Matching Items (54)

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SILVER NANOPARTICLES: SYNTHESIS, SOLUBILITY, AND LEACHING OF COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS

Description

In recent years, products advertised to contain nanosilver have become increasingly popular; however, while companies often advertise for nanosilver products, little regulation occurs to verify that these products actually contain

In recent years, products advertised to contain nanosilver have become increasingly popular; however, while companies often advertise for nanosilver products, little regulation occurs to verify that these products actually contain silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, there currently exists much dispute regarding the safety and toxicity of silver nanoparticles. As more and more products incorporate nanosilver, the resolution of this dispute proves progressively important. The present study addressed these issues, with goals to synthesize silver nanoparticles, determine the solubility of the synthesized silver nanoparticles, and to evaluate leaching of nanosilver from commercially produced food storage containers. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by a procedure devised by Leopold and Lendl, and subsequently evaluated for size and distribution by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), SEC (Size Exclusion Chromatography), and DLS (Dynamic Light Scattering). The results indicated an average particle size of approximately 85 nm and a relatively monodispersed solution with a polydispersity value of 0.1245. The solubility of the nanoparticles was then examined using a dialysis experiment; however, the results of the dialysis experiments were inconclusive due to an aggregation that occurred which prevented the silver from diffusing out of the dialysis tubing. Lastly, commercially produced food storage containers advertised to contain silver nanoparticles were examined. These containers were digested using microwave assisted digestion, and subsequently analyzed using ICP-MS. It was determined that the containers contained between 7 .5 and 27 ug of silver per gram of container, and that the silver was not distributed uniformly throughout the container. While ICP-MS indicated the presence of silver, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) failed to unambiguously identify silver nanoparticles in the container. The food storage containers were also examined for silver leaching under various conditions; it was found that the containers leached most greatly following exposure to an acidic solution and leached the least due to exposure to UV light. However, additional trials of the leaching experiments must be performed to validate the results obtained in these experiments.

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Date Created
  • 2012-05

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Arsenic Sorption by Iron Impregnated Biochar

Description

Much of Nepal lacks access to clean drinking water, and many water sources are contaminated with arsenic at concentrations above both World Health Organization and local Nepalese guidelines. While many

Much of Nepal lacks access to clean drinking water, and many water sources are contaminated with arsenic at concentrations above both World Health Organization and local Nepalese guidelines. While many water treatment technologies exist, it is necessary to identify those that are easily implementable in developing areas. One simple treatment that has gained popularity is biochar—a porous, carbon-based substance produced through pyrolysis of biomass in an oxygen-free environment. Arizona State University’s Engineering Projects in Community Service (EPICS) has partnered with communities in Nepal in an attempt to increase biochar production in the area, as it has several valuable applications including water treatment. Biochar’s arsenic adsorption capability will be investigated in this project with the goal of using the biochar that Nepalese communities produce to remove water contaminants. It has been found in scientific literature that biochar is effective in removing heavy metal contaminants from water with the addition of iron through surface activation. Thus, the specific goal of this research was to compare the arsenic adsorption disparity between raw biochar and iron-impregnated biochar. It was hypothesized that after numerous bed volumes pass through a water treatment column, iron from the source water will accumulate on the surface of raw biochar, mimicking the intentionally iron-impregnated biochar and further increasing contaminant uptake. It is thus an additional goal of this project to compare biochar loaded with iron through an iron-spiked water column and biochar impregnated with iron through surface oxidation. For this investigation, the biochar was crushed and sieved to a size between 90 and 100 micrometers. Two samples were prepared: raw biochar and oxidized biochar. The oxidized biochar was impregnated with iron through surface oxidation with potassium permanganate and iron loading. Then, X-ray fluorescence was used to compare the composition of the oxidized biochar with its raw counterpart, indicating approximately 0.5% iron in the raw and 1% iron in the oxidized biochar. The biochar samples were then added to batches of arsenic-spiked water at iron to arsenic concentration ratios of 20 mg/L:1 mg/L and 50 mg/L:1 mg/L to determine adsorption efficiency. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis indicated an 86% removal of arsenic using a 50:1 ratio of iron to arsenic (1.25 g biochar required in 40 mL solution), and 75% removal with a 20:1 ratio (0.5 g biochar required in 40 mL solution). Additional samples were then inserted into a column process apparatus for further adsorption analysis. Again, ICP-MS analysis was performed and the results showed that while both raw and treated biochars were capable of adsorbing arsenic, they were exhausted after less than 70 bed volumes (234 mL), with raw biochar lasting 60 bed volumes (201 mL) and oxidized about 70 bed volumes (234 mL). Further research should be conducted to investigate more affordable and less laboratory-intensive processes to prepare biochar for water treatment.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Utilization of Passive Samplers for Water Quality Monitoring of Hexavalent Chromium in Water Treatment Plants

Description

The current EPA regulation for total chromium in drinking water is the MCL standard of 0.1 milligrams per liter or 100 parts per billion (ppb) to avoid dermatological effects. With

The current EPA regulation for total chromium in drinking water is the MCL standard of 0.1 milligrams per liter or 100 parts per billion (ppb) to avoid dermatological effects. With a toxicology study released in 2008 by the Department of Health and Human Services noting that hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic, the EPA is currently reviewing this MCL standard. During this review, the EPA provides monitoring guidance that requires quarterly sampling of surface water for hexavalent chromium. However, these samples monitor the instant in time that they were taken, and do not account for varying concentrations that are time-dependent. This research seeks to develop a method for monitoring hexavalent chromium in water. Using ion exchange technology, passive samplers were developed and installed at the Chandler Water Treatment Plant for a week-long monitoring event. Results show that passive samplers using ion exchange technology provide an accurate assessment of the average concentration of total chromium within the water treatment plant's effluent with 90.3% recovery of Cr(VI) in SIR-100 resin and 62.6% recovery in SIR-700.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Low Removal of As (V) and Cr (VI) by POU Devices Until Enabled with Selective Ion Exchange Media

Description

Consumers purchase point-of-use (POU) devices to further improve the quality of water provided by the tap. As awareness increases of harmful contaminants, an emerging market of advanced POU with claims

Consumers purchase point-of-use (POU) devices to further improve the quality of water provided by the tap. As awareness increases of harmful contaminants, an emerging market of advanced POU with claims of removing beyond what a typical activated carbon filter is capable of, such as heavy metals. This research compares four commercially available pitcher filters; two that claim to remove arsenic and hexavalent chromium and two without such claims. Arsenate (As (V)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) co-occur in natural geologic formations and are known to have harmful effects on humans when ingested. Pitcher filters Epic Water Filter and Aquagear had claims of removing both As (V) and Cr (VI) up to 99% with a capacity of nearly 200 gallons. In contrast, pitcher filters Brita and Pur had no claims for removal of As(V) and Cr(VI) with a 40-gallon lifespan. A series of experiments were conducted to first determine the efficiency of each filter, then to add the ability or improve removal of As(V) and Cr(VI) in one filter for future design implementations. Experiment 1 was conducted by treating 100 gallons of spiked tap water (50 ppb for As (V) and 100 ppb for Cr (VI)) with each filter. All four pitcher filters showed low performance, resulting in Pur with the lowest removal percentage of 2% and Aquagear with the highest percentage 16% for As (V). For Cr (VI) Pur performed the worst with a removal of 5% and Brita had the best performance of 15%. The functionality of Brita was improved by embedding a selective ion exchange media, which when nanotized successfully removed Cr (VI) in previous studies. The optimal mass of resin to add to the pitcher was experimentally determined as 18.9 grams through Experiment 2. Finally, Experiment 3 compared an alternative placement of the resin material using the same 18.9 grams. The performance in Experiment 3 was significantly worse than Experiment 2. The final recommendation for future design implementation was to add 18.9 grams of SIR-700 resin below the filter media for optimum performance. Overall, the results demonstrate the limited removal of As(V) and Cr(VI) by the four commercial pitcher filters and show that by adding selective ion exchange media, the POUs can be nano-enabled to effectively remove As(V) and Cr(VI) from water.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Phosphorus recovery from microbial biofuel residual using microwave peroxide digestion and anion exchange

Description

Sustainable production of microalgae for biofuel requires efficient phosphorus (P) utilization, which is a limited resource and vital for global food security. This research tracks the fate of P through

Sustainable production of microalgae for biofuel requires efficient phosphorus (P) utilization, which is a limited resource and vital for global food security. This research tracks the fate of P through biofuel production and investigates P recovery from the biomass using the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Our results show that Synechocystis contained 1.4% P dry weight. After crude lipids were extracted (e.g., for biofuel processing), 92% of the intracellular P remained in the residual biomass, indicating phospholipids comprised only a small percentage of cellular P. We estimate a majority of the P is primarily associated with nucleic acids. Advanced oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and microwave heating released 92% of the cellular P into orthophosphate. We then recovered the orthophosphate from the digestion matrix using two different types of anion exchange resins. One resin impregnated with iron nanoparticles adsorbed 98% of the influent P through 20 bed volumes, but only released 23% during regeneration. A strong-base anion exchange resin adsorbed 87% of the influent P through 20 bed volumes and released 50% of it upon regeneration. This recovered P subsequently supported growth of Synechocystis. This proof-of-concept recovery process reduced P demand of biofuel microalgae by 54%.

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Date Created
  • 2015-03-01

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A Facile Method for Separating and Enriching Nano and Submicron Particles from Titanium Dioxide Found in Food and Pharmaceutical Products

Description

Recent studies indicate the presence of nano-scale titanium dioxide (TiO[subscript 2]) as an additive in human foodstuffs, but a practical protocol to isolate and separate nano-fractions from soluble foodstuffs as

Recent studies indicate the presence of nano-scale titanium dioxide (TiO[subscript 2]) as an additive in human foodstuffs, but a practical protocol to isolate and separate nano-fractions from soluble foodstuffs as a source of material remains elusive. As such, we developed a method for separating the nano and submicron fractions found in commercial-grade TiO[subscript 2] (E171) and E171 extracted from soluble foodstuffs and pharmaceutical products (e.g., chewing gum, pain reliever, and allergy medicine). Primary particle analysis of commercial-grade E171 indicated that 54% of particles were nano-sized (i.e., < 100 nm). Isolation and primary particle analysis of five consumer goods intended to be ingested revealed differences in the percent of nano-sized particles from 32%‒58%. Separation and enrichment of nano- and submicron-sized particles from commercial-grade E171 and E171 isolated from foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals was accomplished using rate-zonal centrifugation. Commercial-grade E171 was separated into nano- and submicron-enriched fractions consisting of a nano:submicron fraction of approximately 0.45:1 and 3.2:1, respectively. E171 extracted from gum had nano:submicron fractions of 1.4:1 and 0.19:1 for nano- and submicron-enriched, respectively. We show a difference in particle adhesion to the cell surface, which was found to be dependent on particle size and epithelial orientation. Finally, we provide evidence that E171 particles are not immediately cytotoxic to the Caco-2 human intestinal epithelium model. These data suggest that this separation method is appropriate for studies interested in isolating the nano-sized particle fraction taken directly from consumer products, in order to study separately the effects of nano and submicron particles.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-10-31

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Visible and Ultraviolet Light Side-Emitting Optical Fibers Enable Water Purification

Description

Light-driven reactions can replace chemical and material consumption of advanced water treatment technologies. A barrier to light-driven water treatment is optical obstructions in aquafers (i.e. granular media) or built infrastructures

Light-driven reactions can replace chemical and material consumption of advanced water treatment technologies. A barrier to light-driven water treatment is optical obstructions in aquafers (i.e. granular media) or built infrastructures (i.e. tubing) that limits light propagation from a single source such as the sun, or lamps. Side emitting optical fibers (SEOFs) can increase light distribution by > 1000 X from one-point source, but absorbance of UV light by conventional optical fibers limits their application to visible light only.

This dissertation assessed how SEOFs can enable visible through ultraviolet light-driven processes to purify water. I first used an existing visible light polymer SEOF and phototrophic organisms to increase the dissolved oxygen level of a granular sand reactor to > 15 mg DO/L. The results indicated that SEOFs successfully guide light past optical obstructions for environmental remediation which encouraged the fabrication of UV-C SEOFs for microbial inactivation.

I was the first to obtain consecutive UV-C side emission from optical fibers by placing nanoparticles on the surface of a UV transmitting glass core. The nanoparticles induced side-emission via Mie scattering and interactions with the evanescent wave. The side emission intensity was modulated by tuning the separation distance between the nanoparticle and fiber surface. Coating the fiber with a UV-C transparent polymer offered the optical fiber flexibility and prevented nanoparticle release into solution. One SEOF coupled to a 265 nm LED achieved 3-log inactivation of E. coli. Finally, a method was developed to quantify the zone of inhibition obtained by a low flux output source. By placing a SEOF connected to a UV-C LED over a nutrient-rich LB agar plate, I illustrated that one SEOF inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa and E. coli within 2.8 cm along the fiber’s length. Ultimately this research informed that side-emitting optical fibers can enable light-driven water purification by guiding and distributing specific wavelengths of light directly to the microbial communities of interest.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Modeling engineered nanoparticles removal by conventional activated sludge treatment process in wastewater treatment plant

Description

The production and applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) has increased rapidly in the last decade, with release of ENM to the environment through the sewer system and municipal wastewater treatment

The production and applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) has increased rapidly in the last decade, with release of ENM to the environment through the sewer system and municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) being of concern. Currently, the literature on ENM release from WWTPs and removal of ENM by WWTPs is insufficient and disorganized. There is little quantitative data on the removal of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphene oxide (GO), or few-layer graphene (FLG), from wastewater onto biomass. The removal of pristine and oxidized MWCNTs (O-MWCNTs), graphene oxide (GO), few-layer graphene (FLG) and Tween™ 20-coated Ag ENM by the interaction with biomass were determined by programmable thermal analysis (PTA) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The removal of pristine and O-MWCNTs was 96% from the water phase via aggregation and 30-min settling in presence or absence of biomass with an initial MWCNT concentration of 25 mg/L. The removal of 25 mg/L GO was 65% with biomass concentration at or above 1,000 mg TSS/L. The removal of 1 mg/L FLG was 16% with 50 mg TSS/L. The removal of Tween™ 20 Ag ENM with concentration from 0.97 mg/L to 2.6 mg/L was from 11% to 92% with biomass concentration of 500 mg TSS/L to 3,000 mg TSS/L, respectively.

A database of ENM removal by biomass was established by analyzing data from published papers, and non-linear solid-liquid distribution functions were built into the database. A conventional activated sludge (CAS) model was built based on a membrane bioreactor (MBR) model from a previous paper. An iterative numeric approach was adapted to the CAS model to calculate the result of non-linear adsorption of ENM by biomass in the CAS process. Kinetic studies of the CAS model showed the model performance changed mostly in the first 10 days after changing influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration, and reached a steady state after 11 days. Over 60% of ENMs which have distribution coefficients in the database reached higher than 50% removal by the CAS model under general operational conditions. This result suggests that traditional WWTP which include the CAS process can remove many known types of ENMs in certain degree.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Single cell RT-qPCR based ocean environmental sensing device development

Description

This thesis research focuses on developing a single-cell gene expression analysis method for marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana and constructing a chip level tool to realize the single cell RT-qPCR analysis.

This thesis research focuses on developing a single-cell gene expression analysis method for marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana and constructing a chip level tool to realize the single cell RT-qPCR analysis. This chip will serve as a conceptual foundation for future deployable ocean monitoring systems. T. pseudonana, which is a common surface water microorganism, was detected in the deep ocean as confirmed by phylogenetic and microbial community functional studies. Six-fold copy number differences between 23S rRNA and 23S rDNA were observed by RT-qPCR, demonstrating the moderate functional activity of detected photosynthetic microbes in the deep ocean including T. pseudonana. Because of the ubiquity of T. pseudonana, it is a good candidate for an early warning system for ocean environmental perturbation monitoring. This early warning system will depend on identifying outlier gene expression at the single-cell level. An early warning system based on single-cell analysis is expected to detect environmental perturbations earlier than population level analysis which can only be observed after a whole community has reacted. Preliminary work using tube-based, two-step RT-qPCR revealed for the first time, gene expression heterogeneity of T. pseudonana under different nutrient conditions. Heterogeneity was revealed by different gene expression activity for individual cells under the same conditions. This single cell analysis showed a skewed, lognormal distribution and helped to find outlier cells. The results indicate that the geometric average becomes more important and representative of the whole population than the arithmetic average. This is in contrast with population level analysis which is limited to arithmetic averages only and highlights the value of single cell analysis. In order to develop a deployable sensor in the ocean, a chip level device was constructed. The chip contains surface-adhering droplets, defined by hydrophilic patterning, that serve as real-time PCR reaction chambers when they are immersed in oil. The chip had demonstrated sensitivities at the single cell level for both DNA and RNA. The successful rate of these chip-based reactions was around 85%. The sensitivity of the chip was equivalent to published microfluidic devices with complicated designs and protocols, but the production process of the chip was simple and the materials were all easily accessible in conventional environmental and/or biology laboratories. On-chip tests provided heterogeneity information about the whole population and were validated by comparing with conventional tube based methods and by p-values analysis. The power of chip-based single-cell analyses were mainly between 65-90% which were acceptable and can be further increased by higher throughput devices. With this chip and single-cell analysis approaches, a new paradigm for robust early warning systems of ocean environmental perturbation is possible.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Modeling occurrence and assessing public perceptions of de facto wastewater reuse across the USA

Description

The National Research Council 2011 report lists quantifying the extent of de facto (or unplanned) potable reuse in the U.S. as the top research need associated with assessing the potential

The National Research Council 2011 report lists quantifying the extent of de facto (or unplanned) potable reuse in the U.S. as the top research need associated with assessing the potential for expanding the nations water supply through reuse of municipal wastewater. Efforts to identify the significance and potential health impacts of de facto water reuse are impeded by out dated information regarding the contribution of municipal wastewater effluent to potable water supplies. This project aims to answer this research need. The overall goal of the this project is to quantify the extent of de facto reuse by developing a model that estimates the amount of wastewater effluent that is present within drinking water treatment plants; and to use the model in conjunction with a survey to help assess public perceptions. The four-step approach to accomplish this goal includes: (1) creating a GIS-based model coupled with Python programming; (2) validating the model with field studies by analyzing sucralose as a wastewater tracer; (3) estimating the percentage of wastewater in raw drinking water sources under varying streamflow conditions; (4) and assessing through a social survey the perceptions of the general public relating to acceptance and occurrence of de facto reuse. The resulting De Facto Reuse in our Nations Consumable Supply (DRINCS) Model, estimates that treated municipal wastewater is present at nearly 50% of drinking water treatment plant intake sites serving greater than 10,000 people (N=2,056). Contrary to the high frequency of occurrence, the magnitude of occurrence is relatively low with 50% of impacted intakes yielding less than 1% de facto reuse under average streamflow conditions. Model estimates increase under low flow conditions (modeled by Q95), in several cases treated wastewater makes up 100% of the water supply. De facto reuse occurs at levels that surpass what is publically perceived in the three cities of Atlanta, GA, Philadelphia, PA, and Phoenix, AZ. Respondents with knowledge of de facto reuse occurrence are 10 times more likely to have a high acceptance (greater than 75%) of treated wastewater at their home tap.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014