Matching Items (7)

157733-Thumbnail Image.png

A Fundamental Study of Bulk, Layered, and Monolayers of Hybrid Perovskites

Description

A Fundamental study of bulk, layered, and monolayers bromide lead perovskites structural, optical, and electrical properties have been studied as thickness changes. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy measures the

A Fundamental study of bulk, layered, and monolayers bromide lead perovskites structural, optical, and electrical properties have been studied as thickness changes. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy measures the structural parameter showing how the difference in the thicknesses changes the crystal structures through observing changes in average lattice constant, atomic spacing, and lattice vibrations.

Optical and electrical properties have also been studied mainly focusing on the thickness effect on different properties where the Photoluminescence (PL) and exciton binding energies show energy shift as thickness of the material changes. Temperature dependent PL has shown different characteristics when comparing methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) to butylammonium lead bromide (BA2PbBr4) and comparing the two layered n=1 materials butylammonium lead bromide (BA2PbBr4) to butylammonium lead iodide (BA2PbI4). Time-resolved spectroscopy displays different lifetimes as thickness of bromide-based perovskite changes. Finally, thickness dependence (starting from monolayers) Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) of the layered materials BA2PbBr4, Butylammonium(methylammonium)lead bromide (BA2MAPb2Br7), and molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) were studied showing an exponential relation between the thickness of the materials and their surface potentials.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

157946-Thumbnail Image.png

Chemical and geometric transformations of MoS2/WS2 heterostructures by plasma treatment

Description

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) are effective components in optoelectronic devices due to their tunable and attractive electric, optical and chemical

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) are effective components in optoelectronic devices due to their tunable and attractive electric, optical and chemical properties. Combining different 2D TMDCs into either vertical or lateral heterostructures has been pursued to achieve new optical and electronic properties. Chemical treatments have also been pursued to effectively tune the properties of 2D TMDCs. Among many chemical routes that have been studied, plasma treatment is notable for being rapid and versatile. In Wang’s group earlier work, plasma treatment of MoS2 and WS2 resulted in the formation of MoO3 and WO3 nanosheets and nanoscrolls. However, plasma treatment of 2D TMDC heterostructures have not been widely studied. In this dissertation, MoS2/WS2 vertical and lateral heterostructures were grown and treated with air plasma. The result showed that the vertical heterostructure and lateral heterostructures behaved differently. For the vertical heterostructures, the top WS2 layer acts as a shield for the underlying MoS2 monolayer from oxidizing and forming transition metal oxide nanoscrolls, as shown by Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). On the contrary, for the lateral heterostructures, the WS2 that was grown surrounding the MoS2 triangular core served as a tight frame to stop the propagation of the oxidized MoS2, resulting a gradient of crack distribution. These findings provide insight into how plasma treatment can affect the formation of oxide in heterostructure, which can have further application in nanoelectronic devices and electrocatalysts.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

158681-Thumbnail Image.png

Metasurface-Based Optoelectronic Devices for Polarization Detection and Ultrafast Optical Modulation

Description

Optical metasurfaces, i.e. artificially engineered arrays of subwavelength building blocks supporting abrupt and substantial light confinement, was employed to demonstrate a novel generation of devices for circularly polarized detection, full-Stokes

Optical metasurfaces, i.e. artificially engineered arrays of subwavelength building blocks supporting abrupt and substantial light confinement, was employed to demonstrate a novel generation of devices for circularly polarized detection, full-Stokes polarimetry and all-optical modulation with ultra-compact footprint and chip-integrability.

Optical chirality is essential for generation, manipulation and detection of circularly polarized light (CPL), thus finds many applications in quantum computing, communication, spectroscopy, biomedical diagnosis, imaging and sensing. Compared to natural chiral materials, chiral metamaterials and metasurfaces enable much stronger chirality on subwavelength scale; therefore, they are ideal for device miniaturization and system integration. However, they are usually associated with low performance due to limited fabrication tolerance and high dissipation mainly caused by plasmonic materials. Here, a bio-inspired submicron-thick chiral metamaterial structure was designed and demonstrated experimentally with high contrast (extinction ratio >35) detection of CPL with different handedness and high efficiency (>80%) of the overall device. Furthermore, integration of left- and right-handed CPL detection units with nanograting linear polarization filters enabled full-Stokes polarimetry of arbitrarily input polarization states with high accuracy and very low insertion loss, all on a submillimeter single chip. These unprecedented highly efficient and high extinction ratio devices pave the way for on-chip polarimetric measurements.

All-optical modulation is widely used for optical interconnects, communication, information processing, and ultrafast spectroscopy. Yet, there’s deficiency of ultrafast, compact and energy-efficient solutions all in one device. Here, all-optical modulation of light in the near- and mid-infrared regimes were experimentally demonstrated based on a graphene-integrated plasmonic nanoantenna array. The remarkable feature of the device design is its simultaneous near-field enhancement for pump and probe (signal) beams, owing to the localized surface plasmon resonance excitation, while preserving the ultrafast photocarrier relaxation in graphene. Hence, a distinct modulation at 1560nm with record-low pump fluence (<8μJ/cm^2) was reported with ~1ps response time. Besides, relying on broadband interaction of graphene with incident light, a first-time demonstration of graphene-based all-optical modulation in mid-infrared spectral region (6-7μm) was reported based on the above double-enhancement design concept. Relying on the tunability of metasurface design, the proposed device can be used for ultrafast optical modulation from near-infrared to terahertz regime.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

158511-Thumbnail Image.png

Nonlinear Integrated Photonics in the Visible Spectrum Based on III-N Material Platform

Description

Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) in the visible spectrum opens up new opportunities for frequency metrology, neurophotonics, and quantum technologies. Group III nitride (III-N) compound semiconductor is a new emerging material

Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) in the visible spectrum opens up new opportunities for frequency metrology, neurophotonics, and quantum technologies. Group III nitride (III-N) compound semiconductor is a new emerging material platform for PIC in visible spectrum. The ultra-wide bandgap of aluminum nitride (AlN) allows broadband transparency. The high quantum efficiency of indium gallium nitride (InGaN) quantum well is the major enabler for solid-state lighting and provides the opportunities for active photonic integration. Additionally, the two-dimensional electron gas induced by spontaneous and polarization charges within III-N materials exhibit large electron mobility, which is promising for the development of high frequency transistors. Moreover, the noncentrosymmetric crystalline structure gives nonzero second order susceptibility, beneficial for the application of second harmonic generation and entangled photon generation in nonlinear and quantum optical technologies. Despite the promising features of III-N materials, the investigations on the III-N based PICs are still primitive, mainly due to the difficulties in material growth and the lack of knowledge on fundamental material parameters. In this work, firstly, the fundamental nonlinear optical properties of III-N materials will be characterized. Then, the fabrication process flow of III-N materials will be established. Thirdly, the waveguide performance will be theoretically and experimentally evaluated. At last, the supercontinuum generation from visible to infrared will be demonstrated by utilizing soliton dynamics in high order guided modes. The outcome from this work paves the way towards fully integrated optical comb in UV and visible spectrum.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

155010-Thumbnail Image.png

Quantum nonlinear dynamics in graphene, optomechanical, and semiconductor superlattice systems

Description

Conductance fluctuations associated with quantum transport through quantumdot systems are currently understood to depend on the nature of the corresponding classical dynamics, i.e., integrable or chaotic. There are a couple

Conductance fluctuations associated with quantum transport through quantumdot systems are currently understood to depend on the nature of the corresponding classical dynamics, i.e., integrable or chaotic. There are a couple of interesting phenomena about conductance fluctuation and quantum tunneling related to geometrical shapes of graphene systems. Firstly, in graphene quantum-dot systems, when a magnetic field is present, as the Fermi energy or the magnetic flux is varied, both regular oscillations and random fluctuations in the conductance can occur, with alternating transitions between the two. Secondly, a scheme based on geometrical rotation of rectangular devices to effectively modulate the conductance fluctuations is presented. Thirdly, when graphene is placed on a substrate of heavy metal, Rashba spin-orbit interaction of substantial strength can occur. In an open system such as a quantum dot, the interaction can induce spin polarization. Finally, a problem using graphene systems with electron-electron interactions described by the Hubbard Hamiltonian in the setting of resonant tunneling is investigated.

Another interesting problem in quantum transport is the effect of disorder or random impurities since it is inevitable in real experiments. At first, for a twodimensional Dirac ring, as the disorder density is systematically increased, the persistent current decreases slowly initially and then plateaus at a finite nonzero value, indicating remarkable robustness of the persistent currents, which cannot be discovered in normal metal and semiconductor rings. In addition, in a Floquet system with a ribbon structure, the conductance can be remarkably enhanced by onsite disorder.

Recent years have witnessed significant interest in nanoscale physical systems, such as semiconductor supperlattices and optomechanical systems, which can exhibit distinct collective dynamical behaviors. Firstly, a system of two optically coupled optomechanical cavities is considered and the phenomenon of synchronization transition associated with quantum entanglement transition is discovered. Another useful issue is nonlinear dynamics in semiconductor superlattices caused by its key potential application lies in generating radiation sources, amplifiers and detectors in the spectral range of terahertz. In such a system, transition to multistability, i.e., the emergence of multistability with chaos as a system parameter passes through a critical point, is found and argued to be abrupt.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

153888-Thumbnail Image.png

Optical characterization and lasing study of nanowires

Description

Nanowires are one-dimensional (1D) structures with diameter on the nanometer scales with a high length-to-diameter aspect ratio. Nanowires of various materials including semiconductors, dielectrics and metals have been intensively researched

Nanowires are one-dimensional (1D) structures with diameter on the nanometer scales with a high length-to-diameter aspect ratio. Nanowires of various materials including semiconductors, dielectrics and metals have been intensively researched in the past two decades for applications to electrical and optical devices. Typically, nanowires are synthesized using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) approach, which allows defect-free 1D growth despite the lattice mismatch between nanowires and substrates. Lattice mismatch issue is a serious problem in high-quality thin film growth of many semiconductors and non-semiconductors. Therefore, nanowires provide promising platforms for the applications requiring high crystal quality materials.

With the 1D geometry, nanowires are natural optical waveguides for light guiding and propagation. By introducing feedback mechanisms to nanowire waveguides, such as the cleaved end facets, the nanowires can work as ultra-small size lasers. Since the first demonstration of the room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire lasers in 2001, the nanowire lasers covering from ultraviolet to mid infrared wavelength ranges have been intensively studied. This dissertation focuses on the optical characterization and laser fabrication of two nanowire materials: erbium chloride silicate nanowires and composition-graded CdSSe semiconductor alloy nanowires.

Chapter 1 – 5 of this dissertation presents a comprehensive characterization of a newly developed erbium compound material, erbium chloride silicate (ECS) in a nanowire form. Extensive experiments demonstrated the high crystal quality and excellent optical properties of ECS nanowires. Optical gain higher than 30 dB/cm at 1.53 μm wavelength is demonstrated on single ECS nanowires, which is higher than the gain of any reported erbium materials. An ultra-high Q photonic crystal micro-cavity is designed on a single ECS nanowire towards the ultra-compact lasers at communication wavelengths. Such ECS nanowire lasers show the potential applications of on-chip photonics integration.

Chapter 6 – 7 presents the design and demonstration of dynamical color-controllable lasers on a single CdSSe alloy nanowire. Through the defect-free VLS growth, engineering of the alloy composition in a single nanowire is achieved. The alloy composition of CdSxSe1-x uniformly varies along the nanowire axis from x=1 to x=0, giving the opportunity of multi-color lasing in a monolithic structure. By looping the wide-bandgap end of the alloy nanowire through nanoscale manipulation, the simultaneous two-color lasing at green and red colors are demonstrated. The 107 nm wavelength separation of the two lasing colors is much larger than the gain bandwidth of typical semiconductors. Since the two-color lasing shares the output port, the color of the total lasing output can be controlled dynamically between the two fundamental colors by changing the relative output power of two lasing colors. Such multi-color lasing and continuous color tuning in a wide spectral range would eventually enable color-by-design lasers to be used for lighting, display and many other applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

154494-Thumbnail Image.png

High-modulation-speed LEDs based on III-nitride

Description

III-nitride InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) enable wide range of applications in solid-state lighting, full-color displays, and high-speed visible-light communication. Conventional InGaN quantum well LEDs grown on polar c-plane substrate suffer

III-nitride InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) enable wide range of applications in solid-state lighting, full-color displays, and high-speed visible-light communication. Conventional InGaN quantum well LEDs grown on polar c-plane substrate suffer from quantum confined Stark effect due to the large internal polarization-related fields, leading to a reduced radiative recombination rate and device efficiency, which limits the performance of InGaN LEDs in high-speed communication applications. To circumvent these negative effects, non-trivial-cavity designs such as flip-chip LEDs, metallic grating coated LEDs are proposed. This oral defense will show the works on the high-modulation-speed LEDs from basic ideas to applications. Fundamental principles such as rate equations for LEDs/laser diodes (LDs), plasmonic effects, Purcell effects will be briefly introduced. For applications, the modal properties of flip-chip LEDs are solved by implementing finite difference method in order to study the modulation response. The emission properties of highly polarized InGaN LEDs coated by metallic gratings are also investigated by finite difference time domain method.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016