Matching Items (8)

158012-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effects of Vitamin B6 Supplementation on Mood States in College Women Taking Oral Contraceptives

Description

Oral contraceptives are one of the most frequently used forms of birth control among young women. However, research has shown that this type of medication can contribute to negative changes

Oral contraceptives are one of the most frequently used forms of birth control among young women. However, research has shown that this type of medication can contribute to negative changes in mood and diminished vitamin status. In particular, women taking oral contraceptives are at an increased risk of vitamin B6 deficiency due to changes in enzyme activity with estrogen intake. Depressed mood is one of the known symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency as this vitamin acts as an essential cofactor in converting tryptophan to the neurotransmitter, serotonin. Lack of adequate levels of vitamin B6 therefore contribute to decreased production of serotonin and subsequent changes in mood, including symptoms of depression. With vitamin B6 being the most common nutrient deficiency, and the ever increasing prevalence of depression in the United States, especially among young adults, it is crucial that researchers investigate ways to mitigate both of these undesirable side effects. Current research on the topic fails to directly connect supplementation of vitamin B6 to positive changes in mood in oral contraceptive users.

This 12-week long double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trial examined the effects of daily supplementation of vitamin B6 as 100 mg of pyridoxine hydrochloride, on mood states in 8 healthy college women (18-25 y) that use combined oral contraceptives. Vitamin status was assessed via plasma pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP). Plasma PLP levels significantly increased by >193% (p=0.003) with daily supplementation of 100 mg B6 over a four week period. Mood changes with supplementation were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Although a small improvement in the POMS depression sub score was observed after 4 weeks of vitamin B6 supplementation (14.7%), the changes were insignificant (p>0.05). Furthermore, total mood disturbance scores did not significantly change with either the placebo or supplement periods. While mood states were not improved, a significant decrease in the presence of depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory was observed after vitamin B6 supplementation, compared to placebo (p=0.047). The results of this study necessitate further investigation into the use of B6 supplementation as a means of reducing negative mood changes in oral contraceptive users.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

157209-Thumbnail Image.png

Gut microbiome diversity and community structure following dietary genistein treatment in a murine model of cystic fibrosis

Description

Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-shortening autosomal recessive genetic disease affecting Caucasians. The disease is characterized by a dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein and aberrant

Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-shortening autosomal recessive genetic disease affecting Caucasians. The disease is characterized by a dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein and aberrant mucus accumulation that subsequently alters the physicochemical environment in numerous organ systems. These mucosal perturbations have been associated with inflammation and microbial dysbiosis, most notably in the lungs and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Genistein, a soy isoflavone and dietary polyphenol, has been shown to modulate CFTR function in cell cultures and murine models, as well exert sex-dependent improvement of survival rates in a CF mouse model. However, it is unknown whether dietary genistein affects gut microbiome diversity and community structure in cystic fibrosis. This study sought to examine associations between dietary genistein treatment and gut microbiome diversity and community structure in a murine model of CF. Methods: Twenty-four male and female mice homozygous for the DF508 CFTR gene mutation were maintained on one of three diet regimens for a 45-day period (n=11, standard chow; n=7, Colyte-treated water and standard chow; n=6, 600 mg dietary genistein per kg body weight). One fecal pellet was collected per mouse post-treatment, and microbial genomic DNA was extracted from the fecal samples, quantified, amplified, and sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. QIIME 2 was used to conduct alpha- and beta-diversity analyses on all samples. Results: Measures of alpha-diversity were significantly decreased in the dietary genistein group as compared to either standard chow or Colyte groups. Measures of beta-diversity showed that community structure differed significantly between dietary treatment groups; these differences were further illustrated by distinct clustering of taxa as shown by principal coordinates analysis plots. Conclusion: This 3-arm parallel experimental study showed that dietary genistein treatment was associated with decreased microbial diversity and differences in microbial community structure in DF508 mice.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

155673-Thumbnail Image.png

Changes in Weight Status and the Intestinal Microbiota among College Students

Description

The transition to college has been identified as a vulnerable period for weight gain and the onset of obesity. Research has shown that the gut microbiota is different in obese

The transition to college has been identified as a vulnerable period for weight gain and the onset of obesity. Research has shown that the gut microbiota is different in obese compared to lean individuals, but a period of weight gain has never been studied in free-living individuals. The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to assess the association between changes in the intestinal microbiota and weight-related outcomes in healthy college students living in on-campus dormitories at Arizona State University (n=39). Anthropometric measures and fecal samples were collected at the beginning and end of the school year, and microbial relative abundance for A. muciniphila, F. prausnitzii, R. gnavus, and L. acidophilus was measured through qPCR analyses. In this population, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) increased by 0.97 ± 1.28 kg/m2 and 2.64 ± 4.90 cm, respectively. Wilcoxon-Rank tests revealed that R. gnavus fold change was significantly different between groups of weight loss/maintenance and weight gain ≥ 5% body weight (0.14 [-0.21, 0.64], n=24 vs. -0.14 [-0.92, 0.05], n=15, respectively; p=0.028). Correlation analyses suggested a significant negative association between A. muciniphila fold change and both % WC change and % BMI change (r= -0.66; p<0.01 and r= -0.33; p=0.04, respectively). However, multivariate regression analysis controlling for sex and race/ethnicity showed a significant association between A. muciniphila and % WC change, but not % BMI change (R2= 0.53; p<0.01 and R2= 0.24; p=0.15). F. prausnitzii was not associated with weight-related outcomes in this sample. L. acidophilus was excluded from study analyses after subsequent qPCR trials revealed no amplification in participant samples. Overall, this was the first study to show a relationship between A. muciniphila fold change and weight-related outcomes over a period of weight gain. Specifically, A. muciniphila was strongly negatively associated with WC in this sample. Further research is needed to more accurately describe these associations and potential mechanisms associated with the shift in gut microbiota observed with weight gain. Findings from future research may be used to develop interventions for college students aiming to shift the gut microbiota to prevent weight gain.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

157179-Thumbnail Image.png

Relationship between resting energy expenditure and sleep parameters on gestational weight gain and the mediation effect of macronutrient composition

Description

No studies have evaluated the impact of tracking resting energy expenditure (REE) and modifiable health behaviors on gestational weight gain (GWG). In this controlled trial, pregnant women aged >18 years

No studies have evaluated the impact of tracking resting energy expenditure (REE) and modifiable health behaviors on gestational weight gain (GWG). In this controlled trial, pregnant women aged >18 years (X=29.8±4.9 years) with a gestational age (GA) <17 weeks were randomized to Breezing™ (N=16) or control (N=12) for 13 weeks. The Breezing™ group used a real-time metabolism tracker to obtain REE. Anthropometrics, diet, and sleep data were collected every 2 weeks. Rate of GWG was calculated as weight gain divided by total duration. Early (GA weeks 14-21), late (GA weeks 21-28), and overall (GA week 14-28) changes in macronutrients, sleep, and GWG were calculated. Mediation models were constructed using SPSS PROCESS macro using a bootstrap estimation approach with 10,000 samples. The majority of women were non-Hispanic Caucasian (78.6%). A total of 35.7% (n=10), 35.7% (n=10), and 28.6% (n=8) were normal weight, overweight, and obese, respectively, with 83.3% (n=10) and 87.5% (n=14) of the Control and Breezing™ groups gaining above IOM GWG recommendations. At baseline, macronutrient consumption did not differ. Overall (Breezing™ vs. Control; M diff=-349.08±150.77, 95% CI: -660.26 to -37.90, p=0.029) and late (M diff=-379.90±143.89, 95% CI:-676.87 to -82.93, p=0.014) changes in energy consumption significantly differed between the groups. Overall (M diff=-22.45±11.03, 95% CI: -45.20 to 0.31, p=0.053), late (M diff=-23.16±11.23, 95% CI: -46.33 to 0.01, p=0.05), and early (M diff=20.3±10.19, 95% CI: -0.74 to 41.34, p=0.058) changes in protein differed by group. Nocturnal total sleep time differed by study group (Breezing vs. Control; M diff=-32.75, 95% CI: -68.34 to 2.84, p=0.069). There was a 11.5% increase in total REE throughout the study. Early changes in REE (72±211 kcals) were relatively small while late changes (128±294 kcals) nearly doubled. Interestingly, early changes in REE demonstrated a moderate, positive correlation with rates of GWG later in pregnancy (r=0.528, p=0.052), suggesting that REE assessment early in pregnancy may help predict changes in GWG. Changes in macronutrients did not mediate the relationship between the intervention and GWG, nor did sleep mediate relationships between dietary intake and GWG. Future research evaluating REE and dietary composition throughout pregnancy may provide insight for appropriate GWG recommendations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

154385-Thumbnail Image.png

A pilot study to assess nutrition knowledge and behaviors of low-income, pregnant adolescents and adult women

Description

Low income, pregnant adolescents have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth, delivery of low birth weight babies and excessive gestational weight gain that increases the

Low income, pregnant adolescents have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth, delivery of low birth weight babies and excessive gestational weight gain that increases the risk of postpartum overweight and obesity. Inadequate dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that may differentially impact maternal health and fetal outcomes for pregnant adults and adolescents. To evaluate the effectiveness of a social media intervention on improving prenatal health knowledge and dietary intake, 22 racially diverse pregnant women (59% Black and 36% White) were recruited and adolescent (n=10) outcomes compared to those of adults (n=12) across the intervention. Pre- and post-intervention nutrition knowledge questionnaires and diet recalls were completed to assess nutrition knowledge and dietary intake. When assessing dietary change across the intervention, significant decreases in fat (pre vs. post, 97.9 ± 0.2 g vs. 90.2 ± 0.2 g, P=0.047) and folate intake (pre vs. post, 537.6 ± 0.3 μg vs. 531.2 ± 0.2 μg, P=0.041) were observed while significant increases in carbohydrate (pre vs. post, 318.9 ± 0.2 g vs. 335.9 ± 0.2 g, P<0.001), calcium (pre vs. post, 851.3 ± 0.3 mg vs. 893.5 ± 0.2 mg, P<0.001) and magnesium intakes (pre vs. post, 212.9 ± 0.2 mg vs. 227.8 ± 0.2 mg, P<0.001) occurred. These time effects occurred independent of group (adolescents vs. adults) as time*group interactions were not significant (p>0.05) with the exception of sugar intake. Increases in sugar intake across the intervention were greater among the adolescent group (adolescent vs. adult, 7.9 ± 0.2 g vs. 6.0 ± 0.2 g, P=0.023). Overall nutrition knowledge was limited and confusion regarding MyPlate recommendations persisted. The inadequate dietary behaviors observed suggest that future interventions should focus education on specific dietary nutrients such as added sugars and fiber to improve dietary intakes. The best way to actively engage pregnant adolescents is unknown: however, social media has the potential to reach teens and low-income women with education that may be key in allowing interventions to change dietary habits and behaviors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

154794-Thumbnail Image.png

Effects of a fat-sugar supplemented diet, with and without exercise training, on body fat mass and selected cardiometabolic risk markers in overweight and obese, sedentary males

Description

The winter holiday period has been highlighted as a major risk period for weight gain due to excess caloric intake in the form of fat and sugar. Furthermore, diets high

The winter holiday period has been highlighted as a major risk period for weight gain due to excess caloric intake in the form of fat and sugar. Furthermore, diets high in fat and sugar have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exercise aids in the prevention of weight/fat gain, and prevents deleterious changes in cardiometabolic function. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a fat-sugar supplemented diet, with and without two different exercise training protocols, on body composition, glycemic control and other markers of cardiovascular disease in an at-risk population of overweight and obese males. Twenty-seven, healthy overweight/obese (BMI >25 kg/m2) males were fed 2 donuts per day, 6 days/week, for four weeks, while maintaining their current diet. In addition, all subjects were randomized to one of the following conditions: sedentary control, 1,000 kcal/week moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) (50% of peak oxygen consumption), or 1,000 kcal/week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (90-95% of peak heart rate). Supervised exercise training was performed 4 days/week on a cycle ergometer. Changes in body weight and composition, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, glycemic control, blood lipids and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Body weight, lean mass and visceral fat increased significantly in HIIT (p<0.05) and were unchanged in MICT. There was a trend for a significant increase in body weight (p=0.07) and lean mass (p=0.11) in control. Glycemic control during the 2-h OGTT improved significantly in MICT and control, with no change in HIIT. Hepatic insulin resistance index (IRI) and 30-min insulin during the OGTT improved significantly after MICT and worsened following control (p=0.03), while HIIT was unchanged. CRF increased significantly in both HIIT and MICT, with no change in control (p<0.001). There were no significant changes in other markers of cardiovascular disease. The addition of a fat-sugar supplement (~14,500 kcal) over a 4-week period was not sufficient to induce deleterious changes in body composition and cardiometabolic health in overweight/obese young males. Exercise training did not afford overweight/obese males additional health benefits, with the exception of improvements in fitness and hepatic IRI.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

157048-Thumbnail Image.png

Will a novel organometallic complex mitigate the effects of hypertension in rats fed a high fat diet?

Description

Background: Nearly 95% of Americans will develop hypertension, and 67% will not seek treatment. Furthermore, hypertension is the leading risk factor for coronary heart disease. While previous studies have increased

Background: Nearly 95% of Americans will develop hypertension, and 67% will not seek treatment. Furthermore, hypertension is the leading risk factor for coronary heart disease. While previous studies have increased the use of blood pressure medication among patients that have received hypertension education, medications may not work for everyone. Due to the life-threatening nature of this condition, it is essential to find an effective alternative for treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of organometallic complex supplementation on hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in 6-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats that were fed either standard rodent chow or a high fat diet for 10 weeks at a university in Arizona.

Methods: Forty-two healthy six-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: plain water control, 0.6 mg/ml organometallic complex or 3.0 mg/ml organometallic complex as soon as they arrived. Each rat was then housed individually to prevent the sharing of microbiota through coprophagia. Rats in each treatment group were further divided into two dietary groups that were fed either a high fat diet containing 60% kcal fat that was changed every three days or standard rodent chow. Researchers were not blind to which rat was in each group. At the end of the 10-week study, rats were euthanized with an overdose of sodium pentobarbital (200 mg/kg, i.p.). Heart, left ventricle of the heart, liver, and spleen masses were recorded for each animal. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA using SigmaPlot 10.0 software.

Results: At the conclusion of this study, the left ventricle mass of the rats in the high fat diet group were significantly larger than those in the chow group. Neither dose of the organometallic complex supplement prevented these effects induced by high fat feeding.

Conclusion: The organometallic complex supplement was not effective at mitigating the effects of a high fat diet on cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Therefore, this supplement should not be used to treat cardiac hypertrophy.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

156078-Thumbnail Image.png

Effects of muscle contraction frequency on blood glucose control, insulin sensitivity, endothelial function and blood pressure among obese males

Description

Cardiovascular disease and diabetes are major health burdens. Diabetes is a primary risk factor of cardiovascular disease, and there is a strong link between obesity and risk of developing diabetes.

Cardiovascular disease and diabetes are major health burdens. Diabetes is a primary risk factor of cardiovascular disease, and there is a strong link between obesity and risk of developing diabetes. With the prevalence of prediabetes highest among overweight/obese individuals, investigation into preventative strategies are needed. Aerobic exercise is a potent stimulus for both insulin and non-insulin dependent glucose uptake into the skeletal muscle. A single exercise session can improve insulin sensitivity within hours after exercise. The effects of intensity, type, and volume of exercise on glucose homeostasis have been studied extensively; however, controlling for muscle contraction frequency with a constant exercise intensity and workload has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle contraction frequency during aerobic exercise by altering cycling cadence on insulin sensitivity and vascular health. Eleven obese males (age=28yr, BMI=35kg/m2) completed three conditions in random order: 1) control-no exercise; 2) 45-min cycling at 45 revolutions per minute (45RPM) at 65-75%VO2max; 3) 45-min cycling at 90RPM at 65-75%VO2max. Glucose control and insulin sensitivity were assessed with oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) 4 hours post-exercise. Vascular health was assessed via flow-mediated dilation (FMD) pre-exercise, 1-hr and 2-hr post exercise and ambulatory blood pressure was assessed pre-exercise, and continually every 15 min post-exercise. Linear mixed models were used to compare the mean differences in outcome variables. There were no significant differences found between control and both exercise conditions for all OGTT outcomes and no differences were found between control and exercise in FMD (all, p>0.05). Significant effects for exercise were found for both brachial and central blood pressure measures. Brachial systolic blood pressures were lower at 2- and 4-hr post-exercise by approximately -10 and -8mmHg, respectively (p<0.001 and p=0.004) versus control. Central systolic blood pressures were lower at 2-, 3-, and 4-hr post-exercise by approximately -8, -9 and -6mmHg, respectively (p<0.001, p=0.021 and p=0.004) versus control. In conclusion, aerobic exercise, regardless of muscle contraction frequency, were unable to effect glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Similarly, there was no effect on vascular function. However, there was a significant effect of aerobic exercise on reducing post-exercise blood pressure.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017