin binding protein A

Description

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a class of complex biomolecules comprised of linear, sulfated polysaccharides whose presence on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix involve them in many physiological phenomena as well as in interactions with pathogenic microbes. Decorin binding protein

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a class of complex biomolecules comprised of linear, sulfated polysaccharides whose presence on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix involve them in many physiological phenomena as well as in interactions with pathogenic microbes. Decorin binding protein A (DBPA), a Borrelia surface lipoprotein involved in the infectivity of Lyme disease, is responsible for binding GAGs found on decorin, a small proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix. Different DBPA strains have notable sequence heterogeneity that results in varying levels of GAG-binding affinity. In this dissertation, the structures and GAG-binding mechanisms for three strains of DBPA (B31 and N40 DBPAs from B. burgdorferi and PBr DBPA from B. garinii) are studied to determine why each strain has a different affinity for GAGs. These three strains have similar topologies consisting of five α-helices held together by a hydrophobic core as well as two long flexible segments: a linker between helices one and two and a C-terminal tail. This structural arrangement facilitates the formation of a basic pocket below the flexible linker which is the primary GAG-binding epitope. However, this GAG-binding site can be occluded by the flexible linker, which makes the linker a negative regulator of GAG-binding. ITC and NMR titrations provide KD values that show PBr DBPA binds GAGs with higher affinity than B31 and N40 DBPAs, while N40 binds with the lowest affinity of the three. Work in this thesis demonstrates that much of the discrepancies seen in GAG affinities of the three DBPAs can be explained by the amino acid composition and conformation of the linker. Mutagenesis studies show that B31 DBPA overcomes the pocket obstruction with the BXBB motif in its linker while PBr DBPA has a retracted linker that exposes the basic pocket as well as a secondary GAG-binding site. N40 DBPA, however, does not have any evolutionary modifications to its structure to enhance GAG binding which explains its lower affinity for GAGs. GMSA and ELISA assays, along with NMR PRE experiments, confirm that structural changes in the linker do affect GAG-binding and, as a result, the linker is responsible for regulating GAG affinity.

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Date Created
2015

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Design of apoferritin-based nanoparticle MRI contrast agents through controlled metal deposition

Description

Sensitivity is a fundamental challenge for in vivo molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, I improve the sensitivity of metal nanoparticle contrast agents by strategically incorporating pure and doped metal oxides in the nanoparticle core, forming a soluble, monodisperse, contrast

Sensitivity is a fundamental challenge for in vivo molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, I improve the sensitivity of metal nanoparticle contrast agents by strategically incorporating pure and doped metal oxides in the nanoparticle core, forming a soluble, monodisperse, contrast agent with adjustable T2 or T1 relaxivity (r2 or r1). I first developed a simplified technique to incorporate iron oxides in apoferritin to form "magnetoferritin" for nM-level detection with T2- and T2* weighting. I then explored whether the crystal could be chemically modified to form a particle with high r1. I first adsorbed Mn2+ ions to metal binding sites in the apoferritin pores. The strategic placement of metal ions near sites of water exchange and within the crystal oxide enhance r1, suggesting a mechanism for increasing relaxivity in porous nanoparticle agents. However, the Mn2+ addition was only possible when the particle was simultaneously filled with an iron oxide, resulting in a particle with a high r1 but also a high r2 and making them undetectable with conventional T1-weighting techniques. To solve this problem and decrease the particle r2 for more sensitive detection, I chemically doped the nanoparticles with tungsten to form a disordered W-Fe oxide composite in the apoferritin core. This configuration formed a particle with a r1 of 4,870mM-1s-1 and r2 of 9,076mM-1s-1. These relaxivities allowed the detection of concentrations ranging from 20nM - 400nM in vivo, both passively injected and targeted to the kidney glomerulus. I further developed an MRI acquisition technique to distinguish particles based on r2/r1, and show that three nanoparticles of similar size can be distinguished in vitro and in vivo with MRI. This work forms the basis for a new, highly flexible inorganic approach to design nanoparticle contrast agents for molecular MRI.

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Date Created
2012

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Mixed Polyanion and Clathrate Materials as Novel Materials for Lithium-ion and Sodium-ion Batteries

Description

This work describes the investigation of novel cathode and anode materials. Specifically, several mixed polyanion compounds were evaluated as cathodes for Li and Na-ion batteries. Clathrate compounds composed of silicon or germanium arranged in cage-like structures were studied as anodes

This work describes the investigation of novel cathode and anode materials. Specifically, several mixed polyanion compounds were evaluated as cathodes for Li and Na-ion batteries. Clathrate compounds composed of silicon or germanium arranged in cage-like structures were studied as anodes for Li-ion batteries.

Nanostructured Cu4(OH)6SO4 (brochantite) platelets were synthesized using polymer-assisted titration and microwave-assisted hydrothermal methods. These nanostructures exhibited a capacity of 474 mAh/g corresponding to the full utilization of the copper redox in an conversion reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies were preformed to understand the mechanism and structural changes.

A microwave hydrothermal synthesis was developed to prepare a series compounds based on jarosite, AM3(SO4)2(OH)6 (A = K, Na; M = Fe, V). Both the morphology and electrochemical properties showed a compositional dependence. At potentials >1.5 V vs. Li/Li+, an insertion-type reaction was observed in Na,Fe-jarosite but not in K,Fe-jarosite. Reversible insertion-type reactions were observed in both vanadium jarosites between 1 – 4 V with capacities around 40 - 60 mAh/g. Below 1 V vs. Li/Li+, all four jarosite compounds underwent conversion reactions with capacities ~500 mAh/g for the Fe-jarosites.

The electrochemical properties of hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate, H0.4Ti2(PO4)2.4(SO4)0.6 (HTPS), a new mixed polyanion material with NASICON structure was reported. A capacity of 148 mAh/g corresponding to2 Li+ insertion per formula unit was observed. XRD and XPS were used to characterize the HTPS before and after cycling and to identify the lithium sites. Evaluation of the HTPS in Na-ion cell was also performed, and a discharge capacity of 93 mAh/g was observed.

A systematic investigation of the role of the processing steps, such as ball-milling and acid/base etching, on the electrochemical properties of a silicon clathrate compound with nominal composition of Ba8Al16Si30 was performed. According to the transmission electron microscope (TEM), XPS, and electrochemical analysis, very few Li atoms can be electrochemically inserted, but the introduction of disorder through ball-milling resulted in higher capacity, while the oxidation layer made by the acid/base treatment prevented the reation. The electrochemical property of germanium clathrate was also investigated, unlike the silicon clathrate, the germanium one underwent a conversion reaction.

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Date Created
2017

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Mechanically active heterogeneous polymer matrix composites

Description

An evolving understanding of elastomeric polymer nanocomposites continues to expand commercial, defense, and industrial products and applications. This work explores the thermomechanical properties of elastomeric nanocomposites prepared from bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and three amine-terminated poly(propylene oxides) (Jeffamines). The

An evolving understanding of elastomeric polymer nanocomposites continues to expand commercial, defense, and industrial products and applications. This work explores the thermomechanical properties of elastomeric nanocomposites prepared from bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and three amine-terminated poly(propylene oxides) (Jeffamines). The Jeffamines investigated include difunctional crosslinkers with molecular weights of 2,000 and 4,000 g/mol and a trifunctional crosslinker with a molecular weight of 3,000 g/mol. Additionally, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added, up to 1.25 wt%, to each thermoset. The findings indicate that the Tg and storage modulus of the polymer nanocomposites can be controlled independently within narrow concentration windows, and that effects observed following CNT incorporation are dependent on the crosslinker molecular weight.

Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) offer design solutions to produce smart sensing, conductive, or high performance composites for a number of critical applications. Nanoparticle additives, in particular, carbon nanotubes and metallic quantum dots, have been investigated for their ability to improve the conductivity, thermal stability, and mechanical strength of traditional composites. Herein we report the use of quantum dots (QDs) and fluorescently labeled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to modify the thermomechanical properties of PMCs. Additionally, we find that pronounced changes in fluorescence emerge following plastic deformation, indicating that in these polymeric materials the transduction of mechanical force into the fluorescence occurs in response to mechanical activation.

Segmented ionenes are a class of thermoplastic elastomers that contain a permanent charged group within the polymer backbone and a spacer segment with a low glass transition temperature (Tg) to provide flexibility. Ionenes are of interest because of their synthetic versatility, unique morphologies, and ionic nature. Using phase changing ionene-based nanocomposites could be extended to create reversible mechanically, electrically, optically, and/or thermally responsive materials depending on constituent nanoparticles and polymers. This talk will discuss recent efforts to utilize the synthetic versatility of ionenes (e.g., spacer composition of PTMO or PEG) to prepare percolated ionic domains in microphase separated polymers that display a range of thermomechanical properties. Furthermore, by synthesizing two series of ionene copolymers with either PEG or PTMO spacers at various ratios with 1,12-dibromododecane will yield a range of ion contents (hard contents) and will impact nanoparticle dispersion.

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Date Created
2019