Matching Items (6)

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Dyno Goes Green

Description

All around the automotive industry, the chassis dynamometer exists in a variety of configurations but all function to provide one common goal. The underlying goal is to measure a vehicle’s

All around the automotive industry, the chassis dynamometer exists in a variety of configurations but all function to provide one common goal. The underlying goal is to measure a vehicle’s performance by measuring torque output and taking that measurement to calculate horsepower. This data is crucial in situations of testing development vehicles or for tuning heavily modified vehicles. While the current models in the industry serve their purposes for what they were intended to do, in theory, an additional system can be introduced to the dyno to render the system into an electric generator.
The hardware will consist of electric motors functioning as a generator by reversing the rotation of the motor (regenerative braking). Using the dynamometer with the additional motor system paired with a local battery, the entire system can be run off by their tuning service. When considering the Dynojet and Dynapack dynamometer, it was calculated that an estimated return of 81.5% of electricity used can be generated. Different factors such as how frequent the dyno is used and for how long affect the savings. With a generous estimate of 6 hours dyno run time a day for 250 business days and the cost of electricity being 13.19 cents/kwh the Dynapack came out to $326.45 a year and $1424.52 for the Dynojet. With the return of electricity, the amount saved comes out to $266.18 for the Dynapack and $1161.50 for the Dynojet. This will alleviate electrical costs dramatically in the long term allowing for performance shops to invest their saved money into more tools and equipment.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Investigation and Integration of Communication Technologies for Multiple Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) Prototypes

Description

With the growing popularity and advancements in automation technology, Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) have become the pinnacle of ground-vehicle transportation. Connectivity has the potential to allow all vehicles—new or

With the growing popularity and advancements in automation technology, Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) have become the pinnacle of ground-vehicle transportation. Connectivity has the potential to allow all vehicles—new or old, automated or non-automated—to communicate with each other at all times and greatly reduce the possibility of a multi-vehicle collision. This project sought to achieve a better understanding of CAV communication technologies by attempting to design, integrate, test, and validate a vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) amongst three automated ground-vehicle prototypes. The end goal was to determine what current technology best satisfies Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication with a real-time physical demonstration. Although different technologies, such as dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) and cellular vehicle to everything (C-V2X) were initially investigated, due to time and budget constraints, a FreeWave ZumLink Z9-PE DEVKIT (900 MHz radio) was used to create a wireless network amongst the ground-vehicle prototypes. The initial testing to create a wireless network was successful and demonstrated but creating a true VANET was unsuccessful as the radios communicate strictly peer to peer. Future work needed to complete the simulated VANET includes programming the ZumLink radios to send and receive data using message queuing telemetry transport (MQTT) protocol to share data amongst multiple vehicles, as well as programming the vehicle controller to send and receive data utilizing terminal control protocol (TCP) to ensure no data loss and all data is communicated in correct sequence.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Automated Driving Systems Advancement for Higher Energy Efficiency and Carbon Emissions Reduction

Description

Research studies on improving Automated Driving Systems (ADS) have focused mainly on enhancing safety, through the development of more sophisticated sensors that have the ability to detect objects promptly. Safety

Research studies on improving Automated Driving Systems (ADS) have focused mainly on enhancing safety, through the development of more sophisticated sensors that have the ability to detect objects promptly. Safety is indeed a priority especially when the public has raised concerns regarding unmanned vehicles failing to make informed decisions in unforeseen situations, for example, the Uber Automated Vehicle (AV) crash that happened in Arizona, in 2018 (Griggs & Wakabayashi, 2018). However, one question still remains suppositious: How will the continuous development of AVs impact carbon emissions and energy consumption? Since many automakers claim that automated driving is part of the future of mobility, there is a possibility that automated driving could promote the use of alternative clean fuels like electric batteries and support further travels with the least amount of energy. Therefore, this paper discusses how new ADS technologies with energy-saving benefits, will enable multiple levels of vehicle autonomy to perform efficiently and cause less environmental impacts. In addition, this paper discusses prospective developments in other industries, that could emerge to compliment the next generation ADS technologies and also help decrease the global energy demand that is projected to increase by some 28 percent between now and the year 2040 (“EIA projects 28% increase in world energy use by 2040 - Today in Energy - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA),” n.d.)

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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EV battery performance in the desert area and development of a new drive cycle for Arizona

Description

Commercial Li-ion cells (18650: Li4Ti5O12 anodes and LiCoO2 cathodes) were subjected to simulated Electric Vehicle (EV) conditions using various driving patterns such as aggressive driving, highway driving, air conditioning load,

Commercial Li-ion cells (18650: Li4Ti5O12 anodes and LiCoO2 cathodes) were subjected to simulated Electric Vehicle (EV) conditions using various driving patterns such as aggressive driving, highway driving, air conditioning load, and normal city driving. The particular drive schedules originated from the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), including the SC-03, UDDS, HWFET, US-06 drive schedules, respectively. These drive schedules have been combined into a custom drive cycle, named the AZ-01 drive schedule, designed to simulate a typical commute in the state of Arizona. The battery cell cycling is conducted at various temperature settings (0, 25, 40, and 50 °C). At 50 °C, under the AZ-01 drive schedule, a severe inflammation was observed in the cells that led to cell failure. Capacity fading under AZ-01 drive schedule at 0 °C per 100 cycles is found to be 2%. At 40 °C, 3% capacity fading is observed per 100 cycles under the AZ-01 drive schedule. Modeling and prediction of discharge rate capability of batteries is done using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). High-frequency resistance values (HFR) increased with cycling under the AZ-01 drive schedule at 40 °C and 0 °C. The research goal for this thesis is to provide performance analysis and life cycle data for Li4Ti5O12 (Lithium Titanite) battery cells in simulated Arizona conditions. Future work involves an evaluation of second-life opportunities for cells that have met end-of-life criteria in EV applications.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Comprehensive Model-Based Design and Analysis Approach for Thermal Management Systems in Hybridized Vehicles

Description

This research effort focuses on thermal management system (TMS) design for a high-performance, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The thermal performance for various components in an electrified powertrain is investigated

This research effort focuses on thermal management system (TMS) design for a high-performance, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The thermal performance for various components in an electrified powertrain is investigated using a 3D finite difference model for a complete vehicle system, including inherently temperature-sensitive components. The components include the electric motor (EM), power electronics, Energy Storage System (ESS), and Internal Combustion Engine (ICE).

A model-based design approach is utilized, where a combination of experimental work and simulation are integrated. After defining heat sources and heat sinks within the power train system, temporal and spatial boundary conditions were extracted experimentally to facilitate the 3D simulation under different road-load scenarios. Material properties, surface conditions, and environmental factors were defined for the geometrical surface mesh representation of the system. Meanwhile the finite differencing code handles the heat transfer phenomena via conduction and radiation, all convective heat transfer mode within the powertrain are defined using fluid nodes and fluid streams within the powertrain.

Conclusions are drawn through correlating experimental results to the outcome from the thermal model. The outcome from this research effort is a 3D thermal performance predictive tool that can be utilized in order to evaluate the design of advanced thermal management systems (TMSs) for alternative powertrains in early design/concept stages of the development process.

For future work, it is recommended that a full validation of the 3D thermal model be completed. Subsequently, design improvements can be made to the TMS. Some possible improvements include analysis and evaluation of shielding of the catalytic converter, exhaust manifold, and power electronics, as well as substituting for material with better thermal performance in other temperature-sensitive components, where applicable. The result of this improvement in design would be achieving an effective TMS for a high-performance PHEV.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Analyzing the performance of lithium-ion batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and second-life applications

Description

The automotive industry is committed to moving towards sustainable modes of transportation through electrified vehicles to improve the fuel economy with a reduced carbon footprint. In this context, battery-operated hybrid,

The automotive industry is committed to moving towards sustainable modes of transportation through electrified vehicles to improve the fuel economy with a reduced carbon footprint. In this context, battery-operated hybrid, plug-in hybrid and all-electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming commercially viable throughout the world. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries with various active materials, electrolytes, and separators are currently being used for electric vehicle applications. Specifically, lithium-ion batteries with Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4 - LFP) and Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (Li(NiMnCo)O2 - NMC) cathodes are being studied mainly due to higher cycle life and higher energy density values, respectively. In the present work, 26650 Li-ion batteries with LFP and NMC cathodes were evaluated for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) applications, using the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) to discharge the batteries with 20 A current in simulated Arizona, USA weather conditions (50 ⁰C & <10% RH). In addition, 18650 lithium-ion batteries (LFP cathode material) were evaluated under PHEV mode with 30 A current to accelerate the ageing process, and to monitor the capacity values and material degradation. To offset the high initial cost of the batteries used in electric vehicles, second-use of these retired batteries is gaining importance, and the possibility of second-life use of these tested batteries was also examined under constant current charge/discharge cycling at 50 ⁰C.

The capacity degradation rate under the PHEV test protocol for batteries with NMC-based cathode (16% over 800 cycles) was twice the degradation compared to batteries with LFP-based cathode (8% over 800 cycles), reiterating the fact that batteries with LFP cathodes have a higher cycle life compared to other lithium battery chemistries. Also, the high frequency resistance measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was found to increase significantly with cycling, leading to power fading for both the NMC- as well as LFP-based batteries. The active materials analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed no significant phase change in the materials after 800 PHEV cycles. For second-life tests, these batteries were subjected to a constant charge-discharge cycling procedure to analyze the capacity degradation and materials characteristics.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017