Matching Items (56)

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Use of a Conformational Switching Aptamer for Rapid and Specific Ex Vivo Identification of Central Nervous System Lymphoma in a Xenograft Model

Description

Improved tools for providing specific intraoperative diagnoses could improve patient care. In neurosurgery, intraoperatively differentiating non-operative lesions such as CNS B-cell lymphoma from operative lesions can be challenging, often necessitating

Improved tools for providing specific intraoperative diagnoses could improve patient care. In neurosurgery, intraoperatively differentiating non-operative lesions such as CNS B-cell lymphoma from operative lesions can be challenging, often necessitating immunohistochemical (IHC) procedures which require up to 24-48 hours. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of generating rapid ex vivo specific labeling using a novel lymphoma-specific fluorescent switchable aptamer. Our B-cell lymphoma-specific switchable aptamer produced only low-level fluorescence in its unbound conformation and generated an 8-fold increase in fluorescence once bound to its target on CD20-positive lymphoma cells. The aptamer demonstrated strong binding to B-cell lymphoma cells within 15 minutes of incubation as observed by flow cytometry. We applied the switchable aptamer to ex vivo xenograft tissue harboring B-cell lymphoma and astrocytoma, and within one hour specific visual identification of lymphoma was routinely possible. In this proof-of-concept study in human cell culture and orthotopic xenografts, we conclude that a fluorescent switchable aptamer can provide rapid and specific labeling of B-cell lymphoma, and that developing aptamer-based labeling approaches could simplify tissue staining and drastically reduce time to histopathological diagnoses compared with IHC-based methods. We propose that switchable aptamers could enhance expeditious, accurate intraoperative decision-making.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-04-15

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Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion

Description

Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes

Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-02-10

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Designing and Testing of Large 2D Arrays of DNA Origami

Description

Repeating tiles made of DNA were used to try to form an indefinitely large structure. Both the tiles and structure were 2D. Two different patterns were tested, one corrugated and

Repeating tiles made of DNA were used to try to form an indefinitely large structure. Both the tiles and structure were 2D. Two different patterns were tested, one corrugated and one not. Corrugation means that the tiles alternated between facing up and facing down, canceling out any curvature to the tile and creating a slightly corrugated but largely 2D pattern. Annealing methods were also experimented with. Annealing the structure in two, separate steps as opposed to one was tested. Another experiment was comparing cyclic versus linear annealing. A linear decrease in temperatures defines the linear annealing, and a cyclic method involved a linear drop to a certain temperature, followed by a slight increase in temperature and cooling back down again. This cycle is done several times before it continues linear cool down. It was seen that both corrugated and non-corrugated structures could be made. In both cases tiles that make up a larger section of the overall pattern were more successful. This is especially important for the non-corrugated pattern. Linear and 2step annealing methods seem to yield the best results.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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DNA Nanotechnology for Protein Co-Crystallization & Vaccine Delivery

Description

DNA nanotechnology is ideally suited for numerous applications from the crystallization and solution of macromolecular structures to the targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules. The foundational goal of structural DNA nanotechnology

DNA nanotechnology is ideally suited for numerous applications from the crystallization and solution of macromolecular structures to the targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules. The foundational goal of structural DNA nanotechnology was the development of a lattice to host proteins for crystal structure solution. To further progress towards this goal, 36 unique four-armed DNA junctions were designed and crystallized for eventual solution of their 3D structures. While most of these junctions produced macroscale crystals which diffracted successfully, several prevented crystallization. Previous results used a fixed isomer and subsequent investigations adopted an alternate isomer to investigate the impact of these small sequence changes on the stability and structural properties of these crystals. DNA nanotechnology has also shown promise for a variety biomedical applications. In particular, DNA origami has been demonstrated as a promising tool for targeted and efficient delivery of drugs and vaccines due to their programmability and addressability to suit a variety of therapeutic cargo and biological functions. To this end, a previously designed DNA barrel nanostructure with a unique multimerizable pegboard architecture has been constructed and characterized via TEM for later evaluation of its stability under biological conditions for use in the targeted delivery of cargo, including CRISPR-containing adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) and mRNA.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

PEGylation of DNA Nanostructures Using Uncatalyzed Click Chemistry

Description

Using DNA nanotechnology a library of structures of various geometries have been built; these structures are modified chemically and/or enzymatically at nanometer precisions. With DNA being chemically very stable, these

Using DNA nanotechnology a library of structures of various geometries have been built; these structures are modified chemically and/or enzymatically at nanometer precisions. With DNA being chemically very stable, these structures can be functionalized through an abundance of well-established protocols. Additionally, they can be used for various biological and medicinal purposes, such as drug delivery. For in vivo applications, the DNA nanostructures must have a long circulation life in the bloodstream; otherwise, they could be easily excreted shortly after entry. One way of making these nanostructures long lasting in the blood is to cover them with the biocompatible polymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG). Adding DNA to PEG before forming structures has been found to interfere in the hybridization of the DNA in the structure, resulting in formation of deformed structures. In this study we have developed a new methodology based on "click chemistry" (CC) to modify the surface of DNA nanostructures with PEG after they are formed. These structures can then be used for in vivo studies and potential applications in the future.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

Development and Design of DNA Origami Nanostructures for Single Cell Analysis of Paired γδ TCR mRNA

Description

Efforts to quantify the diversity of the T cell repertoire have generally been unsuccessful because not all factors accounting for diversity have been considered. In order to get an accurate

Efforts to quantify the diversity of the T cell repertoire have generally been unsuccessful because not all factors accounting for diversity have been considered. In order to get an accurate representation of the T cell repertoire, one must incorporate analysis of germline gene diversity, diversity from somatic recombination, joining diversity from N- and P- nucleotides, and TCR chain pairing diversity. Because of advances in high-throughput sequencing techniques, estimates have been able to account for diversity from TCR genes. However the ability to account for chain pairing diversity has been more difficult. In order to do so, single cell sorting techniques must be employed. These techniques, though effective, are time consuming and expensive. For this reason, no large-scale analyses have been done on the immune repertoires using these techniques. In this study, we propose a novel method for linking the two TCR chain sequences from an individual cell. DNA origami nanostructure technology is employed to capture and bind the TCRγ and TCRδ chain mRNA inside individual cells using probe strands complementary to the C-region of those sequences. We then use a dual-primer RT and ligation molecular strategy to link the two sequences together. The result is a single amplicon containing the CDR3 region of the TCRγ and TCRδ. This amplicon can then be easily PCR amplified using sequence specific primers, and sequenced. DNA origami nanostructures offer a rapid, cost-effective method alternative to conventional single cell sorting techniques, as both TCR mRNA can be captured on one origami molecule inside a single cell. At present, this study outlines a proof-of-principle analysis of the method to determine its functionality. Using known TCRγ and TCRδ sequences, the DNA origami and RT/PCR method was tested and resulting sequence data proved the effectiveness of the method. The original TCRγ and TCRδ sequences were linked together as a single amplicon containing both CDR3 regions of the genes. Thus, this method can be employed in further research to elucidate the γδ T cell repertoire. This technology is also easily adapted to any gene target or cell type and therefore presents a large opportunity to be used in other immune repertoire analysis and other immunological studies (such as the rapid identification and subsequent production of antibodies).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Multi-enzyme complexes on DNA scaffolds capable of substrate channelling with an artificial swinging arm

Description

Swinging arms are a key functional component of multistep catalytic transformations in many naturally occurring multi-enzyme complexes. This arm is typically a prosthetic chemical group that is covalently attached to

Swinging arms are a key functional component of multistep catalytic transformations in many naturally occurring multi-enzyme complexes. This arm is typically a prosthetic chemical group that is covalently attached to the enzyme complex via a flexible linker, allowing the direct transfer of substrate molecules between multiple active sites within the complex. Mimicking this method of substrate channelling outside the cellular environment requires precise control over the spatial parameters of the individual components within the assembled complex. DNA nanostructures can be used to organize functional molecules with nanoscale precision and can also provide nanomechanical control. Until now, protein–DNA assemblies have been used to organize cascades of enzymatic reactions by controlling the relative distance and orientation of enzymatic components or by facilitating the interface between enzymes/cofactors and electrode surfaces. Here, we show that a DNA nanostructure can be used to create a multi-enzyme complex in which an artificial swinging arm facilitates hydride transfer between two coupled dehydrogenases. By exploiting the programmability of DNA nanostructures, key parameters including position, stoichiometry and inter-enzyme distance can be manipulated for optimal activity.

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Date Created
  • 2014-07-01

A DNA-Directed Light-Harvesting/Reaction Center System

Description

A structurally and compositionally well-defined and spectrally tunable artificial light-harvesting system has been constructed in which multiple organic dyes attached to a three-arm-DNA nanostructure serve as an antenna conjugated to

A structurally and compositionally well-defined and spectrally tunable artificial light-harvesting system has been constructed in which multiple organic dyes attached to a three-arm-DNA nanostructure serve as an antenna conjugated to a photosynthetic reaction center isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. The light energy absorbed by the dye molecules is transferred to the reaction center, where charge separation takes place. The average number of DNA three-arm junctions per reaction center was tuned from 0.75 to 2.35. This DNA-templated multichromophore system serves as a modular light-harvesting antenna that is capable of being optimized for its spectral properties, energy transfer efficiency, and photostability, allowing one to adjust both the size and spectrum of the resulting structures. This may serve as a useful test bed for developing nanostructured photonic systems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-11-26

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Lattice-free prediction of three-dimensional structure of programmed DNA assemblies

Description

DNA can be programmed to self-assemble into high molecular weight 3D assemblies with precise nanometer-scale structural features. Although numerous sequence design strategies exist to realize these assemblies in solution, there

DNA can be programmed to self-assemble into high molecular weight 3D assemblies with precise nanometer-scale structural features. Although numerous sequence design strategies exist to realize these assemblies in solution, there is currently no computational framework to predict their 3D structures on the basis of programmed underlying multi-way junction topologies constrained by DNA duplexes. Here, we introduce such an approach and apply it to assemblies designed using the canonical immobile four-way junction. The procedure is used to predict the 3D structure of high molecular weight planar and spherical ring-like origami objects, a tile-based sheet-like ribbon, and a 3D crystalline tensegrity motif, in quantitative agreement with experiments. Our framework provides a new approach to predict programmed nucleic acid 3D structure on the basis of prescribed secondary structure motifs, with possible application to the design of such assemblies for use in biomolecular and materials science.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12-01

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Strategies to enhance RNA-origami-based immunotherapeutics for an induction of long-term tumor-regression

Description

Recently, we have demonstrated that a novel RNA origami (RNA-OG) nanostructure functions as a TLR3 agonist both in vitro and in vivo. This RNA nanostructure could induce effective antitumor immunity

Recently, we have demonstrated that a novel RNA origami (RNA-OG) nanostructure functions as a TLR3 agonist both in vitro and in vivo. This RNA nanostructure could induce effective antitumor immunity in a CT26-OVA-iRFP tumor model that expresses both ovalbumin (OVA) and near infrared protein (iRFP), rendering a significant delay in tumor growth or complete tumor-regression. However, in a similar tumor line that expresses iRFP but not OVA, i.e. a CT26-Neo-iRFP model, RNA-OG induced responses that were consistently inferior to those observed in CT26-OVA-iRFP. Interestingly, the antitumor immunity initially generated against CT26-OVA-iRFP was found to render the mice immune to a challenge with the more malignant CT26-Neo-iRFP line. In addition to OVA expression, the two cell lines also showed different levels of MHC-I. Ongoing research has been focused on deciphering the molecular nature of the different responses. Then, we can search for strategies that increase the tumor immunogenicity, and therefore improve the therapeutic efficacy of RNA-OG for inducing long-term tumor-regression.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05