Matching Items (4)

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Evolutionary patterns of metazoan microRNAs reveal targeting principles in the let-7 and miR-10 families

Description

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene output by targeting degenerate elements in mRNAs and have undergone drastic expansions in higher metazoan genomes. The evolutionary advantage of maintaining copies of highly similar miRNAs

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene output by targeting degenerate elements in mRNAs and have undergone drastic expansions in higher metazoan genomes. The evolutionary advantage of maintaining copies of highly similar miRNAs is not well understood, nor is it clear what unique functions, if any, miRNA family members possess. Here, we study evolutionary patterns of metazoan miRNAs, focusing on the targeting preferences of the let-7 and miR-10 families. These studies reveal hotspots for sequence evolution with implications for targeting and secondary structure. High-throughput screening for functional targets reveals that each miRNA represses sites with distinct features and regulates a large number of genes with cooperative function in regulatory networks. Unexpectedly, given the high degree of similarity, single-nucleotide changes grant miRNA family members with distinct targeting preferences. Together, our data suggest complex functional relationships among miRNA duplications, novel expression patterns, sequence change, and the acquisition of new targets.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12-07

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3 ' LIFE: a functional assay to detect miRNA targets in high-throughput

Description

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene output at the post-transcriptional level by targeting degenerate elements primarily in 3′untranslated regions (3′UTRs) of mRNAs. Individual miRNAs can regulate networks

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene output at the post-transcriptional level by targeting degenerate elements primarily in 3′untranslated regions (3′UTRs) of mRNAs. Individual miRNAs can regulate networks of hundreds of genes, yet for the majority of miRNAs few, if any, targets are known. Misexpression of miRNAs is also a major contributor to cancer progression, thus there is a critical need to validate miRNA targets in high-throughput to understand miRNAs' contribution to tumorigenesis. Here we introduce a novel high-throughput assay to detect miRNA targets in 3′UTRs, called Luminescent Identification of Functional Elements in 3′UTRs (3′LIFE). We demonstrate the feasibility of 3′LIFE using a data set of 275 human 3′UTRs and two cancer-relevant miRNAs, let-7c and miR-10b, and compare our results to alternative methods to detect miRNA targets throughout the genome. We identify a large number of novel gene targets for these miRNAs, with only 32% of hits being bioinformatically predicted and 27% directed by non-canonical interactions. Functional analysis of target genes reveals consistent roles for each miRNA as either a tumor suppressor (let-7c) or oncogenic miRNA (miR-10b), and preferentially target multiple genes within regulatory networks, suggesting 3′LIFE is a rapid and sensitive method to detect miRNA targets in high-throughput.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-29

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Differential expression of conserved and novel microRNAs during tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis

Description

Background
Lizards are evolutionarily the most closely related vertebrates to humans that can lose and regrow an entire appendage. Regeneration in lizards involves differential expression of hundreds of genes that

Background
Lizards are evolutionarily the most closely related vertebrates to humans that can lose and regrow an entire appendage. Regeneration in lizards involves differential expression of hundreds of genes that regulate wound healing, musculoskeletal development, hormonal response, and embryonic morphogenesis. While microRNAs are able to regulate large groups of genes, their role in lizard regeneration has not been investigated.
Results
MicroRNA sequencing of green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) regenerating tail and associated tissues revealed 350 putative novel and 196 known microRNA precursors. Eleven microRNAs were differentially expressed between the regenerating tail tip and base during maximum outgrowth (25 days post autotomy), including miR-133a, miR-133b, and miR-206, which have been reported to regulate regeneration and stem cell proliferation in other model systems. Three putative novel differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in the regenerating tail tip.
Conclusions
Differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in the regenerating lizard tail, including known regulators of stem cell proliferation. The identification of 3 putative novel microRNAs suggests that regulatory networks, either conserved in vertebrates and previously uncharacterized or specific to lizards, are involved in regeneration. These findings suggest that differential regulation of microRNAs may play a role in coordinating the timing and expression of hundreds of genes involved in regeneration.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05-05

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A human 3′UTR clone collection to study post-transcriptional gene regulation

Description

Background
3′untranslated regions (3′UTRs) are poorly understood portions of eukaryotic mRNAs essential for post-transcriptional gene regulation. Sequence elements in 3′UTRs can be target sites for regulatory molecules such as RNA

Background
3′untranslated regions (3′UTRs) are poorly understood portions of eukaryotic mRNAs essential for post-transcriptional gene regulation. Sequence elements in 3′UTRs can be target sites for regulatory molecules such as RNA binding proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs), and these interactions can exert significant control on gene networks. However, many such interactions remain uncharacterized due to a lack of high-throughput (HT) tools to study 3′UTR biology. HT cloning efforts such as the human ORFeome exemplify the potential benefits of genomic repositories for studying human disease, especially in relation to the discovery of biomarkers and targets for therapeutic agents. Currently there are no publicly available human 3′UTR libraries. To address this we have prepared the first version of the human 3′UTRome (h3′UTRome v1) library. The h3′UTRome is produced to a single high quality standard using the same recombinational cloning technology used for the human ORFeome, enabling universal operating methods and high throughput experimentation. The library is thoroughly sequenced and annotated with simple online access to information, and made publically available through gene repositories at low cost to all scientists with minimal restriction.
Results
The first release of the h3′UTRome library comprises 1,461 human 3′UTRs cloned into Gateway® entry vectors, ready for downstream analyses. It contains 3′UTRs for 985 transcription factors, 156 kinases, 171 RNA binding proteins, and 186 other genes involved in gene regulation and in disease. We demonstrate the feasibility of the h3′UTRome library by screening a panel of 87 3′UTRs for targeting by two miRNAs: let-7c, which is implicated in tumorigenesis, and miR-221, which is implicated in atherosclerosis and heart disease. The panel is enriched with genes involved in the RAS signaling pathway, putative novel targets for the two miRNAs, as well as genes implicated in tumorigenesis and heart disease.
Conclusions
The h3′UTRome v1 library is a modular resource that can be utilized for high-throughput screens to identify regulatory interactions between trans-acting factors and 3′UTRs, Importantly, the library can be customized based on the specifications of the researcher, allowing the systematic study of human 3′UTR biology.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12-09