Matching Items (12)

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Evaluating the Social and Ecological Drivers of Invasive Plant Species Abundance in Sub-tropical Community Forests of Nepal

Description

Invasive plants harm the ecological properties of natural systems, human health,

and local economies. However, the negative impacts of invasive species are not always

immediately visible and may be disregarded

Invasive plants harm the ecological properties of natural systems, human health,

and local economies. However, the negative impacts of invasive species are not always

immediately visible and may be disregarded by local communities if social benefits of

control efforts are not clear. In this dissertation, I use a mixed-methods approach to

investigate the drivers of invasive plant distribution, potential financially feasible

management techniques to control invasion, and community forest user perceptions of

those techniques. In this work, I aim to incorporate the diverse perspectives of local

people and increase the long-term success of invasive species control activities in socio

economically vulnerable populations.

Integrating a spatially and temporally diverse data set, I explore the social and

ecological drivers of invasive plant abundance across 21 buffer zone community forests

in the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal. I evaluate to what extent forest user and

collective manager activities, the legacies of historic activities, and ecological properties

influence present-day invasive plant abundance. I built upon this study to identify areas

with critically high levels of invasion then initiated a three-year, community-based

management intervention to evaluate traditional and adaptive land management

approaches to control invasive plants. I found that both approaches reduced invasive

plant abundance relative to the surrounding, untreated forest. I then interviewed focus

groups to investigate their perceived efficacy of the various treatment types and found

that almost all forest users and managers preferred the adaptive approach over the

traditional management approach. Notably, forest users cited the importance of the

availability of forest resources and lack of harmful plants in the plots that had undergone

this method. Understanding how forest users relate to and experience invasive plants has

been relatively understudied but can influence forest user engagement in different

management approaches. For this reason, I performed in-depth ethnoecological

interviews to explore how forest users perceive, how they utilize, and to what extent they

value invasive plants. This mixed-methods approach contributes to a more holistic

understanding of the role that local people play in invasive plant management and

restoration activities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Racial and ethnic differences in marriage: the importance of metropolitan context

Description

Racial and ethnic differences in marriage outcomes are well established in the previous literature. In addition, variation in the social structure in which individuals reside has an impact on the

Racial and ethnic differences in marriage outcomes are well established in the previous literature. In addition, variation in the social structure in which individuals reside has an impact on the context in which mate selection and marriage occur. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine how these variations shape marriage outcomes for Non-Hispanic Whites, Non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Asians. Beyond racial and ethnic characteristics, this series of studies take into account temporal metropolitan characteristics. Study 1 uses U.S. Census and American Community Survey data to predict metropolitan marriage prevalence at three time points: 1990, 2000 and 2010. Study 2 predicts the odds that individuals across the four racial/ethnic groups have never married, taking into account structural characteristics including region of residence. Study 3 predicts the odds that currently married women are racially or ethnically intermarried, with emphasis on race/ethnicity and region of residence. The results suggest that metropolitan structural characteristics matter somewhat, but individuals' race/ethnicity is the strongest predictor of both the odds of having never married and intermarriage. There is also evidence that region serves as a moderator impacting the overall marriage outcomes of racial/ethnic minority groups to a greater extent in comparison to Non-Hispanic Whites.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Phoenix's place for the homeless: stories from the Maricopa County Human Services Campus

Description

This thesis investigates how homeless men and women who use one of only six human services campuses (hscs) in the nation negotiate the stigmatization they may feel as homeless people

This thesis investigates how homeless men and women who use one of only six human services campuses (hscs) in the nation negotiate the stigmatization they may feel as homeless people living in Phoenix, Arizona. An hsc centralizes services to one area of the city to decrease the run around of scattered-site service delivery. It also creates a legitimized space for the homeless in the city. A place for the homeless can be a rarity in cities like Phoenix that have a history of implementing revanchist policies and neo-liberal land use planning, most notably found in its downtown revitalization efforts. During Phoenix's development as a major metropolitan area, the homeless population emerged and lived a life on the margins until the 2005 creation of the Human Services Campus. This research unearths the experiences of homeless men and women who use the HSC today. I used qualitative methods, including document review, 14 in-depth interviews with homeless men and women, 7 interviews with service providers, informal conversations with additional homeless clients, and 14 months of field observations at the HSC to collect the data presented in this thesis. The results of this research illustrate reasons why the homeless clients interviewed were sensitive to the stigmatization of their social status, and how they managed their stigmatization through relationships with homeless peers and staff on the HSC. The presence of an action plan to exit homelessness was critical to the nature of these relationships for clients, because it influenced how clients perceived their own stigmatization as a homeless person.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Gender, Body Size, and the Prevalence of Obesity during China's Social and Economic Development

Description

The rate of obesity has increased noticeably in China since the 1980s, brought about by the "After Mao" revolution. This dissertation examines the social determinants of obesity and weight gain

The rate of obesity has increased noticeably in China since the 1980s, brought about by the "After Mao" revolution. This dissertation examines the social determinants of obesity and weight gain among men and women, using 1991-2009 waves of the longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey. The first study emphasizes that rapid technological adoption at home may also have the potential to lead to obesity epidemics. I hypothesize that adopting household technology is a factor in weight gain, independent from daily calorie consumption and energy expenditure in exercise. The results show household technology ownership and weight gain are linked, while changes in overall energy intake and exercise may not function as mediators for this relationship. Future public health policy may evaluate interventions that are focused on increasing low-intensity activities impacted by household technologies. My second study discusses whether obesity wage penalties seen in Western societies, such as wage reductions for obese individuals, are observed in modern China. The results indicate that obese women are not subject to wage penalties, while current male obesity rates may be worsened by heightened economic outcomes and greater social acceptance by customers and colleagues. With increasing interpersonal interactions in the workplace in Chinese industries, and the lack of public awareness of the risks of obesity, Chinese public health strategies for preventing and controlling obesity should target male non-manual laborers, the most vulnerable population in the future. The third study analyzes the impact of parental and own socioeconomic status on adult body weight and extends the research by estimating the influence of intergenerational social mobility on current body mass index. In the context of increasing social inequality in China, the study shows parental SES, own SES, and social mobility to be negatively associated with body mass index among women; while respondent's SES is positively associated with body mass index among men. The study results support the theory that parental SES has a more significant impact on current body weight for men and women after controlling social mobility; indicating that social mobility may function as a mediator for the relationship between parental SES and current body mass index.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Convergence towards diversity?: cohort analysis of fertility and family formation in South Korea

Description

This dissertation explores changes in fertility and family formation in South Korea, a setting in which rapid demographic changes have taken place since the early twentieth century. Despite active debate

This dissertation explores changes in fertility and family formation in South Korea, a setting in which rapid demographic changes have taken place since the early twentieth century. Despite active debate and discussion among experts and policymakers, knowledge is still limited in regards to the country’s significant demographic changes. I take advantage of Korean census samples data from 1966 to 2010, which span birth cohorts from pre- and early-transitional stages to post-transitional stages, which comprise the entry stage of the second demographic transition. From a cohort perspective, I use diverse demographic methods to analyze three different aspects of fertility and family formation—fertility differentials, marriage delay, and fertility concentration.

The findings illustrate how fertility and marriage patterns have changed over generations and range from a politically tumultuous period, which includes World War II, liberation, and the Korean War, to an advanced economic period. By and large, the three studies suggest that until 1960, fertility and family formation converged as per social norms and leadership guidelines. Then, marriage and childbearing behaviors began to diversify and variation by social groups increased for cohorts born during and after the 1960s. The phrase “convergence towards diversity” captures the reversal of demographic trends within the country. Taken together, this dissertation advances our understanding of how fertility and family formation have changed in South Korea, which has been on an intense demographic journey from pre-transitional fertility through very low fertility, and currently headed toward another destination.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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AIDS education and women's autonomy: the prevention of sexual contraction and spread of HIV/AIDS in Mozambique

Description

The AIDS epidemic has tremendously impacted the population of Mozambique. The rate of newly infected young women continues to grow disproportionately which is why consideration of health interventions specific to

The AIDS epidemic has tremendously impacted the population of Mozambique. The rate of newly infected young women continues to grow disproportionately which is why consideration of health interventions specific to this population to combat the spread of the disease is critical. The Health Belief Model emphasizes the importance of self efficiency in the process of health related behavioral changes. Previous research has found that low levels of autonomy increase one's risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. This research uses data from a study conducted in 2006 in Mozambique to test whether higher levels of autonomy are associated with the practice of self protective behaviors related to the contraction of HIV/AIDS. Results suggest that some measures of autonomy such as education are positively associated with the practice of self protective behaviors. However, higher levels of decision making powers were negatively associated with the practice of self protective behaviors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Investments in children's health and schooling in rural southern Mozambique: the role of mothers' decision-making autonomy and father's labor migration

Description

The objective of this dissertation is to investigate the association of mother's autonomy and male labor migration with child's health and education, taking into account possible differences by child's gender.

The objective of this dissertation is to investigate the association of mother's autonomy and male labor migration with child's health and education, taking into account possible differences by child's gender. The dissertation uses data from a household longitudinal survey conducted in rural southern Mozambique in 2006, 2009 and 2011 to address three main questions: 1) Is decision-making autonomy associated with child's schooling and child mortality? 2) Is father's labor migration associated with children's health outcomes? 3) If so, do these relationships change by gender of the child? The dissertation makes three main contributions to the literature. First, it finds a significant effect of mother's decision-making autonomy on child's outcomes, independent of other characteristics related to women's status. Second, it illustrates the cumulative nature of the effect of father's labor migration on the health of children left behind. And finally, the dissertation shows that women's decision-making autonomy and male migration affect children's outcomes differently depending on the gender of the child and on the outcome being analyzed. The dissertation is structured in five chapters. The first chapter gives an introductory overview of women's autonomy and male migration as determinants of children's outcomes, and presents the setting. The second chapter examines the relationship between mother's decision-making autonomy and enrollment for primary school-age children. Results show a positive association of women's decision-making autonomy with the probability of being enrolled for daughters, but not for sons. The effect of women's decision-making autonomy is net of other characteristics associated with autonomy. The third chapter analyzes the association of mother's decision-making autonomy and under-five child mortality. Results show a positive effect women's decision-making autonomy for sons' survival chances. The fourth chapter examines the effect of father's labor migration on health of children left behind. Results indicate that a proportion of child's life spent away by the father has a negative effect on the child's chances of being stunted but that it also decreases the likelihood of the child receiving age-adequate immunization. These results are gendered as the effect of father's migration on both outcomes is significant only for daughters. Chapter five presents the concluding remarks.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Divorce access attitudes in America: exploring structure and values for a new theoretical framework

Description

This thesis builds upon previous research exploring the different factors that influence divorce access attitudes, using data drawn from the General Social Survey in 1991, 1994, and 2008. I examine

This thesis builds upon previous research exploring the different factors that influence divorce access attitudes, using data drawn from the General Social Survey in 1991, 1994, and 2008. I examine different social values and economic characteristics and their influence on divorce access attitudes, and explore gender differences within these factors. I examine how information drawn from this analysis supports the argument for Second Demographic Transition Theory as a theoretical framework to explain influential factors in the formation of divorce access attitudes. I conclude that social values variables related to attitudes towards sex behaviors remain significant predictors of divorce access attitudes. I also recognize that socioeconomic context bears influence on the formation of divorce access attitudes. Gender differences lead to the conclusion that behavior and interactions around divorce access attitude formation are dynamic and complex, but are effectively explained using Second Demographic Transition Theory.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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The consequences of male seasonal migration for women left behind: the case of rural Armenia

Description

Despite the extensive research on the consequences of migration, little is known about the effects of seasonal migration on fertility, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases in the countries of former

Despite the extensive research on the consequences of migration, little is known about the effects of seasonal migration on fertility, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases in the countries of former Soviet Union, that have undergone vast demographic changes in the last two decades. Using cross-sectional data from two surveys conducted in Armenia in 2005 and 2007, this dissertation is exploring the effects of seasonal migration on reproductive behavior and outcomes, as well as sexual health among women left-behind. The dissertation is constructed of three independent studies that combined draw the broad picture of the consequences of seasonal migration in this part of the world. The first study, "Seasonal migration and fertility in low-fertility areas of origin" looks at the effect of seasonal migration on yearly pregnancy rates, lifetime fertility, and fertility preferences among women and their husbands. The models are fitted using discrete-time logistic regression, and random-intercept logistic regression for negative binomial and binary outcomes, correspondingly. The findings show that seasonal migration in low-fertility settings does not further disrupt fertility levels in a short-, or long-run, contradicting to the findings from high-fertility settings. However, the study provides some evidence that seasonal migration is associated with increased fertility preferences among migrant men. The second study, "Seasonal migration and contraception among women left-behind", examines the associations between migration and modern contraceptive use, by looking at current contraceptive use and the history of abortions. A series of random-intercept logistic regression models reveal that women with migrant partners are significantly less likely to use modern contraceptives, than women married to non-migrants. They also have higher rates of abortions; however this effect is moderated by the socioeconomic status of the household. The third study, "Seasonal migration and risks of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among women left-behind", looks at the effects of seasonal migration on the diagnosed STDs in the last three years, and self reported STD-like symptoms in the last twelve months. The results of random-intercept logistic regression for negative binomial and binary outcomes provide strong evidence of increased STD risks among migrants' wives; however, this effect is also moderated by the household income.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Association between education and job training program enrollment

Description

Welfare recipients must engage in a specified number of hours of work-based activities. Work-based activities include providing childcare for others, enrolling to obtain a GED, participating in job clubs, and

Welfare recipients must engage in a specified number of hours of work-based activities. Work-based activities include providing childcare for others, enrolling to obtain a GED, participating in job clubs, and working for pay. Welfare recipients may choose to get a GED or participate in job clubs to improve their chances of finding employment. As some states require participation in job clubs to receive welfare benefits, this study examined the likelihood of job club participation by low-income females in states where job club participation is optional, not mandatory. Using data from a sample of 3,642 low-income mothers participating in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), I explored the relationship between educational attainment and the probability of attending job club or searches in the past month. Sociodemographic and state-level characteristics were used to control for other factors in logistic regression models. Results show that low-income women with higher educational attainment were more likely to attend a job club. Other significant factors were marital status, metropolitan residence, number of children, number of family members, and state poverty rate. Policy implications suggest that attendees already have the necessary skills to obtain a job and time limits and enrollment caps may hinder the changes of the targeted population.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011