Matching Items (10)

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Thermochemical Humidity Detection in Harsh or Non-Steady Environments

Description

We present a new method of chemical quantification utilizing thermal analysis for the detection of relative humidity. By measuring the temperature change of a hydrophilically-modified temperature sensing element vs. a

We present a new method of chemical quantification utilizing thermal analysis for the detection of relative humidity. By measuring the temperature change of a hydrophilically-modified temperature sensing element vs. a hydrophobically-modified reference element, the total heat from chemical interactions in the sensing element can be measured and used to calculate a change in relative humidity. We have probed the concept by assuming constant temperature streams, and having constant reference humidity (~0% in this case). The concept has been probed with the two methods presented here: (1) a thermistor-based method and (2) a thermographic method. For the first method, a hydrophilically-modified thermistor was used, and a detection range of 0–75% relative humidity was demonstrated. For the second method, a hydrophilically-modified disposable surface (sensing element) and thermal camera were used, and thermal signatures for different relative humidity were demonstrated. These new methods offer opportunities in either chemically harsh environments or in rapidly changing environments. For sensing humidity in a chemically harsh environment, a hydrophilically-modified thermistor can provide a sensing method, eliminating the exposure of metallic contacts, which can be easily corroded by the environment. On the other hand, the thermographic method can be applied with a disposable non-contact sensing element, which is a low-cost upkeep option in environments where damage or fouling is inevitable. In addition, for environments that are rapidly changing, the thermographic method could potentially provide a very rapid humidity measurement as the chemical interactions are rapid and their changes are easily quantified.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05-24

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A Novel Wireless Wearable Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Monitoring Device with Disposable Sensors

Description

A novel portable wireless volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring device with disposable sensors is presented. The device is miniaturized, light, easy-to-use, and cost-effective. Different field tests have been carried out

A novel portable wireless volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring device with disposable sensors is presented. The device is miniaturized, light, easy-to-use, and cost-effective. Different field tests have been carried out to identify the operational, analytical, and functional performance of the device and its sensors. The device was compared to a commercial photo-ionization detector, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and carbon monoxide detector. In addition, environmental operational conditions, such as barometric change, temperature change and wind conditions were also tested to evaluate the device performance. The multiple comparisons and tests indicate that the proposed VOC device is adequate to characterize personal exposure in many real-world scenarios and is applicable for personal daily use.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12-03

Acetone as biomarker for ketosis buildup capability - a study in healthy individuals under combined high fat and starvation diets

Description

Background
Ketogenic diets are high fat and low carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diets, which render high production of ketones upon consumption known as nutritional ketosis (NK). Ketosis is also

Background
Ketogenic diets are high fat and low carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diets, which render high production of ketones upon consumption known as nutritional ketosis (NK). Ketosis is also produced during fasting periods, which is known as fasting ketosis (FK). Recently, the combinations of NK and FK, as well as NK alone, have been used as resources for weight loss management and treatment of epilepsy.
Methods
A crossover study design was applied to 11 healthy individuals, who maintained moderately sedentary lifestyle, and consumed three types of diet randomly assigned over a three-week period. All participants completed the diets in a randomized and counterbalanced fashion. Each weekly diet protocol included three phases: Phase 1 - A mixed diet with ratio of fat: (carbohydrate + protein) by mass of 0.18 or the equivalence of 29% energy from fat from Day 1 to Day 5. Phase 2- A mixed or a high-fat diet with ratio of fat: (carbohydrate + protein) by mass of approximately 0.18, 1.63, or 3.80 on Day 6 or the equivalence of 29%, 79%, or 90% energy from fat, respectively. Phase 3 - A fasting diet with no calorie intake on Day 7. Caloric intake from diets on Day 1 to Day 6 was equal to each individual’s energy expenditure. On Day 7, ketone buildup from FK was measured.
Results
A statistically significant effect of Phase 2 (Day 6) diet was found on FK of Day 7, as indicated by repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA), F(2,20) = 6.73, p < 0.0058. Using a Fisher LDS pair-wise comparison, higher significant levels of acetone buildup were found for diets with 79% fat content and 90% fat content vs. 29% fat content (with p = 0.00159**, and 0.04435**, respectively), with no significant difference between diets with 79% fat content and 90% fat content. In addition, independent of the diet, a significantly higher ketone buildup capability of subjects with higher resting energy expenditure (R[superscript 2] = 0.92), and lower body mass index (R[superscript 2] = 0.71) was observed during FK.

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Date Created
  • 2015-04-22

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Colorimetric Humidity Sensor Based on Liquid Composite Materials for the Monitoring of Food and Pharmaceuticals

Description

Using supported ionic-liquid membrane (SILM)-inspired methodologies, we have synthesized, characterized, and developed a humidity sensor by coating a liquid composite material onto a hygroscopic, porous substrate. Similar to pH paper,

Using supported ionic-liquid membrane (SILM)-inspired methodologies, we have synthesized, characterized, and developed a humidity sensor by coating a liquid composite material onto a hygroscopic, porous substrate. Similar to pH paper, the sensor responds to the environment’s relative humidity and changes color accordingly. The humidity indicator is prepared by casting a few microliters of low-toxicity reagents on a nontoxic substrate. The sensing material is a newly synthesized liquid composite that comprises a hygroscopic medium for environmental humidity capture and a color indicator that translates the humidity level into a distinct color change. Sodium borohydride was used to form a liquid composite medium, and DenimBlu30 dye was used as a redox indicator. The liquid composite medium provides a hygroscopic response to the relative humidity, and DenimBlu30 translates the chemical changes into a visual change from yellow to blue. The borate–redox dye-based humidity sensor was prepared, and then Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and image analysis methods were used to characterize the chemical composition, optimize synthesis, and gain insight into the sensor reactivity. Test results indicated that this new sensing material can detect relative humidity in the range of 5–100% in an irreversible manner with good reproducibility and high accuracy. The sensor is a low-cost, highly sensitive, easy-to-use humidity indicator. More importantly, it can be easily packaged with products to monitor humidity levels in pharmaceutical and food packaging.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-09

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Novel Gas Sensor Solutions for Air Quality Monitoring

Description

Global industrialization and urbanization have led to increased levels of air pollution. The costs to society have come in the form of environmental damage, healthcare expenses, lost productivity, and premature

Global industrialization and urbanization have led to increased levels of air pollution. The costs to society have come in the form of environmental damage, healthcare expenses, lost productivity, and premature mortality. Measuring pollutants is an important task for identifying its sources, warning individuals about dangerous exposure levels, and providing epidemiologists with data to link pollutants with diseases. Current methods for monitoring air pollution are inadequate though. They rely on expensive, complex instrumentation at limited fixed monitoring sites that do not capture the true spatial and temporal variation. Furthermore, the fixed outdoor monitoring sites cannot warn individuals about indoor air quality or exposure to chemicals at worksites. Recent advances in manufacturing and computing technology have allowed new classes of low-cost miniature gas sensor to emerge as possible alternatives. For these to be successful however, there must be innovations in the sensors themselves that improve reliability, operation, and their stability and selectivity in real environments. Three novel gas sensor solutions are presented. The first is the development of a wearable personal exposure monitor using all commercially available components, including two metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors. The device monitors known asthma triggers: ozone, total volatile organic compounds, temperature, humidity, and activity level. Primary focus is placed on the ozone sensor, which requires special circuits, heating algorithm, and calibration to remove temperature and humidity interferences. Eight devices are tested in multiple field tests. The second is the creation of a new compact optoelectronic gas sensing platform using colorimetric microdroplets printed on the surface of a complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) imager. The nonvolatile liquid microdroplets provide a homogeneous, uniform environment that is ideal for colorimetric reactions and lensless optical measurements. To demonstrate one type of possible indicating system gaseous ammonia is detected by complexation with Cu(II). The third project continues work on the CMOS imager optoelectronic platform and develops a more robust sensing system utilizing hydrophobic aerogel particles. Ammonia is detected colorimetrically by its reaction with a molecular dye, with additives and surface treatments enhancing uniformity of the printed films. Future work presented at the end describes a new biological particle sensing system using the CMOS imager.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Wearable Devices for Non-Invasive Cardiorespiratory Monitoring

Description

Wearable technology has brought in a rapid shift in the areas of healthcare and lifestyle management. The recent development and usage of wearable devices like smart watches has created significant

Wearable technology has brought in a rapid shift in the areas of healthcare and lifestyle management. The recent development and usage of wearable devices like smart watches has created significant impact in areas like fitness management, exercise tracking, sleep quality assessment and early diagnosis of diseases like asthma, sleep apnea etc. This thesis is dedicated to the development of wearable systems and algorithms to fulfill unmet needs in the area of cardiorespiratory monitoring.

First, a pneumotach based flow sensing technique has been developed and integrated into a face mask for respiratory profile tracking. Algorithms have been developed to convert the pressure profile into respiratory flow rate profile. Gyroscope-based correction is used to remove motion artifacts that arise from daily activities. By using Principal Component Analysis, the follow-up work established a unique respiratory signature for each subject based on the flow profile and lung parameters computed using the wearable mask system.

Next, wristwatch devices to track transcutaneous gases like oxygen (TcO2) and carbon dioxide (TcCO2), and oximetry (SpO2) have been developed. Two chemical sensing approaches have been explored. In the first approach, miniaturized low-cost commercial sensors have been integrated into the wristwatch for transcutaneous gas sensing. In the second approach, CMOS camera-based colorimetric sensors are integrated into the wristwatch, where a part of camera frame is used for photoplethysmography while the remaining part tracks the optical signal from colorimetric sensors.

Finally, the wireless connectivity using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) in wearable systems has been explored and a data transmission protocol between wearables and host for reliable transfer has been developed. To improve the transmission reliability, the host is designed to use queue-based re-request routine to notify the wearable device of the missing packets that should be re-transmitted. This approach avoids the issue of host dependent packet losses and ensures that all the necessary information is received.

The works in this thesis have provided technical solutions to address challenges in wearable technologies, ranging from chemical sensing, flow sensing, data analysis, to wireless data transmission. These works have demonstrated transformation of traditional bench-top medical equipment into non-invasive, unobtrusive, ergonomic & stand-alone healthcare devices.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Mobile health applications of breath analysis: challenges and solutions

Description

The world of healthcare can be seen as dynamic, often an area where technology and science meet to consummate a greater good for humanity. This relationship has been working well

The world of healthcare can be seen as dynamic, often an area where technology and science meet to consummate a greater good for humanity. This relationship has been working well for the last century as evident by the average life expectancy change. For the greater of the last five decades the average life expectancy at birth increased globally by almost 20 years. In the United States specifically, life expectancy has grown from 50 years in 1900 to 78 years in 2009. That is a 76% increase in just over a century. As great as this increase sounds for humanity it means there are soon to be real issues in the healthcare world. A larger older population will need more healthcare services but have fewer young professionals to provide those services. Technology and science will need to continue to push the boundaries in order to develop and provide the solutions needed to continue providing the aging world population sufficient healthcare. One solution sure to help provide a brighter future for healthcare is mobile health (m-health). M-health can help provide a means for healthcare professionals to treat more patients with less work expenditure and do so with more personalized healthcare advice which will lead to better treatments. This paper discusses one area of m-health devices specifically; human breath analysis devices. The current laboratory methods of breath analysis and why these methods are not adequate for common healthcare practices will be discussed in more detail. Then more specifically, mobile breath analysis devices are discussed. The topic will encompass the challenges that need to be met in developing such devices, possible solutions to these challenges, two real examples of mobile breath analysis devices and finally possible future directions for m-health technologies.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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A novel handheld real-time carbon dioxide analyzer for health and environmental applications

Description

The accurate and fast determination of carbon dioxide (CO2) levels is critical for many health and environmental applications. For example, the analysis of CO2 levels in exhaled breath allows for

The accurate and fast determination of carbon dioxide (CO2) levels is critical for many health and environmental applications. For example, the analysis of CO2 levels in exhaled breath allows for the evaluation of systemic metabolism, perfusion, and ventilation, and provides the doctors and patients with a non-invasive and simple method to predict the presence and severity of asthma, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Similarly, the monitoring of CO2 levels in the atmosphere allows for assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) as the indoor CO2 levels have been proved to be associated with increased prevalence of certain mucous membrane and respiratory sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms. A pocket-sized CO2 analyzer has been developed for real-time analysis of breath CO2 and environmental CO2. This CO2 analyzer is designed to comprise two key components including a fluidic system for efficient gas sample delivery and a colorimetric detection unit integrated into the fluidic system. The CO2 levels in the gas samples are determined by a disposable colorimetric sensor chip. The sensor chip is a novel composite based sensor that has been optimized to provide fast and reversible response to CO2 over a wide concentration range, covering the needs of both environmental and health applications. The sensor is immune to the presence of various interfering gases in ambient or expired air. The performance of the sensor in real-time breath-by-breath analysis has also been validated by a commercial CO2 detector. Furthermore, a 3D model was created to simulate fluid dynamics of breath and chemical reactions for CO2 assessment to achieve overall understanding of the breath CO2 detection process and further optimization of the device.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Development of acoustic sensor for flow rate monitoring

Description

The project is mainly aimed at detecting the gas flow rate in Biosensors and medical health applications by means of an acoustic method using whistle based device. Considering the challenges

The project is mainly aimed at detecting the gas flow rate in Biosensors and medical health applications by means of an acoustic method using whistle based device. Considering the challenges involved in maintaining particular flow rate and back pressure for detecting certain analytes in breath analysis the proposed system along with a cell phone provides a suitable way to maintain the flow rate without any additional battery driven device. To achieve this, a system-level approach is implemented which involves development of a closed end whistle which is placed inside a tightly fitted constant back pressure tube. By means of experimentation pressure vs. flowrate curve is initially obtained and used for the development of the particular whistle. Finally, by means of an FFT code in a cell phone the flow rate vs. frequency characteristic curve is obtained. When a person respires through the device a whistle sound is generated which is captured by the cellphone microphone and a FFT analysis is performed to determine the frequency and hence the flow rate from the characteristic curve. This approach can be used to detect flow rate as low as low as 1L/min. The concept has been applied for the first time in this work to the development and optimization of a breath analyzer.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Pressure based spirometry: mobile spirometry using a pressure transducer

Description

Spirometry is a type of pulmonary function test that measures the amount of air volume and the speed of air flow from a patient's breath in order to assess lung

Spirometry is a type of pulmonary function test that measures the amount of air volume and the speed of air flow from a patient's breath in order to assess lung function. The goal of this project is to develop and validate a mobile spirometer technology based on a differential pressure sensor. The findings in this paper are used in a larger project that combines the features of a capnography device and a spirometer into a single mobile health unit known as the capno-spirometer. The following paper discusses the methods, experiments, and prototypes that were developed and tested in order to create a robust and accurate technology for all of the spirometry functions within the capno-spirometer. The differential pressure sensor is set up with one inlet measuring the pressure inside the spirometer tubing and the other inlet measuring the ambient pressure of the environment. The inlet measuring the inside of the tubing is very sensitive to its orientation and position with respect to the path of the air flow. It is found that taking a measurement from the center of the flow is 50% better than from the side wall. The sensor inlet is optimized at 37 mm from the mouthpiece inlet. The unit is calibrated by relating the maximum pressure sensor voltage signal to the peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) taken during a series of spirometry tests. In conclusion, this relationship is best represented as a quadratic function and a calibration equation is computed to provide a flow rate given a voltage change. The flow rates are used to calculate the four main spirometry parameters: PEF, FVC, FEV1, and FER. These methods are then referenced with the results from a commercial spirometer for validation. After validation, the pressure-based spirometry technology is proven to be both robust and accurate.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013