Matching Items (6)

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Three-dimensional organotypic co-culture model of intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages to study Salmonella enterica colonization patterns

Description

Three-dimensional models of human intestinal epithelium mimic the differentiated form and function of parental tissues often not exhibited by two-dimensional monolayers and respond to Salmonella in key ways that reflect

Three-dimensional models of human intestinal epithelium mimic the differentiated form and function of parental tissues often not exhibited by two-dimensional monolayers and respond to Salmonella in key ways that reflect in vivo infections. To further enhance the physiological relevance of three-dimensional models to more closely approximate in vivo intestinal microenvironments encountered by Salmonella, we developed and validated a novel three-dimensional co-culture infection model of colonic epithelial cells and macrophages using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel bioreactor. First, U937 cells were activated upon collagen-coated scaffolds. HT-29 epithelial cells were then added and the three-dimensional model was cultured in the bioreactor until optimal differentiation was reached, as assessed by immunohistochemical profiling and bead uptake assays. The new co-culture model exhibited in vivo-like structural and phenotypic characteristics, including three-dimensional architecture, apical-basolateral polarity, well-formed tight/adherens junctions, mucin, multiple epithelial cell types, and functional macrophages. Phagocytic activity of macrophages was confirmed by uptake of inert, bacteria-sized beads. Contribution of macrophages to infection was assessed by colonization studies of Salmonella pathovars with different host adaptations and disease phenotypes (Typhimurium ST19 strain SL1344 and ST313 strain D23580; Typhi Ty2). In addition, Salmonella were cultured aerobically or microaerobically, recapitulating environments encountered prior to and during intestinal infection, respectively. All Salmonella strains exhibited decreased colonization in co-culture (HT-29-U937) relative to epithelial (HT-29) models, indicating antimicrobial function of macrophages. Interestingly, D23580 exhibited enhanced replication/survival in both models following invasion. Pathovar-specific differences in colonization and intracellular co-localization patterns were observed. These findings emphasize the power of incorporating a series of related three-dimensional models within a study to identify microenvironmental factors important for regulating infection.

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Date Created
  • 2017-02-28

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Characterization of the Invasive, Multidrug Resistant Non-typhoidal Salmonella Strain D23580 in a Murine Model of Infection

Description

A distinct pathovar of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, ST313, has emerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a major cause of fatal bacteremia in young children and HIV-infected adults. D23580, a multidrug

A distinct pathovar of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, ST313, has emerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a major cause of fatal bacteremia in young children and HIV-infected adults. D23580, a multidrug resistant clinical isolate of ST313, was previously shown to have undergone genome reduction in a manner that resembles that of the more human-restricted pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. It has since been shown through tissue distribution studies that D23580 is able to establish an invasive infection in chickens. However, it remains unclear whether ST313 can cause lethal disease in a non-human host following a natural course of infection. Herein we report that D23580 causes lethal and invasive disease in a murine model of infection following peroral challenge. The LD[subscript 50] of D23580 in female BALB/c mice was 4.7 x 10[superscript 5] CFU. Tissue distribution studies performed 3 and 5 days post-infection confirmed that D23580 was able to more rapidly colonize the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes and gall bladder in mice when compared to the well-characterized S. Typhimurium strain SL1344. D23580 exhibited enhanced resistance to acid stress relative to SL1344, which may lend towards increased capability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract as well as during its intracellular lifecycle. Interestingly, D23580 also displayed higher swimming motility relative to SL1344, S. Typhi strain Ty2, and the ST313 strain A130. Biochemical tests revealed that D23580 shares many similar metabolic features with SL1344, with several notable differences in the Voges-Proskauer and catalase tests, as well alterations in melibiose, and inositol utilization. These results represent the first full duration infection study using an ST313 strain following the entire natural course of disease progression, and serve as a benchmark for ongoing and future studies into the pathogenesis of D23580.

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Date Created
  • 2015-06-19

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Physiological fluid shear alters the virulence potential of invasive multidrug-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella Typhimurium D23580

Description

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains belonging to sequence type ST313 are a major cause of fatal bacteremia among HIV-infected adults and children in sub-Saharan Africa. Unlike “classical” non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS),

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains belonging to sequence type ST313 are a major cause of fatal bacteremia among HIV-infected adults and children in sub-Saharan Africa. Unlike “classical” non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), gastroenteritis is often absent during ST313 infections and isolates are most commonly recovered from blood, rather than from stool. This is consistent with observations in animals, in which ST313 strains displayed lower levels of intestinal colonization and higher recovery from deeper tissues relative to classic NTS isolates. A better understanding of the key environmental factors regulating these systemic infections is urgently needed. Our previous studies using dynamic Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) bioreactor technology demonstrated that physiological levels of fluid shear regulate virulence, gene expression, and stress response profiles of classic S. Typhimurium. Here we provide the first demonstration that fluid shear alters the virulence potential and pathogenesis-related stress responses of ST313 strain D23580 in a manner that differs from classic NTS.

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Date Created
  • 2016-06-09

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Comparative Genome Analysis of the High Pathogenicity Salmonella Typhimurium Strain UK-1

Description

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a gram-negative facultative rod-shaped bacterium causing salmonellosis and foodborne disease, is one of the most common isolated Salmonella serovars in both developed and developing nations. Several

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a gram-negative facultative rod-shaped bacterium causing salmonellosis and foodborne disease, is one of the most common isolated Salmonella serovars in both developed and developing nations. Several S. Typhimurium genomes have been completed and many more genome-sequencing projects are underway. Comparative genome analysis of the multiple strains leads to a better understanding of the evolution of S. Typhimurium and its pathogenesis. S. Typhimurium strain UK-1 (belongs to phage type 1) is highly virulent when orally administered to mice and chickens and efficiently colonizes lymphoid tissues of these species. These characteristics make this strain a good choice for use in vaccine development. In fact, UK-1 has been used as the parent strain for a number of nonrecombinant and recombinant vaccine strains, including several commercial vaccines for poultry. In this study, we conducted a thorough comparative genome analysis of the UK-1 strain with other S. Typhimurium strains and examined the phenotypic impact of several genomic differences. Whole genomic comparison highlights an extremely close relationship between the UK-1 strain and other S. Typhimurium strains; however, many interesting genetic and genomic variations specific to UK-1 were explored. In particular, the deletion of a UK-1-specific gene that is highly similar to the gene encoding the T3SS effector protein NleC exhibited a significant decrease in oral virulence in BALB/c mice. The complete genetic complements in UK-1, especially those elements that contribute to virulence or aid in determining the diversity within bacterial species, provide key information in evaluating the functional characterization of important genetic determinants and for development of vaccines.

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Date Created
  • 2012-07-06

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Characterizing the impact of low shear modeled microgravity on population dynamics, biofilm formation and silver susceptibility of microbial consortia isolated from International Space Station potable water

Description

Understanding how microorganisms adapt and respond to the microgravity environment of spaceflight is important for the function and integrity of onboard life support systems, astronaut health and mission success. Microbial

Understanding how microorganisms adapt and respond to the microgravity environment of spaceflight is important for the function and integrity of onboard life support systems, astronaut health and mission success. Microbial contamination of spacecraft Environmental Life Support Systems (ECLSS), including the potable water system, are well documented and have caused major disruption to spaceflight missions. The potable water system on the International Space Station (ISS) uses recycled wastewater purified by multiple processes so it is safe for astronaut consumption and personal hygiene. However, despite stringent antimicrobial treatments, multiple bacterial species and biofilms have been recovered from this potable water system. This finding raises concern for crew health risks, vehicle operations and ECLSS system integrity during exploration missions. These concerns are further heightened given that 1) potential pathogens have been isolated from the ISS potable water system, 2) the immune response of astronauts is blunted during spaceflight, 3) spaceflight induces unexpected alterations in microbial responses, including growth and biofilm formation, antimicrobial resistance, stress responses, and virulence, and 4) different microbial phenotypes are often observed between reductionistic pure cultures as compared to more complex multispecies co-cultures, the latter of which are more representative of natural environmental conditions. To advance the understanding of the impact of microgravity on microbial responses that could negatively impact spacecraft ECLSS systems and crew health, this study characterized a range of phenotypic profiles in both pure and co-cultures of bacterial isolates collected from the ISS potable water system between 2009 and 2014. Microbial responses profiled included population dynamics, resistance to silver, biofilm formation, and in vitro colonization of intestinal epithelial cells. Growth characteristics and antibiotic sensitivities for bacterial strains were evaluated to develop selective and/or differential media that allow for isolation of a pure culture from co-cultures, which was critical for the success of this study. Bacterial co-culture experiments were performed using dynamic Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) bioreactors under spaceflight analogue (Low Shear Modeled Microgravity/LSMMG) and control conditions. These experiments indicated changes in fluid shear have minimal impact on strain recovery. The antimicrobial efficacy of silver on both sessile co-cultures, grown on 316L stainless steel coupons, and planktonic co-cultures showed that silver did not uniformly reduce the recovery of all strains; however, it had a stronger antimicrobial effect on biofilm cultures than planktonic cultures. The impact of silver on the ability of RWV cultured planktonic and biofilm bacterial co-cultures to colonize human intestinal epithelial cells showed that, those strains which were impacted by silver treatment, often increased adherence to the monolayer. Results from these studies provide insight into the dynamics of polymicrobial community interactions, biofilm formation and survival mechanisms of ISS potable water isolates, with potential application for future design of ECLSS systems for sustainable human space exploration.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Characterizing the molecular genetic, phenotypic and virulence properties of the invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella strain D23580: an integrated approach

Description

Invasive salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 is a major health crisis in sub-Saharan Africa, with multidrug resistance and atypical clinical presentation challenging current treatment regimens and resulting

Invasive salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 is a major health crisis in sub-Saharan Africa, with multidrug resistance and atypical clinical presentation challenging current treatment regimens and resulting in high mortality. Moreover, the increased risk of spreading ST313 pathovars worldwide is of major concern, given global public transportation networks and increased populations of immunocompromised individuals (as a result of HIV infection, drug use, cancer therapy, aging, etc). While it is unclear as to how Salmonella ST313 strains cause invasive disease in humans, it is intriguing that the genomic profile of some of these pathovars indicates key differences between classic Typhimurium (broad host range), but similarities to human-specific typhoidal Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi. In an effort to advance fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis mechanisms of ST313 in humans, I report characterization of the molecular genetic, phenotypic and virulence profiles of D23580 (a representative ST313 strain). Preliminary studies to characterize D23580 virulence, baseline stress responses, and biochemical profiles, and in vitro infection profiles in human surrogate 3-D tissue culture models were done using conventional bacterial culture conditions; while subsequent studies integrated a range of incrementally increasing fluid shear levels relevant to those naturally encountered by D23580 in the infected host to understand the impact of biomechanical forces in altering these characteristics. In response to culture of D23580 under these conditions, distinct differences in transcriptional biosignatures, pathogenesis-related stress responses, in vitro infection profiles and in vivo virulence in mice were observed as compared to those of classic Salmonella pathovars tested.

Collectively, this work represents the first characterization of in vivo virulence and in vitro pathogenesis properties of D23580, the latter using advanced human surrogate models that mimic key aspects of the parental tissue. Results from these studies highlight the importance of studying infectious diseases using an integrated approach that combines actions of biological and physical networks that mimic the host-pathogen microenvironment and regulate pathogen responses.

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Date Created
  • 2015