Matching Items (28)

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Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study

Description

Background
The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing

Background
The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life.
Methods
The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves) are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month). University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS) locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks.
Discussion
Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-08-30

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Effects of urbanization on the nutritional physiology and gut microbiome of house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

Description

The natural habitat as well as the food abundance and food sources of avian species is changing due to urbanization, and such anthropocentric actions could lead to devastating impacts on

The natural habitat as well as the food abundance and food sources of avian species is changing due to urbanization, and such anthropocentric actions could lead to devastating impacts on bird populations. As changes in distribution and nutrition are thought to be related to the gut microbiome, the goal of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional markers, including body mass, gizzard mass, triglycerides, free glycerol and glycogen, and the gut microbiome in urban and rural house sparrows (Passer domesticus), to understand physiological differences between urban and rural house sparrows. We hypothesized that increased access to human refuse, through urbanization, may significantly alter the gut microbiome and thus, the nutritional physiology-the effects of foods on metabolism-of urban birds. Fecal samples were collected from rural (n=13) and urban (n=7) birds to characterize the gut microbiome and plasma samples were collected to measure nutritional markers using commercially available kits. Following euthanasia, liver samples were collected to measure triglycerides, free glycerol and glycogen. While there were no significant differences in circulating triglycerides or free glycerol between populations, urban birds had significantly greater blood glucose (p=0.046) compared to rural birds, when normalized to body mass. Additionally, rural birds had significantly more plasma uric acid (p=0.016) and liver free glycerol (p=0.044). Higher blood glucose suggests greater accessibility to carbohydrates in an urban setting or higher rates of gluconeogenesis. Uric acid is a byproduct of purine catabolism and a potent antioxidant. Thus, higher uric acid suggests that rural birds may utilize more protein for energy. Finally, higher liver free glycerol in rural birds suggests they metabolize more fat but could also indicate that urban birds have greater glycerol gluconeogenesis, which may consume free glycerol resulting in higher glucose concentrations. However, the current study does not provide evidence for this as there were no significant differences in the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK-C levels between urban and rural house sparrows (p= 0.165). While triglyceride, glucose, and uric acid levels differed between urban and rural birds, there were additionally no significant differences in the gut microbiome, indicating that although nutritional physiology can be affected by distribution and varying food availability and sources, differences in the gut microbiome are evident at the phyla level.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Effects of Sleep Efficiency on Serum Osteocalcin in College-Aged Individuals

Description

Osteoporosis is a medical condition that leads to decreased bone mineral density, resulting in increased fracture risk.1 Research regarding the relationship between sleep and bone mass is limited and has

Osteoporosis is a medical condition that leads to decreased bone mineral density, resulting in increased fracture risk.1 Research regarding the relationship between sleep and bone mass is limited and has primarily been studied in elderly adults. While this population is most affected by osteoporosis, adolescents are the most proactive population in terms of prevention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sleep efficiency and serum osteocalcin in college-aged individuals as a means of osteoporosis prevention. Thirty participants ages 18-25 years (22 females, 8 males) at Arizona State University were involved in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected during one week via self-recorded sleep diaries, quantitative ActiWatch, DEXA imaging, and serum blood draws to measure the bone biomarker osteocalcin. Three participants were excluded from the study as outliers. The median (IQR) for osteocalcin measured by ELISA was 11.6 (9.7, 14.5) ng/mL. The average sleep efficiency measured by actigraphy was 88.3% ± 3.0%. Regression models of sleep efficiency and osteocalcin concentration were not statistically significant. While the addition of covariates helped explain more of the variation in serum osteocalcin concentration, the results remained insignificant. There was a trend between osteocalcin and age, suggesting that as age increases, osteocalcin decreases. This was a limited study, and further investigation regarding the relationship between sleep efficiency and osteocalcin is warranted.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Impact of BMI and Central Adiposity on Fecal pH in Arizona State University Freshmen

Description

Past studies have shown that, in comparison to lean participants, overweight and obese patients had higher fecal concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). This larger concentration could come from

Past studies have shown that, in comparison to lean participants, overweight and obese patients had higher fecal concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). This larger concentration could come from a variety of factors, such as varied lower colonic fermentation between lean and obese participants, dietary intake, or microbiome diversity. Initially, SCFA were thought to be beneficial in that they reduced gut inflammation contradicting such associations between obesity and increased SCFA concentration. This study looked further into these varied SCFA levels by observing the fecal pH as a reflection of both body mass index (BMI) and central adiposity levels. Analysis of the changes in fecal pH, waist circumference, and BMI of the participants revealed no correlation between the variables. However, upon running a mixed model with covariates, it was determined that there were no significant associations between fecal pH, BMI, and waist circumference. Due to the fact that this study was only done over a year long period, it may take a longer time period or more significant changes in BMI and waist circumference to produce a significant correlation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Evaluating Changes in the Gut Microbial Composition, Diet, and Overall Health in Children in the Nutrition and Health Awareness Program

Description

In the United States, the prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased to 17% in the general population and even more so in the Hispanic pediatric population to 22.4%. These children

In the United States, the prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased to 17% in the general population and even more so in the Hispanic pediatric population to 22.4%. These children are at a higher risk for associated comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. The purpose of the following study is to determine the effectiveness of the Nutrition and Health Awareness curriculum at reducing childhood obesity by evaluating alterations in the gut microbial composition, diet, and overall health of the students throughout the five-week program. Nutrition and Health Awareness (NHA) is a student organization that strives to reduce the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, specifically in children, by providing active nutrition education services through peer mentoring in elementary schools and community programs. This study went through ASU's Institutional Review Board process and all forms were translated into Spanish. The control group maintained their normal routines and the experimental group received the 5 week NHA program and then continued with their normal routines. Anthropometric measures (Body Mass Index, waist-to-hip ratio, and blood pressure), diet measures (Hispanic food frequency questionnaire), fecal swabs, and content surveys were collected on weeks 0, 5, and 8. Contrary to expected, alpha diversity, kilocalorie intake, and macronutrient intake decreased as the study progressed for both the control and experimental groups. Anthropometric measurements were relatively stable. Though not statistically significant, the greatest difference in time points is between weeks 1 and 8. This decrease in alpha diversity and kilocalorie intake could be due to a change in environment since the children started school on week 8. Future implications of this study are that parental involvement is necessary for an effective, sustainable change in these children. More research in different settings is necessary to determine NHA's effectiveness

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Turmeric Effects on Serum Lipid Concentration

Description

Turmeric is the bright yellow root that has been used as a spice, healing remedy, and textile dye. Previous studies have suggested that the most active ingredient in turmeric, curcumin,

Turmeric is the bright yellow root that has been used as a spice, healing remedy, and textile dye. Previous studies have suggested that the most active ingredient in turmeric, curcumin, could reduce serum cholesterol concentration. However, most of these studies were conducted on animals and not many have been done on controlled human trials. This randomized, double-blinded, controlled crossover study evaluates the effects of turmeric on blood cholesterol concentrations including total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HLD cholesterol, and triglycerides. In this study, eight healthy participants between the ages of 18 and 45 were randomized to receive either 500mg capsules of turmeric or placebo for a period of three weeks. Following a wash-out period of five weeks, all participants were crossed over to the alternative treatment for another three weeks. After comparing the 3 week treatment and placebo phases, turmeric showed no significant effect on serum lipid concentrations. Furthermore, a slight increase in total cholesterol concentrations was observed following the turmeric phase when compared to the placebo phase.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Assessing the Health Insurance Needs of the Low-Income Hispanic/Latino Population in Phoenix, Arizona

Description

The growing Hispanic population in Phoenix, Arizona frequently lacks financial resources which may limit their access to health care. The goal of this study was to identify the ideal factors

The growing Hispanic population in Phoenix, Arizona frequently lacks financial resources which may limit their access to health care. The goal of this study was to identify the ideal factors in a health insurance plan for the Hispanic/Latino population in Phoenix, AZ. A survey was designed to gather information regarding demographics, health insurance, preferences, and affordability. The survey was completed by 260 participants. Several multivariate regressions were run using SAS Statistical Software. The final model generated explained 4.48% of the variation in the data set. It showed that an individual who identified as Hispanic/Latino was 8.2% less likely to have health insurance. In addition, an individual who identified as a US Citizen was 23% more likely to have health insurance. To improve access and enrollment among the Hispanic/Latino population, further investigation is needed to identify relevant communication techniques that increase enrollment among this high-risk community.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Effect of sleep efficiency on bone-specific alkaline phosphatase biomarker in college students

Description

Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem that can occur in people of all ages. It can stem from poor bone health during childhood and adolescence. It hinders independent living,

Background Osteoporosis is a major health problem that can occur in people of all ages. It can stem from poor bone health during childhood and adolescence. It hinders independent living, impacts social living, reduces participation in physical activity, and increases risk of fractures and physical pain. In addition to age, gender, race, physical activity and diet, sleep is considered to be a risk factor in the development of osteoporosis in both the young and elderly population. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker was measured to determine osteoporotic risk while an actigraphy device was used to measure sleep efficiency in college students. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between sleep efficiency and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels. Recognition of any association may help in understanding how sleep is related to bone health. Methods Twenty-seven participants were recruited with the use of flyers distributed on campus and in residential halls, social media, email, and student newsletters. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase biomarker was measured using human specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sleep data were collected from participants who wore ActiWatch for 7 days and completed a 7-night sleep diary. Linear and multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate association between B-ALP (outcome) and sleep efficiency while adjusting for covariates (age, BMI, race, gender). Results and Conclusions Overall, there was no significant association between sleep efficiency and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. Gender, however, showed a significant influence on the levels of bone-alkaline phosphatase. This is supported by a study that found higher bone turnover marker in males than in females. The result from the study could be due to limitations such as small sample size. More participants may provide a better comparison or association between variables. Genetic factors are believed to influence the outcome of the study as genetics can influence rate of bone loss or formation. Findings may be beneficial for public health and policy initiatives and allow health / nutrition educators to more adequately encourage proper habits such as physical activity, healthy diet and sufficient sleep for good bone health.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Relationship Between Corn Flour and Cardiometabolic and Inflammatory Disease Markers in Adults with Hyperlipidemia

Description

Since 1975, the prevalence of obesity has nearly tripled around the world. In 2016, 39% of adults, or 1.9 billion people, were considered overweight, and 13% of adults, or 650

Since 1975, the prevalence of obesity has nearly tripled around the world. In 2016, 39% of adults, or 1.9 billion people, were considered overweight, and 13% of adults, or 650 million people, were considered obese. Furthermore, Cardiovascular disease remains to be the leading cause of death for adults in the United States, with 655,000 people dying from related conditions and consequences each year. Including fiber in one’s dietary regimen has been shown to greatly improve health outcomes in regards to these two areas of health. However, not much literature is available on the effects of corn-based fiber, especially detailing the individual components of the grain itself. The purpose of this preliminary study was to test the differences in influence on both LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides between treatments based on whole-grain corn flour, refined corn flour, and 50% refined corn flour + 50% corn bran derived from whole grain cornmeal (excellent fiber) in healthy overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2) adults (ages 18 - 70) with high LDL cholesterol (LDL ≥ 120mg/dL). 20 participants, ages 18 - 64 (10 males, 10 females) were involved. Data was derived from blood draws taken before and after each of the three treatments as well as before and after each treatment’s wash out periods. A general linear model was used to assess the effect of corn products on circulating concentrations of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. From the model, it was found that the whole-grain corn flour and the 50% refined corn flour + 50% corn bran drive from whole grain cornmeal treatments produced a higher, similar benefit in reductions in LDL-cholesterol. However, the whole grain flour, refined flour, and bran-based fiber treatments did not influence the triglyceride levels of the participants throughout this study. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of these fiber items on cardiometabolic disease markers in the long-term as well as with a larger sample size.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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The Effect of Vinegar Consumption on Mood State

Description

The various health benefits of vinegar ingestion have been studied extensively in the<br/>literature. Moreover, emerging research suggests vinegar may also have an effect on mental<br/>health. Beneficial effects of certain diets

The various health benefits of vinegar ingestion have been studied extensively in the<br/>literature. Moreover, emerging research suggests vinegar may also have an effect on mental<br/>health. Beneficial effects of certain diets on mood have been reported, however, the mechanisms<br/>are unknown. The current study aimed to determine if vinegar ingestion positively affects mood<br/>state in healthy young adults. This was a randomized, single blinded controlled trial consisting of<br/>25 subjects. Participants were randomly assigned to either the vinegar group (consumed 2<br/>tablespoons of liquid vinegar diluted in one cup water twice daily with meals) or the control<br/>group (consumed one vinegar pill daily with a meal), and the intervention lasted 4 weeks.<br/>Subjects completed mood questionnaires pre- and post-intervention. Results showed a significant<br/>improvement in CES-D and POMS-Depression scores for the vinegar group compared to the<br/>control. This study suggests that vinegar ingestion may improve depressive symptoms in healthy<br/>young adults.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05